"Research has shown the power of using multiple linked representations to develop deep mathematical understanding. It is especially helpful when (1) students use mathematical representations that are a natural conceptual fit, (2) students are specifically encouraged to translate between representations, and (3) students are encouraged to make their latent conceptions visible before an activity so that misconceptions can be confronted and a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts can be developed. Other studies have shown the potential of the classroom flip course design. When given more freedom to act in the classroom, students are often willing to step up if the instructor provides structural support within the activity system. However, if the classroom environment is not managed to handle the environmental changes, students’ learning may suffer. This is why it is so important for teachers to be aware of the domains of the learning environment and to provide a balance between them so that a healthy learning environment results (Moos, 2003)." (Strayer, p. 71)
Abstract (Summary) Internationally, recognition is growing that the transition between post-primary and higher education is raising a number of challenges for both students and educators. Simultaneously with growing class sizes, resources have become more constrained and there is a new set of expectations from the "net generation" (Mohanna, 2007, p. 211) The use of e-learning in medical education, Postgraduate Medical Journal, 83, p. 211). Within this transforming context, modes of instruction that cater for different paces of learning and learning styles by combining traditional and electronic media have become increasingly important. This paper discusses the transformation of an introductory human geography module at University College Dublin using a blended learning approach that extends beyond the media used to incorporate all aspects of, and inputs into, the learning process. Our experience highlights how blended learning can aid the achievement of a range of objectives in relation to student engagement and the promotion of deeper learning. However, blended learning is not a quick-fix solution to all issues relating to new university students and our analysis draws out a more complex relationship than anticipated between blended learning and student retention that will require further examination. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Flip: in class did active learning project to develop course concepts and ITS to deliver lectures outside of class, "One statistics class was structured according to the classroom flip method and met in a computer lab. Outside of class, students were introduced to new content by working with the Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces (ALEKS) intelligent tutoring system (for an explanation of all acronyms, see Appendix A). When students came to class, they completed activities that were designed to help them engage the content they were learning in ALEKS in a different context. Students could interact with each other and the professor in class as they worked to strengthen their understanding of the more formal mathematical material presented in ALEKS. Often, these activities required students to use the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program as a tool." (Strayer, p.74-75)
Traditional: studs attended lectures in class with powerpoints then did hw OUTSIDE of class, "The other statistics class was structured according to a traditional lecturehomework format where students came every day to a classroom with tables and chairs and heard a lecture over statistics content. These lectures were heavily content driven. I would introduce statistical concepts and then work though examples that used those concepts. During the lectures, students had opportunities to ask questions or answer my questions related to the examples discussed. In this way, I made an effort to make the lectures as interactive as possible. After 2 or 3 class periods, students were assigned a set of problems from the book to complete as homework." (Strayer, p. 74)
CUCEI, "This is the time I chose to administer the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) questionnaire (Fraser et al., 1986). The CUCEI questionnaire provided insight into: (1) students’ perceptions of their actual learning environment and (2) students’ opinions of what their ideal (preferred) learning environment would look like. The CUCEI was developed to measure student and teacher perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment in college and university classrooms. The instrument is grounded in Moos’ theory that all human environments contain, at minimum, relationship dimensions, personal development dimensions, and system maintenance and system change dimensions (Moos, 1974). Pertaining to the relationship dimension, the CUCEI focuses on identifying the nature and intensity of personal relationships, assessing the extent to which students are invested in their environment and support and help each other. The CUCEI also seeks to assess the extent to which the environment pushes students toward personal growth and self-enhancement (the personal development dimension). Finally, the CUCEI strives to measure the overall orderliness of the environment, its responsiveness to change, and the clarity of expectations (the system maintenance and system change dimension). These dimensions of the environment, then, are measured on the CUCEI using the following seven scales: personalization, innovation, student cohesion, task orientation, cooperation, individualization, and equity. The development of this instrument was guided by findings of studies that used similar validated instruments to measure learning environments in elementary and secondary 80 schools. Further, the CUCEI’s internal consistency for the seven subscales has been measured in multiple studies and has been shown to be quite acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.90 (Fraser, 1998; Fraser et al., 1986)." (Strayer, p.80-81)
field notes, "I kept a “field notes log” that focused on student behavior in the classroom. I also wore a microphone to audiotape selected class sessions (at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester). After class was over, I listened to these tapes and wrote my observations of the class. I also had members of my data collection team come into the classroom and observe the classroom settings during the middle of the semester and then again towards the end of the semester." (Strayer, p.82)
student interviews, "Three members from the data collection team (the social work professor and the two senior students) conducted one-on-one and focus group interviews at the end of the semester in order to collect this important type of data. Hoping that students would be more candid, I did not participate in these interview sessions. I promised students that I would not view the interview transcripts or listen to the tapes until after the semester was over so that there was no potential for their grades to be affected by what they said in these sessions." (Strayer, p.85)
instructor journal entries, "In this journal, I focused more on myself as teacher in the classroom. I documented my thoughts on how I thought class was going in general, my struggles and successes, the emotions I felt, how well I thought students were learning, and how I changed course instruction throughout the semester. This movement of looking inward and then outward between then the personal and the cultural is typical of this type of research." (Strayer, p. 82)
t-tests, "The quantitative analysis began with finding means and standard deviations for the preferred and actual versions of the CUCEI for all students involved in the study. Recall that in the preferred version, students were expressing their opinions of their ideal learning environment, and in the actual version they were expressing their opinions of their actual class experiences. Next, the means and standard deviations were found for each class (traditional and flip) individually. I then grouped the results into the 7 subscales of the classroom environment (personalization, innovation, task orientation, student cohesion, cooperation, individualization, and equity) and ran a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance test to see if there were significant effects between which class the student was in and the student’s scores on the actual and preferred versions of the CUCEI." (Strayer, p.87), there was a stat sign difference betw the means of preferred vs. actual environment on all subscales (actual is sign lower than preferred) (paired t-test), there was, New node
grounded theory, open coding, axial coding
lower student satisfaction in flipped classrooms on how the classroom structure oriented them to the learning tasks in the course. I.e. students had sense of "unsettledness" (p.iii), "A careful analysis of the quantitative data in this study shows that students in the flip environment preferred and experienced a higher level of innovation and cooperation in their classroom. It is unclear how much the semester long experience in the flip environment itself influenced students’ preferences since their learning environment preference was not measured at the beginning of the semester to compare with their endof- semester responses. However, at some level, it is safe to say that students came to be contented with an innovative teaching approach in the classroom that required working with others when completing learning tasks. The analysis also revealed that students in the flip environment preferred the same level of task orientation as students in the lecturehomework environment; however, students in the flip environment report that they experienced lower levels of task orientation throughout the semester than students in the lecture-homework environment. These results present a dynamic flip environment where students prefer collaboration and innovative teaching strategies, but they are less satisfied with how the environment orients them toward course content. As the analysis moves to the qualitative findings, it is important to draw on the qualitative data to compare how the differences in innovation and cooperation influenced the learning environments in the two different sections. It is also important to draw on the qualitative data to see how students dealt with the learning challenges in the flip environment due to the deficient task orientation dimensions in the structure of the classroom. I use activity theory to help set the framework for this aspect of the analysis." (Strayer, p.107), "Students in the flip classroom both preferred and experienced more innovation and cooperation in their classroom learning experience when compared to the traditional classroom students. This consequence could be a result of attending a class for an entire semester where more cooperation was required, and innovative methods were employed in an effort to successfully “flip” the classroom." (Strayer, p.180), "students in the flip classroom were less satisfied with how the structure of the class oriented them to the learning tasks in the course. The analysis showed that the variety of learning activities in the flip classroom contributed to an unsettledness among students (a feeling of being “lost”) that students in the traditional classroom did not experience." (Strayer, p.180)
felt no greater connectedness with instructor or other students/ many felt less connected to instructor
felt less satisfied with technology as the semester progressed
no stat sign diff on whether they had more control over their learning and on whether technology gave them better opportunity to master precalculus, students had technology frustrations
concerns about whether classtime was worth attending since studs had already learned material outside of class
resulted in 2 conclusions, technology had better work smoothly, using technology to introduce concepts may result in less connectedness with instructor and may make transfer of learning more difficult, "When students feel class is a waste of time, this is an indication that the professor must offer something beyond more difficult practice problems in class. Perhaps the professor should focus classroom activity on helping students transfer their learning to new situations. Whatever the case, professors must offer something in the classroom that students cannot get elsewhere. They must create an environment where the classroom becomes a dynamic learning community. "(page 8)
traditional studs scored signif. higher on test and had sign. higher confidence than flipped studs
some students reported the flip conflicted with their personal learning preferences both in how they prefer to get content delivered and in the in class group work, some reported that group work casts more doubt and less self confidence for that student; whereas working by self not as big of a problem.
thought short in duration, 3 days, results show how profoundly the flip structure changes the learning environment for students; they need time to adjust
3 general findings:, students must have time to adjust to flip, must be flexibility so studs can get comfortable with amount of control they have, studs must appreciate benefits of group activities in their learning
"The idea that course content can be “delivered” is founded on behaviorist theories of learning where knowledge is viewed as an objective entity that can be transferred from one person to another (as learned skills or strategies of thinking). However, active learning techniques have been used over the past few decades by educators who espouse constructivist theories of learning which view knowledge as something that must be built up by the learner through reflective abstraction. Thus, a classroom flip environment could end up being a place where the outside class activity is driven by one learning theory, and inside class pursuits are driven by a different (competing/conflicting) theory." (p. 13)
Learning environments have 3 domains (Moos, 1979, 2003 as cited in Strayer, p. 13), relationships, "The relationship domain has to do with the extent to which students are involved in the classroom. The variables in this domain are closely tied to the sense of community students feel with one another and the teacher. They include the extent to which students help and support one another, the level of morale in the class, how freely students share ideas, how students share in work responsibilities, the level of participation in classroom discussions, how attentive students are to the course content and the class activities, and the depth of student relationships with other students and the teacher." (Strayer, p.47), personal growth, "Personal growth dimensions involve how the goals of the classroom encourage student development and learning. Student independence is key in this domain since true learning and development occur when students are free to succeed or fail. The ways the environment encourages students to be aware of significant course concepts is also an important feature of this domain. If a classroom places a great deal of importance on academic, intellectual, and scholarly activities, the students’ desire to grow and learn will be affected. Other factors that influence personal growth and learning in a classroom setting include the level of competition in the class and how the grading policies in the course are structured." (Strayer, p.47), system maintenance & change, "The system maintenance and change domain is concerned with the formal structure of the classroom and how this plays out in the day-to-day operation of the classroom. The clarity of classroom expectations, the ways communication occurs in the classroom, the rules and policies that govern normal operation in the classroom, the practicality of the classroom (how orderly it is supervised), classroom propriety (how considerate and polite the environment is), and the ways the classroom adapts to change all relate to the system maintenance and change domain. These dimensions set the stage for how the classroom is run and how students interact within its structure." (Strayer, p.48)
ITS was used to introduce content outside of class, projects in class vs. traditional class, 2 guiding questions, how does learning environment in flipped classroom compare to traditional learning environment?, how does activity in a flipped classroom that used an ITS compare with a tradiitional class & what is its influence on learning?
"As individual students interact with their learning environments, the socialenvironmental domains of the classroom come into contact with the personal system each student brings with them to the class (see Figure 2.8). As a student learns, the interaction between her social environment and personal system instigates a series of struggles and adaptations as she strives to learn in that environment. A student’s personal system includes age, gender, ability level, interests, values, attitudes, expectations, and coping 49 preferences. When a student is confronted with a learning experience, she will experience a need to change. Her personal system and social environment will influence how she appraises the situation cognitively as well as the actions she decides to make within that environment (activation). Once the student acts in the environment, she will go through cycles of adaptation and coping until equilibrium is re-established and change (learning) has occurred." (Strayer, p.48)
:The conceptual framework for this study describes how the classroom flip uses technology and ITS,
how mathematical representations relate to learning theory,
how activity theory is used to analyze various types of learning activity,
how students adapt to classroom learning environments as conceptualized by Moos’ (1979) three domains.
qualitative, "A search for deeper understanding in participants’ lived experiences and an exploration of the complexities of context and setting will require a research strategy that draws on qualitative methods (Marshall & Rossman, 1999). In an effort to collect data that would provide insight into the underlying complexities of the classroom learning environments in this study, I collected and analyzed data from student interviews and focus groups, in-class observations, audiotaped classroom sessions, student assignments, student written reflections, and researcher reflections." (Strayer, p. 73), "Two senior social work majors also participated in collecting data for this research. These two students had both taken introduction to statistics and an upper level undergraduate research methods course the year before they assisted with this research. The social work professor and I met with these two students multiple times to discuss graduate level articles on taking field notes and conducting interviews. With these experiences serving as a foundation, these students observed class sessions, conducted interviews, and observed the focus groups for this research. Members of the data collection team had a protocol for asking questions in interviews and focus groups (see Appendix E). When the team was observing and taking field notes, there was no formal written protocol defined. However, since the data collection team was familiar with the guiding questions of the study, they all focused their observations mainly on how students were engaged with the professor, each other, and the learning content while in the classroom. I also was a part of the data collection team. I audiotaped class sessions, kept a reflective journal, took observations after class sessions using a course log, and conducted member checking interviews. In the paragraphs below, I describe my activities as an educator and researcher over the past 10 years or so." (Strayer, p.76), Ethnographic Study
quantitative, "A number of validated quantitative instruments have been developed to study learning environments. Since these instruments have driven most of the research on learning environments, it was important to use one of these to investigate students’ perceptions of their learning environments in this research study (Fraser, 1998; Fraser, Treagust, & Dennis, 1986). However, the complexities that make up the learning environment cannot be sufficiently accounted for by giving students a survey on one particular day towards the end of the semester. For this reason, many learning environments studies are incorporating multiple methods to investigate the intricacies of this research domain (Fraser, 1998)." (Strayer, p. 72)
those who choose to flip classrooms should offer students choices on how to interact with content (Strayer, p. 196)
if an introductory course is flipped, make activities more step by step instead of open-ended (Strayer, p. 196)
"A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning." (Strayer, p.196)
"The disequilibrium or unsettledness that students face in a flip classroom is not necessarily at cross-purposes with successful learning. It is just extremely important that the teacher adjusts the system maintenance and change dimensions of the learning environment to support students’ meaning making from activity in the flip classroom. These support structures must be built into the course so that teachers and students alike can monitor student self-efficacy as they complete tasks, particularly at the beginning and middle of open ended tasks. Depending on the classroom, these adjustments could have serious practical challenges. Therefore, it may be preferable for some teachers to do a less radical classroom flip that gives students an opportunity to view course content outside of the classroom in a number of different formats, but still includes regular 30 minute lectures followed by 30 minutes of learning activity and homework out of a book. Other teachers may see a radical classroom flip that includes only learning activity in class and total introduction to course content outside of class would work well for their class." (Strayer, p.197)
"The conclusions of this research have hinted that the classroom flip may be better suited for certain classrooms or courses than others. This is the first area for future research that I suggest. What are the characteristics of course material that would lend itself to being taught in a course using the classroom flip structure? Are there certain characteristics of a group of students that would tend to make the classroom flip structure work better with them than with a group of students with different characteristics?" (STrayer, p.198)
"I believe it would be useful to further explore the three properties of comfortability with activity outlined in this study (structure, approach, and mind-set)." (Strayer, p.199)
"A final potential thread of investigation related to comfortability I want to suggest involves “pragmatic learners.” These learners are defined by Broad et al. (2004) as only being interested in completing assignments and not exploring implications of concepts. I believe it could be productive to investigate pragmatic learners’ comfortability in classroom learning activity." (Strayer, p. 199)
Theoretical Basis: Learning Environments Research, Students were given the College and Univ. Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI), concept of student "comfortability with learning activity"
Theoretical Basis: Activity Theory
two features according to Strayer, p.15 (not cited), Extensive use of technology to deliver course content, students can interact with material at the their own pace (Strayer, p. 18), Active learning during classtime, requires that a person act on ideas (Piaget), Framework:, van Oers (1996 as cited in Strayer, p. 34): theory that learning process has 2 types of meaning: cultural and personal; meaningful learning results when studs have both types of meaning, cutlural: generalized knowledge, link between teh two can be reinforced by relfection on actions, personal: value that learners "attach to acticivy in relation to the task at hand (Strayer, p.34)", New node, Activity Theory: a way of analyzing human activity thru socio cultural lens (JonASSEN & Rohrer-Murphy, 1999 as cited in STrayer, p. 36) (See Engestrom (1987) for full theory description), "While the subject’s action on an object using signs and tools to achieve a certain outcome is still the primary focus of the activity system, the above conceptualization takes into account the richness of the community’s influence on the subject, object, and signs and tools (which are always culturally defined anyway)." (Strayer, p. 40), "As students participate and learn in a classroom that is focused on helping them use different representations of mathematical concepts to make personal sense of culturally defined mathematical symbols and techniques, their learning environment is affected, and activity systems provide a nice framework for analyzing the activity within that learning environment." (Strayer, p. 45)
"Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa." (Lage et al.,2000, p.32).
Greater expectations for Face to face educators to use online course tools available in a CMS in their f2f classes (Turoff, 1999 as cited in Strayer, p.18), Baker (2000) called it the Flip, Lage, Platt,and Treglia (2000, p.32 as cited in Strayer, p.18)) called it inverted classroom. "Events that traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa."
"Grasha- Reichmann learning styles questionnaire (GRLSQ) categorizes students as either dependent, collaborative, or independent learners. Dependent learners require a large amount of direction from the teacher, whereas collaborative learners work best when learning as part of a team. The independent learner learns best when left to his or her own devices." (Lage et. al. (2000), p.31)
"The Keirsey-Bates categorization of learning styles is based on personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI classifies all individuals along four different personality scales. The scales identify how the individual relates to the world (Introvert or Extrovert); processes information (Sensing or Intuitive); makes decisions (Thinking or Feeling); and evaluates the environment (Judging or Perceiving). These personality traits affect an individual’s learning style and preferred teaching style (Lawrence 1993; Keirsey and Bates 1984). Borg and Shapiro (1996) and Ziegert (forthcoming) show that a match between a stu- Winter 2000 31 Downloaded by [University of Missouri Columbia] at 14:15 12 March 2012 dent’s and the professor’s MBTI classifications results in improved student performance. They suggest that instructors should consider alternatives to the traditional lecture when presenting course material in class." (Lage et al, 2000, p. 31)
"The third classification of learning styles focuses on how students both take in and process information (Kolb 1981). On the basis of these two criteria, learners are divided into four categories: assimilators, convergers, divergers, and accommodators. Assimilators and convergers take in information through abstract conceptualization, whereas divergers and accommodators take in information through concrete experiences. Convergers and accommodators process information via active experimentation, but divergers and assimilators process information through observation and reflection. Researchers employing this theory of learning conclude that students are more likely to major in a field where teaching and learning styles match (Fry and Kolb 1979). The importance of matching teacher and student learning styles within the Kolb framework is emphasized in Bartlett (1997, 148)" (Lage et al, 2000, p.32)
"In a study by Lage, Platt, and Treglia (2000), Introduction to Microeconomics courses were modified by asking students to read assigned sections of the textbook and view either videotaped lectures or PowerPoint lectures with sound before coming to class. The first part of each class session involved answering questions, which usually lead to a mini-lecture lasting no more than 10 minutes. If there were no questions, there would be no lecture. The rest of the class time was spent in an experiment, lab, or group work that investigated the topic at hand. Lage’s and Platt’s goal for inverting the classroom was to give students opportunities to learn economics according to their individual learning style. Students could learn course content by choosing between reading the textbook, watching a traditional lecture, or viewing PowerPoint with sound. They could also combine or repeat these content delivery methods according to their individual preferences. Hands-on activities inside the classroom added further diversity to the available teaching and learning styles. This study of 80 introductory economics students showed positive student attitudes toward the inverted classroom. In fact, the evidence showed that students would prefer to have an inverted classroom rather than a traditional lecture class. The study also evidenced increased faculty-student interactions and the development of student communication skills. Since the material in the course is presented in a number of different formats, it was shown that students’ learning preferences were better matched to course pedagogy (Lage & Platt, 2000)."
Abstract (Summary) It is generally held that blended learning is gaining acceptance and being adopted at college campuses throughout the U.S. Accompanying this trend has been an expansion of the research efforts in this area. These efforts have been guided mainly by the five pillars of the Sloan Consortium Quality Framework (Sloan-C) and two large questions. One question is, "Is blended learning better than other learning environments?" In this study, this question was examined from the perspective of the Sloan-C's student satisfaction pillar. The research question was stated as follows: "Is the level of student course satisfaction generated by blended learning higher than that which is generated by traditional face-to-face classroom learning?" The results of this study revealed "no differences" between blended and traditional learning on the student course satisfaction variable. In this regard, it is important to note that this finding of "no differences" is consistent with the existing research findings on student learning effectiveness as well. Given this combined evidential pattern the following question is relevant and has implications for future research efforts in this area: "Within the context of cost/benefit analysis, why should an institution invest the additional resources needed to effectively implement a blended format when, in accordance with the existing research evidence, there is little or no net benefit in terms of its impact on students; i.e., either in terms of student satisfaction or student learning?". [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
Blended learning strategies can be employed in innovative ways to solve real-world academic problems across all academic disciplines. This article can provide administrators and faculty with specific examples to guide them when making decisions about academic planning or institutional strategies for any discipline at all levels of higher education. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
This paper outlines an attempt at integrating web-based activities into a precalculus course at a large university. A discussion of the development of the web-based activities is initially provided. Distinctions are made between transpositional uses of web-based technology and uses that take advantage of the full potential of the technological medium. A report of a study that investigated the effects of the use of the activities in four classrooms follows. The report focuses on the use of the activities by two instructors, only one of whom received mentoring in that regard. The unmentored instructor entered the course with an instructional philosophy more compatible to the goals of the activities than the mentored instructor, and it was found that this led to more appropriate uses of the activities during instruction, despite a lack of mentoring. The difficulties of the unmentored instructor were not inherent in the technology, but in the pedagogic incongruences between the goals of the instructor and the web-based activities. Evidence was also found that these instructional differences impacted how the two groups of students approached the tasks, as well as differences in their understandings of the underlying mathematical ideas of covariance and rate of change. Implications and recommendations are then given.
Abstract The enhanced accessibility, affordability and capability of the Internet has created enormous possibilities in terms of designing, developing and implementing innovative teaching methods in the classroom. As existing pedagogies are revamped and new ones are added, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of these approaches from the students’ perspective. For more than three decades, proven qualitative and quantitative research methods associated with learning environments research have yielded productive results for educators. This article presents the findings of a study in which Getsmart, a teacher-designed website, was blended into science and physics lessons at an Australian high school. Students’ perceptions of this environment were investigated, together with differences in the perceptions of students in junior and senior years of schooling. The article also explores the impact of teachers in such an environment. The investigation undertaken in this study also gave an indication of how effective Getsmart was as a teaching model in such environments.
Two groups of 20 students each from the Bridging Program of the College of Saint Benilde, De La Salle University, who were enrolled in Algebra during the Second Term, SY 2009-2010, served as respondents in this study. The groups were alternately exposed to the blended learning strategy and the traditional face-to-face classroom instruction strategy. A pretest and a posttest together with a perceptions inventory related to the use of blended learning were administered to the respondents to gauge and compare their achievement in each topic and to capture their reactions regarding the use of blended learning strategy. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean achievements of the two groups in all topics under consideration in favor of the blended learning strategy. Students’ general reactions to using the blended learning strategy point to the merits of having several alternatives in learning, the improved attitude and confidence in mathematics, and the increased motivation and enjoyment afforded by this strategy in understanding the lessons.
Abstract This paper reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into blended university teaching using virtual learning environments (VLEs). Interviews with 25 Computer Science teachers in Greek universities illuminated a spectrum of teachers’ conceptions and approaches from ‘teacher-focused and content-oriented’, through ‘student-focused and content-oriented’, to ‘student-focused and process-oriented’. Using VLEs was described as a means of supporting: A—information transfer; B—application and clarification of concepts; C—exchange and development of ideas, and resource exploration and sharing; D—collaborative knowledge-creation, and development of process awareness and skills. The study suggests that pedagogical beliefs and circumstances underpinning face-to-face teaching are more influential in shaping approaches to blended VLE use than VLE system features. The authors propose that the findings could be used to inform educational enhancement initiatives and that there is a need for further discipline-focused research on blended teaching.
Abstract The lack of academic engagement in introductory science courses is considered by some to be a primary reason why students switch out of science majors. This study employed a sequential, explanatory mixed methods approach to provide a richer understanding of the relationship between student engagement and introductory science instruction. Quantitative survey data were drawn from 2,873 students within 73 introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses across 15 colleges and universities, and qualitative data were collected from 41 student focus groups at eight of these institutions. The findings indicate that students tended to be more engaged in courses where the instructor consistently signaled an openness to student questions and recognizes her/his role in helping students succeed. Likewise, students who reported feeling comfortable asking questions in class, seeking out tutoring, attending supplemental instruction sessions, and collaborating with other students in the course were also more likely to be engaged. Instructional implications for improving students’ levels of academic engagement are discussed.
ABSTRACT Usefulness and ease of use proved to be key determinants of the acceptance and usage of e-learning. On the contrary, little is known about students’ perceptions in a blended learning setting. In this paper, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was utilised, in order to investigate Greek university students’ attitudes toward blended learning. The goal of the study was twofold. First, to investigate whether the students’ perceptions in a blended learning setting were comparable with other studies reporting perceptions in the context of distant learning. Second, to investigate variation in students’ perceptions before and after actual system use. A sample of 130 students before actual system use and 102 students after the end of the semester was used. As derived from the model analysis using partial least squares, the e-learning system was well accepted and the majority of our hypotheses were confirmed. The most notable difference between pre- and post- use scenario was that perceived usefulness did not prove to have a significant effect on behavioral intention before system use, whereas, in the end, it appeared to be significant. The results are compared with similar studies focused on elearning acceptance. The implications, both for the designer of a blended learning course as well as for the educational community, are also discussed.
The article focuses on the challenges encountered when implementing a faculty-wide blended learning strategy in a business school in Great Britain. It states there is little emphasis in research ...
ABSTRACT Focusing on Digital Worlds, a first-year geography blended learning course at the University of Auckland, this paper gives voice to the students, examining how they perceived e-learning versus traditional learning mechanisms; how e-learning mechanisms have affected their learning behaviour; and why certain e-learning mechanisms offered in the course were more appealing than others. It demonstrates that students’ views are determined by their individual learning styles and how they perceive the university experience. Information and communication technologies were recognized to provide complementary learning benefits, especially when other factors inhibited learning, but traditional mechanisms such as lectures were still greatly valued
Abstract New information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide educators and learners with an innovative learning environment to stimulate and enhance the teaching and learning process. In this context, novel educational concepts such as blended learning are being developed. In the present paper, we present the results obtained from a blended learning experience carried out at the University of Granada. A total of 17 groups took part, with 1431 students registered for the 2009–2010 academic year. In this study, we use objective outcomes and the students’ perceptions regarding the blended learning activities performed. The study shows that the use of blended learning has a positive effect in reducing dropout rates and in improving exam marks. Moreover, the students’ perceptions on blended learning are interrelated, with their final marks depending on the blended learning activities, and on the students’ age, background and class attendance rate.
Abstract This project draws on a large body of seminal research showing that the approaches students take to learning, and the subsequent quality of their learning, is closely related to their perceptions of their learning experience. Recent research has demonstrated these findings also hold for non-standard modes of delivery such as distance education using on-line strategies. However, there is currently little research about how predominately campus-based students' experiences of the on-line part of their course are associated with their experience of the course as a whole. The present study extends previous research into the domain of blended learning, by exploring the relations between student perceptions of the e-Learning environment, approaches to study, and student grades.
ABSTRACT The purposes of this study are to examine faculty involvement in blended instruction and their attitudes towards the instructional method. The study also explored how universities support faculty in their current practices on blended instruction and the challenges in supporting faculty. The target population of this study was Institute of Higher Education (IHE) coordinators and faculty members of 151 extensive doctoral research universities classified by the Carnegie Foundations. Two online survey instruments, one for the coordinators and the other for faculty were administered to the target population. Of the 151 targeted population, 34 IHE representatives and 133 faculty members from 33 universities responded to the survey questionnaires. The study found that the most commonly selected blended method (64.4%) was face-to-face instruction with supplementary online instructional materials. In addition, faculty (95.9%) actively participated in designing, developing, and/ or maintaining their instructional materials. Most had positive attitudes towards blended instruction as they believed it played a role in improving the quality of their instruction. In addition, participating universities reported providing faculty with the necessary help such as an online help desk, workshops, instructional designers, and technology specialists in support of goals to increase the number of online or blended instruction. However, faculty workload (70.6%) and lack of faculty motivation and enthusiasm (61.8%) were the biggest challenges in pursuing the institutional goals. Based on the findings, suggestions are made to promote blended instruction.
Technology expands instructional options for faculty, and this study examines the differential learning effects of offering a lecture on physics to students in a traditional classroom versus internet video formats. Based on an experiment conducted in a natural educational context, results indicate enhanced transfer of lecture information in the video formats relative to the live condition, with students also responding more positively to personalized video presentation.
Abstract In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners. We present the results of a study of 3165 students in online and hybrid courses from 42 two- and four-year institutions in which we examine the relationship between learner self-efficacy measures and their ratings of the quality of their learning in virtual environments. We conclude that a positive relationship exists between elements of the CoI framework and between elements of a nascent theoretical construct that we label “learning presence”. We suggest that learning presence represents elements such as self-efficacy as well as other cognitive, behavioral, and motivational constructs supportive of online learner self-regulation. We suggest that this focused analysis on the active roles of online learners may contribute to a more thorough account of knowledge construction in technology-mediated environments expanding the descriptive and explanatory power of the Community of Inquiry framework. Learning presence: Towards a Theory of Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, and the Development of a Communities of Inquiry in Online and Blended Learning Environments.
This article examines a review of literature related to online learning and teaching. The authors provide a brief historical perspective of online education as well as describe the unique aspects of online teaching and learning. The barriers to online teaching, the new faculty roles in online learning environments, and some implications for online learning and teaching are also provided. This article is intended to stimulate reflections on effective strategies to enhance faculty success in their transition from traditional pedagogical platforms to online learning and teaching., http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/keengwe_0610.htm
This paper reviews the literature and finds that the learner is an important factor in how successful a blended course will be.