unit 12 presentation notes

Unit 12 presentation notes measurements of crime

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unit 12 presentation notes by Mind Map: unit 12 presentation notes

1. Q3 Explain differences between reporting and recording crime

1.1. CSEW

1.1.1. Crime as perceived by the victim

1.1.2. may or may not have been reported to the police.


1.2.1. receive calls to a control room where it is recorded and victim receives a crime reference number.

1.2.2. Must follow a specific procedure laid out by HOCR and NCRS which were updated in 2016 with 2 main aims Promote accurate and consistent recording between forces take a victim orientated approach

1.2.3. All records must be auditable eg- policeman note book.

1.2.4. 2 categories of crime Crime against a victim crime against the state Drug possession

1.2.5. A report is recorded as a crime (notifiable offence) if on the balance of probability the victim report amounts to a crime defined by law Theres no credible evidence immediately available to disprove the claim a crime has been committed Balance of probabilities means more likely than not, judged as a crime.

1.2.6. A 'crime' should still be recorded If the victim does no provide personal details The victim does not wish to proceed The allegations cannot be proven From an unwilling victim such as domestic abuse victim where a victim is under the influence incident must be reported and followed up when they are sober

1.2.7. motoring offences are not notifiable

1.2.8. Incidents do not need to be recorded if police arrive at the scene and incident has disperse, and there is no victim.

1.2.9. If a victim cannot confirm a crime has taken place then it is not recorded but the incident is. A 3rd party reports a crime but victim does to confirm.

1.2.10. 2014 HMIC Published report making victims count based on evidence from inspection of police force recording. In a view to see what extent the police crime statistics could be trusted. 800000 crimes 19% were not recorded each year It concluded that victims ere being failed Most problematic areas were violence against persons and sexual offences. 25% of all sexual offences were not recorded BBC 4 news reported that crimes were being removed from records (NO CRIMING) and victims were not told. Report criticised crime targets and surveys found 20% of police officers had felt pressure not to record certain crimes. There has been an increase in police recording since 2016 Crime Recording General rules were applied.

2. Q4 Analyse the reliability of statistics of Rape.

2.1. no way of knowing the true figures of crime

2.1.1. 1 in 10 women are victims of sexual offences according to a survey by mums net 80% of 1600 women surveyed said they did not report to the police. 29% told no one

2.1.2. Lots of reasons why a victim does not report an assault. Range from not being believed to thinking its their own fault. 70% said that the media, legal system and society were unsympathetic to victims

2.2. In 2013 a report was produced by analysts in Ministry of Justice, Home office and Office of National Statistics to provide an overview of the available statistics for sexual offending.

2.2.1. used data from 2009-10, 10-11, 11-12

2.2.2. it was acknowledged that there would e challenges as the information cane from a variety of sources that did not always cover the same period, offences or the same people police records cover all ages and incidents CSEW limited to 16-59 age group Courts include multiple offences, perpetrators and victims in a single case.

2.2.3. 2011-2012 CSEW findings show 2.5% 404000 females and 0.04% 72000 males reported offences ranging from the most serious to decent exposure. most fall into 'other sexual offences catagory' figures show that 0.04% of females report being victims of the most serious sexual offences 0.1% of males report most serious offences 15% reported to the police Police figures recorded 53700 sexual offences in England and Wales Rape 1600 offences and sexual assaults 2200 charges accounted for 71% of recorded offences. Completely contradicts figures from CSEW which respondents reported sexual offences outside the most serious categories.

2.2.4. Huge differences in police and CSEW figures. police record an average of 55000 offences CSEW reports 473000

2.2.5. 2015 showed an increase of 41% recording to the previous year. which is the biggest increase singe 2002 recording measures were brought in. 2016 showed a 21% increase Can be contributed to better police recording standards and victims feeling able to report.

2.3. under recording of certain types of crime has always been problematic.

2.3.1. Sex offence statistics unreliable

2.3.2. HMIC found 26% were under recorded

2.3.3. 1077 decisions to 'no crime' a recorded rape were reviewed and found 220 cases were incorrect.

3. Q1 explain how different stats on uk crime are compiled.

3.1. What do we need crime stats for?

3.1.1. To measure criminal activity and trends to allow parliament to hold governments accountable

3.1.2. To keep government, media and others informed. information should be accessible

3.1.3. To allocate short term resources such as policing, victim support etc

3.1.4. Performance management and accountability at nation level agencies.

3.1.5. Evidence base for long term strategies and policy development.

3.2. Identifie trends in crime accross social classes and different geographical areas.

3.3. helps direct social and economical policies of governments.

3.4. Stats Collected since 1805 England and Wales

3.4.1. Initially only court proceedings and convictions were recorded

3.4.2. 1857 Police recorded data was included Police data was widely untrusted Difficult to obtain and overall picture of crime due to different methods of recording

3.5. 1981 Home Office commissioned the British Crime Survey BCS (CSEW 2009+)

3.5.1. Alternate method of crime recording and was meant to be more reliable

3.5.2. measured peoples perception of crime

3.5.3. A victim survey which asked people to report experiences of crime over a 12 month period. April to March 16+ residents in private households In 2009 children 10-15years were included but due to trends over time they are not included in main body of findings. Does not include homeless or people living in hostels who are likely affected by crime.

3.5.4. Face to face Interview conducted by trained interviewers who are impartial Consistant methodology

3.5.5. Collected data is viewed by coders who use a system the same as the Police to determine how to classify crime incident.

3.5.6. 1993 Scottland produced its own independent survey The Scottish Crimina Justice Survey.

3.6. Police Recorded Data

3.6.1. Provide details of crime to the Home office The Home office submits data from 43 territorial and transport police forces to the Office of National statistics. information is continually updated so figures can be revised fr previous submissions. Office of National statistics found that in 2014 the Police crime records were not sufficient to be recorded as official figures. Concerns raised about quality of recording HMIC concluded 1 in 5 20% of offences not recorded should have been

3.6.2. 90% of statistics come from public reporting of crime to the police.

3.6.3. 1997 New Labour brought in performance targets for crime reductionhhich was later scrapped as it developed a culture for missleading reports. 1998 Home office Counting rules (HOCR) were applied to police crime recording to try to ensure police could not downgrade an offence to a non notifiable incident to help meet their targets. National Crime Recording Standards NCRS were applied in 2002 due to concerns of poor recording an inconsistent recording between and within forces

3.6.4. A standardised procedure was introduced for determining if an incident was notifiable. A framework was provided by Home office counting rules HOCR and overseen by NCRS national crime recording standard. NCRS stipulates each force must oppoint a crime register who is responsible for recording procedure A chief officer is ultimately responsible for overseeing FCR.

3.6.5. Includes a wide range of offences from Murder to 1

4. Q2 Summarise the differences between sources of statistics on crime.

4.1. Time

4.1.1. Police must record incidents a they are reported whereas CSEW records incidents April to march 12 months prior

4.2. Incorrect recording

4.2.1. Police and coders use the same system to record an incident however a coder could record the incident as a different offence than when it was reported to the police

4.2.2. Some incidents are not mentioned by the respondents in the CSEW due to forgotten information or falsely stating they had reported crime at the time of occurrence but did not.

4.3. Failure to report

4.3.1. The police can only record crime that have been reported

4.3.2. CSEW can include crimes not reported to the police.

4.4. Inclusiveness

4.4.1. The police records include all types of crime from murder to theft. It is inclusive as it provides data from all incidents reported. has a wider offence coverage and population

4.4.2. CSEW only records certain crimes. Victimless crime such as drug possession aswell as murder are not listed. Sexual offences are also excluded due to the sensitive nature and the interview technique. Only asks 16+ living in private households crime reporting is capped at 5 her year

5. Q5 Analyse factors which contribute towards a broader understanding of crime.

5.1. Unreported and un discovered crime classed as 'dark' or 'hidden' figures of crime

5.1.1. Thought that it outweighs reported crime Iceberg analogy, small part visible

5.1.2. Factors cfor unreporting Shoplifting Offtn un reported as it can effect insurance premiums. Too trivial lack of confidence in police attending vandalism purportrators not often caught easier to deal with and repair at own cost Domestic abuse Fear nothing will be done, blame themselves a child may not recognise abuse or be able to seek help Elderly or disabilities may be unable to seek help Victimless crime prostituion and drug use have no incentive to report their crime Non notifiable crimes, crimes committed fromCSEW and poor police recording are also contributing factors Corporate crime Fraud is often dealt with by a different organisation not covered by CSEW Tax evasion often goes undetected. Sexual offences society being unsympathetic, fear of not being believed Status Until recently figures in power were thought to be untouchable. However since the Jimmy Saville, Micheal Jackson etc it has been easier to repost historic crimes. Cultural differences can also lead to unreporting. Female genial mutilation, Forced marriage etc

5.2. Crime is socially constructed

5.2.1. Statistics are pliable. Distorted picture of crime

5.2.2. Social norms change. homosexuality was once illegal smoking in public, hate crime and stalking are all new criminal acts socially constructed.