The Romans Create a Republic

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The Romans Create a Republic by Mind Map: The Romans Create a Republic

1. The Beginnings of Rome

1.1. According to Roman legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC.

1.1.1. It was supposidly founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars and a Latin princess.

1.1.2. Rome was developed because of its strategic location and its fertile soil. It was built on 7 rolling hills at a curve on the Tiber River, near the center of the Italian peninsula.

1.2. The earliest settlers on the Italian peninsula arived in prehistoric times.

1.2.1. From about 1000 to 500 BC, three groups inhabited the region and eventually battled for control. They were the Latins, the Greeks and the Etruscans.

1.2.2. Romans borrowed religious ideas from both the Greeks and the Etruscans.

2. The Early Republic

2.1. After getting rid of a harsh tyrant in 509 BC, the Romans declared that they would never have a king again, and created a new government, called a republic.

2.2. Patricians and Plebeians

2.2.1. The Patricians were aristocratic landowners who held most of the power, and the Plebeians were common farmers, artisans and merchants that made up the majority of the population.

2.2.2. Plebeians could vote, but were barred from holding important government positions. They could form tribunes, which protected their rights from unfair patrician laws.

2.3. Twelve Tables

2.3.1. In 451 BC, they created a written code of law, called the Twelve Tables. The Twelve Tables established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.

2.4. Government Under the Republic

2.4.1. Rome had two officials called consuls. They commanded the army and directed the government, but their power was limited.

2.4.2. The senate was the aristocratic branch, it has legislative and administrative functions. There were 300 upper class members.

2.4.3. In times of crisis, the rupublic could appoint a dictator, but only for 6 months.

2.5. The Roman Army

2.5.1. All citizens that owned land were required to serve in the army for 10 years.

2.5.2. They were divided into legions, which were 5000 foot soldiers, and then further divided into centuries, which were 80 men.

3. Rome Spreads its Power

3.1. Rome Conquers Italy

3.1.1. By 265 BC, the Romans were masters of all of Italy except for the Po Valley. They had different laws and treatment for different parts of its conquered territory. For the 250 years after 265 BC, Roman power spread far beyond Italy.

3.2. Rome's Commercial Network

3.2.1. Rome's location gave it easy access to the riches of the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea. Roman merchants moved by the land and sea. Eventually, Rome and Carthage fought bitterly for control of the Mediterranean.

3.3. War with Carthage

3.3.1. In 264 BC, Rome and Carthage went to war, beginning what is known as the Punic Wars. Between 264 and 146 BC Rome and Carthage fought three wars. The first war lasted 23 years and was for the control of Sicily. It ended with the defeat of Carthage. The second war began in 218 BC, the mastermind behind it was Hannibal, a brilliant Carthage military strategist. With their general Scipio, the Romans eventually defeated Hannibal. By the time of the Third Punic War (149-146), Carthage was no longer a threat to Rome. Angry over past acts though, the Romans destroyed Carthage.

3.4. Rome Controls the Mediterranean