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Migration Course Mindmap by Mind Map: Migration Course Mindmap
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Migration Course Mindmap

Instructor: Kate B. Pok-Carabalona

Major Legislations

Chinese Exclusion Act

Johnson-Reed Act (aka Immigration Act of 1924)

Hart-Cellar Act (Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1965)

Future of Immigrants



born in another country other than US

foreign stock

defined as foreign-stock + children and sometimes grandchildren of foreign born

ethnic enclave

ethnic niches

ethnic sucession



middlemen minority

social capital

"...refers to the capacity of individuals to command scarce resources by virtue of their membership in social networks or broader social structures." p. 312 (Portes, 1995, p.12 via Mobasher and Sadri)


1. Main Migration Theories

(M&S) CH1: Theories of International Migration: Review and Appraisal, p.1-28.

Discussion Questions about Migration Theory

What are the four main theories of Migration theory (why do people move?)

Which theory do you think best explains why people move? Why?

What do you think would happen if suddenly there was a huge decrease in immigrant workers-- for example in the agricultural industry?, Do you think wages for the workers still there would rise?

4 Main Theories of Migration

Neoclassical and New Economics Theory, Neoclassical Economics, Macro, Five Premises Neoclassical Macro, 1) migration caused by differences in wage rates between countries, 2) if we eliminate wage differentials, immigration will end, 3) Intl flows of human capital (high skilled workers) respond to differences in the rate of return from the overall wage rate-- may have a pattern different from low-skilled workers, 4) Labor markets are primary mechanisms by which flows of labor can be controlled, 5) The way for govts. to control migration flows is to regulate labor markets in sending/receiving countries, Criticisms of Neoclassical Macro Economic Theory?, Micro, Ten Premises Neoclassical Micro, 1) intl. movement due to differences in wages AND unemployment (if unemployment is high in one country, people are more likely to move), 2) human capital characteristics that increase likely to remuneration will result in an increase and likelihood of migration, 3) individual characteristics, social conditions, or new technologies that ease migration (lower the cost of migration) will result in more migration, 4) because of #2 and #3, people within the same country will have different outcomes for migration-- some people are more likely to move than others because of #2 and #3, 5) aggregate migration flows are simple sums of individual moves undertaken based on individual costs, 6) If there are no differences in wages or unemployment, no intl. migration takes place, 7) size of differential in expected results determines the size of the intl flow of immigrants, 8) migration decisions stem from disequilibria between labor markets, 9) If conditions in receiving countries are psychologically attractive, migrations costs may be negative, 10) govts. control migration/immigration through policies that affect expected earnings in sending/receiving countries, raise the wage in one and lower the wage in another, migration patterns will change, Criticisms of Neoclassical Micro Economic Theory?, Should I move?, Criticisms?, If this was sufficient, everyone in Burkina Faso would be in the US!, New Economics, Markets involved in New Economics, Crop insurance markets, Futures markets, unemployment insurance, capital markets, Eight premises New Economics, 1) families/households are the appropriate units of measurement, 2) wage differential is not necessary condition for intl. migration; households may have strong incentives to diversify risks, 3) Intl migration and local employment or local production are NOT mutually exclusive; there are strong incentives to do both- hedges, Thus, economic development does not necessarily reduce incentives to move!, 4) Intl. movement does not necessarily stop when wage differentials become equalized, 5) different households in different places of income distribution will be affected differently by assessment of expected gain in income (which affects whether household decides to move), 6) govts. can influence migration rates through policies that influence labor market AND through those that shape insurance markets, capital markets, and futures markets, 7) govt. policies and economic changes that shape income distributions will change relative deprivation of some households and thus alter incentives to migrate, 8) govt. policies and economic changes that affect the distribution of income will influence intl. migration independent of their effects on mean income; in fact, govt policy changes that only benefit some may increase migration if the poor suddenly feel even more deprived.

Dual Labor Market, Fundamental characteristics of advanced industrial societies and their economies, Structural Inflation, wages reflect supply and demand BUT also confer status, jobs at the bottom of social status-- even if employers raised wages, would NOT necessarily attract workers, if employers raise wages at the bottom, those higher up usually demand a raise-- thus, it's a costly option, employers prefer cheaper, easier solution-- intl. migration, Motivational problems, There has to be a bottom rung, but bottom rung is REALLY unattractive to native workers because of lack of social status, employers need a group for whom bottom rung is a means to an end-- better life for the children for example-- job is only about income, economic dualism / bifurcated labor market, capital is fixed; labor is variable= whenever possible, employers maximize capital and reserve labor to meet seasonal, fluctuating component-- seasonal workers, adjunct labor, etc., Workers in capital-intensive primary sector get stable jobs working with the best equipment and tools, secondary market workers hold unstable, unskilled jobs; employer will generally lose money if they kept these workers employed, demography of labor supply, historically, women were at the bottom, then teens, but both have changed; women working as professionals, low birth rates = fewer teens, Five Premises of Dual Labor Market Theory, 1) intl. migration is largely demand-based and is initiated by recruitment on the part of employers, 2) Since the demand for immigrant workers grow out f structural needs of the economy, intl. wage differences are neither necessary nor sufficient condition for labor migration to occur, 3) low-level wages in immigrant receiving societies do not rise in response to a decrease in the supply of immigrant workers; they are held down by social and institutional mechanisms-- not free to respond to supply and demand, 4) low-level wages may fall as a result of increase in supply of immigrant workers, 5) govts. are unlikely to influence intl. migration through policies that produce small changes in wages or employment rates; immigrants fill a demand for labor that is structurally built into modern, post-industrial economies

World Systems Theory, Resources in poor countries, Land, Raw materials, labor, material links, Goods need to be shipped so pathways get created- intl. labor follows similar pathways, ideological links, colonialism, mass communications reinforce ideological links, modern consumption patterns, languages, TV, global cities, USA, NY, Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, Europe, London, Paris, Frankfurt, Milan, Pacific Rim, Tokyo, Osaka, Sydney, globalization, e.g. factories in one country may be threatened by large scale economic changes, Six Premises of World Systems Theory, 1) intl. migration is natural consequence of capitalist penetration of developing countries, 2) intl. flow of labor follows intl. flow of goods and capital, but in opposite direction, 3) intl. migration is especially likely between past colonial powers and their former colonies, 4) since intl. migration stems from globalization of the market economy, the way for govts. to influence immigration is by regulating overseas investments and controlling international goods, 5) political and military interventions help to produce refugee movements-- when stats intervene to protect capital investments, 6) intl. migration ultimately has little do with wage rates or employment differentials

Conditions for movement

demand for migration must exist

labor demand must be made known, media outlets, recruitment, favorable policies

opportunities must be desirable, relative deprivation thanks to media

How Movement is Sustained

Network Theory / Chain migration, Declining costs, declining risks

Institutional Theory

cumulative causation, income distribution, land distribution, organization of agrarian production, culture of migration, regional distribution of human capital, social labeling

Migration Systems Theory, Together everything suggests that migration flows acquires a measure of stability and structure over space and time-- difficult to dismantle

Comparing across space and time

Immigrant Assimilation / Incorporation

Theories of Assimilation



Segmented Assimilation

Return of Assimilation

Challenges to Integration - Documentation Status

Videos, From the Back of the Line, Wetback, How Democracy Works Now

Economic Adaptation/Insertion

Theorizing Economic Insertion, Which groups are doing best?, Which groups are doing worse?, Factors that affect economic success, Cultural Explanations, What individual traits matter?, What is the role of individual traits?, Structural Explanations, Situational theories of economic integration

Immigrants, Jobs, Economic Impact, Readings, Raijman, Waldinger, Bipartisan Policy Center, Portes, Video, NYT Entreprenuers, Dollars & Dreams, Additional movies, Sewing Women, Maid in America, Para la Gente, Children in the Fields, THE HARVEST/LA COSECHA, Questions, What jobs are immigrants doing?, Overall economic impact of Immigrants on economy?, How do immigrants find jobs?, According to Waldinger, are immigrants competing with natives for jobs?, According to Portes-- enclave, good/bad? Explain

Immigrants, Jobs, Conflict, Readings, Bonacich, Min, Green, Waldinger, Video, LA Riots 20 years later, Questions, Are immigrants and native minorities in conflict with each other?

Immigration, Ethnicity, and Ethnic Relations

Ethnic identities, Factors that foster "ethnic" identity, Transnationalism impact on ethnic identity, Naturalization Trends, Determinants of Naturalization, Who are most likely to naturalize

Racial Inequality in US, Readings, Waters, Steinberg, Videos

Racial Inequality in the US - conflict with immigrants, Readings, Banks, Kawai, Videos, CNN, Not in our Town

Residential Segregation & Enclaves

Readings, Park

Videos, NPR - This American Life

Where are post-1965 immigrants settling?, Forbes Map, Main States, Florida, New York, California, Secondary States, New Jersey, Illinois, Main Cities, NY, LA, San Jose, Orange County, Chicago, Miami

Why important to know where they settle?, Geography always important, Cost of return, cost of getting there, discrimination, laws-- racism, labor markets, high SES jobs

Pros/Cons of Spatial Concentration, Pros of spatial concentration, Cons of Spatial concentration

Gender & Immigration

Readings, Hongdangneu-Sotelo, Ehrenreich, Erez


Political Incorporation

Readings, Hayduk, Wong, Suro, Minnite, Taylor, Kaufman's Cracks in the Rainbow


Alternatives to Assimilation

Theories challenging assimilation?











Major changes challenging assimilation?

How new is transnationalism?


In Harlem, Voting for Guinea

The Jamay Jalisco Club

3. Post 1965 Immigrants

Stats on Immigrants and US Population

1850, Foreign born was 2.2 million (9.7% US pop.)

1890, Foreign-born as % of US population peaked in 1890 at 15%

1930, Foreign born of 14.4 million (13%-14% of US pop.)

1970s, Foreign born lowest in the US- around 4%

1990, US Foreign Born reached 19.8 million (7.9% of the population), 44% of this foreign born arrived in the 1980s-- so relatively recent arrivals, 25.2% of this foreign-born pop was Asian Waters in M&S- p. 134, 42.5% of foreign-born from Latin America, 22% of foreign-born from Europe, 10.3% of foreign-born from other places

2005, US Foreign Born reached 37 million (12.5% of the population)

2010 USA, According to Census 2010, foreign-born is about 12.9%

2012 for NYC, About 39% of NYC pop is foreign born

post-1965 typology

Status typology, legal, temporary, legal, permanent, refugees, asylees, unauthorized/undocumented

human capital typology, unskilled/semi-skilled, skilled/professional, entrepreneurs

Typological groups, Labor, Professional, Entrepreneurial, Refugees/asylees

post-1965 groups

see Portes p. 21


Central Americans

South Americans

Eastern Europeans, Ukraine, Former USSR, Polish

Africans, North Africa, South Africa


Carribeans, DR, Haitians, West Indians

Middle East

Asians, S.E. Asians, Filippinos, East Asians, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, Indian continent, Bagladesh, Pakistan

Second Generation

Identity & Race of 2nd Gen

Housing & Education

Work & Future

Videos, With Reverse Migration, Children of Immigrants Chase "American Dream" Abroad


2. History of Immigration to NYC

These divisions will necessarily be somewhat simplistic.

Major Historical Events

French Revolution

Potato Famine



Operation Bootstrap

Spanish-American War

US Civil War

Colonial period

mid-19th century (1790-1849)





Late 19th Century (1850s-1890s)

Readings, Binder

Largest Groups, Irish, Germans

Early 20th century (1890s-1930s)


Largest Groups, Italians, Eastern European Jews

Southern Blacks (1st Great Migration)

Europeans, Germans, British, Irish, Polish (small numbers)

Asian Groups, Chinese, Japanese

S., Central Americas & Carribeans, Mexican, Puerto Ricans (small numbers)


Southern Blacks (2nd Great Migration)

Puerto Ricans


see Portes p. 21


Central Americans

South Americans

Eastern Europeans, Ukraine, Former USSR, Polish

Africans, North Africa, South Africa


Carribeans, DR, Haitians, West Indians

Middle East

Asians, S.E. Asians, Filippinos, East Asians, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, Indian continent, Bagladesh, Pakistan

About the course

Course Description

Course Objectives