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1905 REVOLUTION by Mind Map: 1905 REVOLUTION

1. 1. Bloody Sunday 9 Jan 1905

1.1. Poor working conditions, anger of employment and food shortages force Father Georgy Gapon to write a petition to tsar seeking "truth, justice and protection" as well as demanding improved working conditions and a democratically-elected Duma.

1.1.1. 150,000 Protesters march to Winter Palace, 200 protesters killed. Destroys myth of benevolent (well meaning and kindly) tsar, Tsar is now viewed as 'Bloody Nicholas'. 400,000 workers go on strike in Jan 105. The event triggers many other protests through 1905.

2. 2. Liberal Opposition

2.1. Bloody Sunday creates dissatisfaction with autocracy (a system of government by one person with absolute power) and tsar's failure to listen to protesters. Tsar calls for petitions for a reform in effort to defuse growing revolutionary tensions.

2.1.1. Critics of the Tsar unite under the Union of Unions in May 1905 adopting the slogan 'We can no longer live like this!'. The Union of Unions demands reforms, including civil right, elections based on a universal franchise and a legislative Duma. The Tsar is dismissive of growing demands for democracy, saying 'I will never agree to the representative form of government, because I consider it harmful to the people whom God has entrusted to me'. More Russians drawn to the idea of democracy, increasing criticism of the autocracy.

3. 3. Peasant Uprisings

3.1. Peasants believe land belongs to all who work it, and resent the gentry who own the best 1/5 of the land.

3.1.1. Breakdown of law and order after Bloody Sunday, Peasant rebellions break out across Russian from June 1905, 3000 manors destroyed, peasants redistribute land and wealth and the Gentry flee the countryside. Tsarist regime loses control of the countryside.

4. 4. Russo-Japanese War

4.1. The war takes place in far east, 7000km from central Russia, stretching supply lines. Russian commanders use outdated tactics like cavalry charges, fail to use modern radio communication.

4.1.1. Russian army routed in Battle of Mukden (Feb 1905). Russian navy obliterated in Battle of Tsushima (May 1905). Russia surrenders to Japan and loses land in Treaty of Portsmouth (Sep 1905). Tsarist regime humiliated by Japan, which was perceived as 'inferior'. Poor morale in the Russian armed forces.

5. 5. Mutinies in Russian military

5.1. Soldiers have poor conditions (eg. forced to eat maggoty meat on Potemkin). Low morale due to defeat in Russo-Japanese War.

5.1.1. 400 mutinies in the Russian army in 1905 and 1906. Sailors of the Battleship Potemkin mutiny (June 1905) murder their officers and take over the ship. Tsarist regime humiliated and powerless. Potemkin mutiny triggers the Odessa massacres as 2000 pro-mutineer protesters are killed (July 1905)

6. 6. October Manifesto 17 Oct 1905

6.1. Union of Unions calls for a nation-wide general strike. The General strike paralyses St. Petersburg and Moscow (13 October 1905). Tsar cannot raise enough reliable soldiers to put down the strike by force.

6.1.1. Count Sergei Witte convinces tsar to promise political concessions. Tsar issues the October Manifesto, A legislation which promises democratic reforms, including civil rights, elections based on universal suffrage, and a legislative Duma. Tsar promises to end the autocracy. Russians initially believe that a revolutionary change has been achieved. Disillusionment fuels growing revolutionary tensions when i becomes clear the tsar is unwilling yo fulfil the promises of the manifesto.