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Existing Research by Mind Map: Existing Research
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Existing Research

"Research has shown the power of using multiple linked representations to develop deep mathematical understanding. It is especially helpful when (1) students use mathematical representations that are a natural conceptual fit, (2) students are specifically encouraged to translate between representations, and (3) students are encouraged to make their latent conceptions visible before an activity so that misconceptions can be confronted and a deeper understanding of the underlying concepts can be developed. Other studies have shown the potential of the classroom flip course design. When given more freedom to act in the classroom, students are often willing to step up if the instructor provides structural support within the activity system. However, if the classroom environment is not managed to handle the environmental changes, students’ learning may suffer. This is why it is so important for teachers to be aware of the domains of the learning environment and to provide a balance between them so that a healthy learning environment results (Moos, 2003)." (Strayer, p. 71)

"Other schools have found that the use of the “inverted” classroom, where students are engaged in the business of the disciplines, heightens student engagement and reduces situations of entitlement (Lege, Platt, and Treglia 2000)." as cited in Lippman, et al, p.202

Lage, Platt & Treglia (2000) as described in STUDENT ENTITLEMENT ISSUES AND STRATEGIES FOR CONFRONTING ENTITLEMENT IN THE CLASSROOM AND BEYOND Stephen Lippmann, Ronald E. Bulanda, and Theodore C. Wagenaar

Edginton, A., & Holbrook, J. (2010). A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Basic Pharmacokinetics and the Significance of Face-to-Face Interaction. American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(5), 1-11.

Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Design. Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-toface problem-solving tutorials.

Assessment. A precourse questionnaire to assess students’ level of enthusiasm towards the blendedlearning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students’ concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased.

Conclusion. Students’ initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course.

Moore, N., & Gilmartin, M. (2010). Teaching for Better Learning: A Blended Learning Pilot Project with First-Year Geography Undergraduates. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 34(3), 327-344. doi:10.1080/03098265.2010.501552

Students’ experiences with contrasting learning environments: The added value of students’ perceptions Katrien Struyven, Filip Dochy, Steven Janssens and Sarah Gielen

Abstract This study investigated the effects of two contrasting learning environments on students’ course experiences: a lecture-based setting to a student-activating teaching environment. In addition, the evaluative treatment involved five research conditions that went together with one of four assessment modes, namely, portfolio, case-based, peer assessment, and multiple-choice testing. Data (N = 608) were collected using the Course Experience Questionnaire. Results showed that the instructional intervention (i.e. lectures versus student-activating treatment) influenced students’ course experiences, but in the opposite direction to that expected. In declining order, the following scales (5 out of 7) revealed statistically significant differences: Clear Goals and Standards; the General scale; Appropriate Workload; Good Teaching; and Independence. Moreover, when the assessment mode was considered, also the Appropriate Assessment scale demonstrated significant differences between the five research conditions. Moreover, the same teaching/learning environments led to diverse students’ perceptions. While the perceptions of lecture-taught students were focused and concordantly positive, students’ course experiences with student-activating methods were widely varied and both extremely positive and negative opinions were present. Students’ arguments in favour of the activating setting were the variety of teaching methods, the challenging and active nature of the assignments and the joys of collaborative work in teams, whereas students expressed dissatisfaction with the perceived lack of learning gains, the associated time pressure and workloads, and the (exclusive) use of collaborative assignments and related group difficulties.

The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment (dissertation) Strayer, 2007

compares flip to traditional structure in statistics course

Data collection:

Data Analysis

Findings:

Did a pilot study prior to his dissertation study where students viewed lectures & did online homework with immediate feedback outside of class, then worked together in class & got instructor help

Did a second pilot study where one class section was flipped for a chapter and another was not- 3 day time period. Goal was to investigate how the change in communication would influence students' experiences with the flip

Problem statement:"As a result, I was interested in studying how the complexities inherent in the classroom flip method of structuring a course influences the learning environment for students as they progress through the course. " (p.13)

"The idea that course content can be “delivered” is founded on behaviorist theories of learning where knowledge is viewed as an objective entity that can be transferred from one person to another (as learned skills or strategies of thinking). However, active learning techniques have been used over the past few decades by educators who espouse constructivist theories of learning which view knowledge as something that must be built up by the learner through reflective abstraction. Thus, a classroom flip environment could end up being a place where the outside class activity is driven by one learning theory, and inside class pursuits are driven by a different (competing/conflicting) theory." (p. 13)

Conceptual Framework of this study

Design

conclusions:

implications for future research

Theoretical Basis

Definition of Flipped Classroom (cited in Strayer as Baker 2000) or Inverted Classroom (cited in Strayer as (Lage & Platt, 2000; Lage, Platt & Tregalia, 2000)

Traditional: content delivery in class and deeper engagement activities outside of class

Flip: introduction outside of class with engagement during class

technology advancements have provided educators with tools to create more interactive learning environments instead of one-way transmission of knowledge models (Bransford, Brophy & Williams, 2000 as cited in Strayer, p. 17)

Flipped classrooms are popular in workshops, articles about pedagogy, even textbook publishing. (Strayer, p.19)

New node

Baker (2000) AS DESCRIBED IN STRAYER, 2007, P. 61-62

"In a study using the classroom flip, Baker (2000) provided lecture notes on a web page, extended classroom discussions through online threaded discussion, and used online quizzes in two of his courses (Graphic Design for Interactive Multimedia and Communication in the Information Age). His aim was to achieve the following goals: reduce time spent on lecturing, focus on understanding and application, provide students with more control over their own learning, give students a sense of responsibility for their learning, and give students an opportunity to learn from their peers. Baker’s action research project evidenced increased interactivity and collaboration in both courses when compared with other courses the students have taken. Students noted an increase in collaboration both in the classroom and out of the classroom (using technology). Students felt they received more personal attention due to the structure of the class, had more control over their learning, and were able to engage in critical thinking that explored the implications of their learning (Baker, 2000)."

"The success of the Baker study suggests that the flip format may work best in a setting where most of the students in the course are deeply interested in the content to begin with." (Strayer, p. 184)

"Students in this position would be motivated to take it upon themselves to do what it takes outside of class so they will be productive during activities carried out inside the classroom. Baker’s aims for flipping his classroom (to reduce time spent on lecturing, focus on understanding and application, provide students with more control over their own learning, give students a sense of responsibility for their learning, and give students an opportunity to learn from their peers) requires a level of maturity and a persistence that may just naturally fit better with an upper division course than with a lower division course." (Strayer, p. 184)

Frederickson (2005) as described in Strayer 2007

"Although the classroom flip terminology was not specifically stated, this instructional method was used in a study involving 16 graduate level research methods and statistics students to compare lecture-based versus computer-based methods for presenting students with course content (Frederickson, Reed, & Clifford, 2005). These researchers were interested in seeing if there were differences in the level of learning and student opinions of the learning environment between the two groups. The 16 students were randomly assigned to two different groups: one group spent an hour in a computer lab going through a web-page based presentation of the material while the other students spent the hour in a classroom listening to a lecture over the same material with overheads and handouts. The random assignment in this study is a very important and unusual aspect when compared to other current studies. Most studies that compare different pedagogical approaches allow students to choose which group (lecture-based or technology-based) they will be in for obvious ethical reasons. However, in this study, all 16 students agreed to be randomly assigned to a group. It is also important to note that the information in the web-page presentation and the lectures were developed by the same instructor and were virtually identical. Frederickson et al (2005) gave both groups of students pretests and posttests to detect changes in their statistical knowledge and levels of math anxiety. Results showed that both the lecture-based and the web-based groups increased their understanding of statistical knowledge from pretest to posttest. However, there was no significant 64 difference between the two groups on either the pretest or posttest. There were no other significant effects between the two groups in terms of their pre-anxiety and post-anxiety levels. The researchers also solicited written feedback and they performed a cursory qualitative theme analysis on those responses." (Strayer, p. 63)

"Frederickson et al.’s (2005) important study provides evidence that similar gains in knowledge will occur for students whether the material is presented in a web-based or lecture-based format, and math anxiety does not appear to be influenced by one method or the other. Qualitative data were also collected through open-ended questions on a survey given to all students. The analysis of this data suggested students were more critical of the web-based format. Students in this environment wanted their learning goals to be more clearly defined so they could check to see if they were “on the right track” along the way. They wanted more explanations and examples on the websites and a more interactive experience. Although the lecture-based students received the same stated learning goals, explanations, and examples, they made no mention of the need for more feedback and reinforcement as the web-based students did." (Strayer, p.64)

"Analyzing these results (Frederickson et al., 2005) from an activity theory perspective suggests that the introduction of a new tool (the web-page driven learning modules) caused a disruption in the students’ activity system. Now, new rules were needed to define how learning was to occur in this environment. Further, the division of labor changed since the teacher was less involved in the presentation of material and the student had more responsibility. Students responded to these disruptions by taking more responsibility for deepening and monitoring their learning (the demand for more examples and clarity in learning goals). From a learning environments perspective, what 65 at first appears as student dissatisfaction with the system maintenance and change domain of the learning environment (unclear goals) may have actually had a positive effect on the personal growth domain since the environment now encouraged students to be more aware of the content and their own learning process." (Strayer, p.64)

"With the Frederickson et al. study, students in the flip and the traditional groups both performed at the same level, but students in their flip classroom had concerns about the structure of the classroom. That graduate level students struggled with adjusting to the flip classroom format further suggests that an introductory level course may not be the best place to implement the classroom flip." (Strayer, p.184)

graduate level statistics course

Canfield, 2001 (as described in Strayer, 2007)

"One study has been conducted that investigated the learning environment of students who used the ALEKS intelligent tutoring system (Canfield, 2001). Three classes of 10 students each participated in a Basic Mathematics course that used ALEKS at a U.S. university and completed a questionnaire at the end of the term. Results showed that students liked the detailed explanations and feedback, the tailored review problems, and the self-paced nature of the work. Students also reported lower stress levels as compared to traditional lecture style mathematics courses they had taken. Eighty percent of the students in these courses reported that they learned as much or more in the ALEKS course as compared to other courses, they would take another mathematics course that used ALEKS, and they would recommend ALEKS to another student. Canfield contends that since ALEKS teaches the standard factual knowledge usually found in traditional lectures, teachers have an opportunity to make their classrooms a place where inventing, abstracting, conjecturing, proving, and applying mathematics in realistic situations is the norm. This is the essence of the classroom flip." (Strayer, p. 65)

Broad, Matthews, & McDonald, 2004, as described in Strayer, 2007.

"Broad, Matthews, and McDonald conducted a study to investigate the effect a virtual learning environment had on students’ learning preferences (Broad, Matthews, & McDonald, 2004). These researchers took content from an accounting course and packaged it in a hypermedia environment on a CD (similar to a courseware management system like Blackboard, but self-contained). The content on the CD took many different forms (static text, hypertext, quizzes, PowerPoint presentations, practice exercises, and online links) so that a variety of learning styles could be accommodated. Students began working through this material at the beginning of the term and attended 2 lecture sessions a week as the term progressed. The lectures were meant to add value to the virtual learning environment through personal interaction and the ability to target the lectures at trouble spots for students. As students worked in this environment, researchers collected data on their learning preferences. The significant findings of the Broad et al. (2004) study show that students using the integrated virtual learning environment became progressively less pragmatic in their approach to learning. Pragmatic learners tend to focus on doing what is necessary to complete assignments and are not as concerned with engaging in theoretical discussions or exploring the implications of the concepts they are learning. This suggests students have adjusted their approach to learning and as a result of the change in learning environment. This evidence is in accordance with the Frederickson et al. (2005) study suggesting that as students use courseware learning systems to learn content, they tend to adjust their activity systems in a way that strengthens their awareness of the learning process and course content (the personal growth domain)." (Strayer, p. 66)

Buerck, Malmstrom, & Peppers, (2003) (as described in Strayer, 2007)

"A study involving computer science students at the university level studied learner preferences and students’ choice of learning environment (face-to-face or on-line) (Buerck, Malmstrom, & Peppers, 2003). Twenty-nine students at a U.S. university participated; all were working at least 40 hours per week and all were at least 22 years old. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of the two groups. There was evidence, however, that computer science students who chose the on-line format were converging learners and students who chose face-to-face were assimilating learners. Convergers tend to be good problem solvers and decision makers. They more easily see practical applications for theories, and therefore prefer to work on technical tasks more than interpersonal ones. Convergers like to experiment with new ideas and therefore prefer laboratory assignments and practical applications. Assimilators, on the other hand, are good at transforming information in a logical manner to create theoretical models. Therefore, assimilators prefer to read, hear explanations, and explore analytic models. Having time to think through things is very important for assimilators. While Buerck et al. (2003) looked only at computer science majors, their study speaks to all fields because it highlights an aspect of the personal system that students bring with them into the learning environment, learning preference. Students with different learning preferences will adjust differently to a technologically rich learning environment, some needing more time and help than others. If possible, the technological learning environment should be developed so that learners of all different styles can find ways to learn that are comfortable for them (see Lage et al., 2000)." (Strayer, p. 67)

Elen and Clarebout (2001) (decribed in Strayer, 2007)--focus on K-12, involved in collaborative projects

"The surprising result is that student beliefs about the benefits of learning through collaboration while using a variety of technological tools decreased. This result led the researchers to evaluate the learning environment as planned and the learning environment as it was implemented. They found that the implementation did not mirror the planned learning environment, and students’ changes in beliefs reflected their ability to adapt to their learning environment as it was implemented. This evidence further supports claims that the introduction of tools (assorted technologies) and objects (an open-ended collaborative assignment) into the learning environment can cause profound disequilibrium in the activity system. This disequilibrium will result in a need for a readjustment in the rules, division of labor, and the community itself. Without a concerted focus on helping students through this re-adjustment, they can become disillusioned and withdraw from the learning process." (Strayer, p. 69)

Lage, Platt, & Traglia (2000) Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment

focuses on learning styles of students

students like the inverted classroom better;

females liked it more than males; this design had collaborative activiities and that may be more suited to females. Because of this they claim " In addition, evidence from student and faculty perceptions suggests that such a course may help attract female students, who have been traditionally underrepresented in the field of economics." (Lage et. al.,, 2000, p.41)

Lage & Platt (2000) as described in Strayer (2007)

Work In Progress: Current projects involve engineering (Kellogg, 2009)

a result of inversion is less time on lecture and more time on active/collaborative problem solving; exam performance shows slight improvements as does student opinion of a more conducive learning environment (Kellogg, 2009)

Work in Progress – Developing and Implementing an Inverted Classroom for Engineering Statics Christopher Papadopoulos, Aidsa Santiago-Román, and Genock Portela

New node

Students generally indicated that the Inverted method caused them to devote more time than for other 3 credit courses. Most (25/36, 70%) indicated that their time was “worth it” or about the right amount, but several (9/36, 25%) responded that it was not “worth it”. Students further indicated that the Inverted method caused them to spread out their effort more regularly (rather than laying off and then cramming). However, they were roughly split as to whether this was primarily motivated by the intrinsic reward of learning, or the pressure that if they did not regularly participate (e.g., Problem-Solving Sessions), they would not be able to complete the course assignments independently. Students also indicated that the Modules were clear and well designed, and that the Lectures were useful and interactive. Usage statistics further demonstrate that students had a high compliance with completing the required exercises associated with the Modules. However some felt that some material was not covered in Lecture because the instructor assumed it was delivered in the Modules. Perhaps the strongest endorsement of the Inverted Class was that 29/36 (81%) preferred the Inverted format with Problem-Session and no solution manual over a single other alternative of a traditional lecture-only class with a solution manual and no Problem-Session. Students also expressed a willingness to pay, on average, $2.39 per Problem-Solving Session in the event that fiscal constraints would prevent their continued availability. However, as a general rule, D/F students indicated lower levels of enthusiasm for, perceived usefulness of, and compliance with the Inverted classroom format and associated activities.

Using YouTube to Enhance Student Class Preparation in an Introductory Java Course (2010) Martin C. Carlisle, Distinguished Educator United States Air Force Academy

"While we have a similar goal (making the classroom more interactive), our approach is different. Rather than having students watch a full lecture before coming to class, we instead provide very short videos that give the highlights and introduce students to the material. By keeping the videos short, we hope to maintain a high level of motivation and viewing." (Carlisle,2010 p.471)

"Creating short videos can be a positive way to get students to engage with the material before coming to class. Students indicated the videos helped them learn the material. The professors who reduced their lecture time found that students prepared more for class not only in watching videos, but also in doing the reading. These students preferred the shorter lectures and having more time to work on programming in class. They also performed better on the test (though the sample size was not sufficient for this to be statistically significant). The videos are not only helpful for an on-campus course, but placing them on YouTube can be a simple outreach for your university (we had a large number of views from 13-17 year olds). One possible future experiment is having multiple different narrators for the same videos. This would allow us to test how important it is for students to have a connection to the narrator. Another useful experiment would be to create videos for a larger course, which would provide bigger sample sizes for the statistical analysis." (Carlisle, 2010, p.473)

"We provided 21 short YouTube videos for an Introduction to Programming in Java course. Students were surveyed on how often they watched the videos and did the readings, and how much these activites contributed to their learning. When professors reduced lecture time and increased lab time, students watched videos and read significantly more. Their test scores were at least as high and they indicated they would prefer to not have more lecture. The YouTube videos also provided a source of outreach for the university, drawing a large number of views, including the 13-17 year-old demographic." (Carlisle, 2010 p.470)

Schullery, N. M., Reck, R. F., & Schullery, S. E. (2011). Toward Solving the High Enrollment, Low Engagement Dilemma: A Case Study in Introductory Business. International Journal Of Business, Humanities & Technology, 1(2), 1-9.

Abstract: The challenges of high enrollment, apparent low engagement, questionable evaluation, and a scarcity of faculty to teach an introductory business course were addressed by reformatting the course delivery to a hybrid style “inverted classroom,” which devotes classroom time to active learning and assigns reading and videotaped lectures for completion outside class. In 75 minute class meetings each week, faculty and part-time businessoriented instructors work with 24 students per section to clarify and reinforce concepts through discussion of related current events and a group problem-solving exercise. We sought to determine if the new format achieved our learning objectives and engaged students. Factor and content analyses of student surveys (N = 868) show that the students’ level of overall satisfaction with the course and their perceived learning of concepts correlates with their in-class engagement. Results indicate the reformatted delivery has successfully addressed the challenges presented by this high enrollment course.

Focus on Engagement & Learning in this study

The Relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment, Clayton, Blumberg and Auld (2010)

self efficacy

Toward Solving the High Enrollment, Low Engagement Dilemma: A Case Study in Introductory Business, Schullery, Reck & Schullery, (2011)

abstract: The challenges of high enrollment, apparent low engagement, questionable evaluation, and a scarcity of faculty to teach an introductory business course were addressed by reformatting the course delivery to a hybrid style “inverted classroom,” which devotes classroom time to active learning and assigns reading and videotaped lectures for completion outside class. In 75 minute class meetings each week, faculty and part-time businessoriented instructors work with 24 students per section to clarify and reinforce concepts through discussion of related current events and a group problem-solving exercise. We sought to determine if the new format achieved our learning objectives and engaged students. Factor and content analyses of student surveys (N = 868) show that the students’ level of overall satisfaction with the course and their perceived learning of concepts correlates with their in-class engagement. Results indicate the reformatted delivery has successfully addressed the challenges presented by this high enrollment course.

qualitative content analysis of open-ended survey qeuestions & quantitative factor analysis on Likert responses

most students liked the format and felt a connection to the instructor;32% urged a return to traditional lecture format

Vernadakis, N., Antoniou, P., Giannousi, M., Zetou, E., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2011). Comparing hybrid learning with traditional approaches on learning the Microsoft Office Power Point 2003 program in tertiary education. Computers & Education, 56(1), 188-199.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hybrid learning approach to deliver a computer science course concerning the Microsoft office PowerPoint 2003 program in comparison to delivering the same course content in the form of traditional lectures. A hundred and seventy-two first year university students were randomly assigned into two teaching method groups: traditional lecture instruction (TLI) and hybrid lecture instruction (HLI). Each group received six 95-min periods of instruction divided into 4 sections: a) 5-min brief outline of the key learning points, b) 40-min lecture on general knowledge c) 45-min constructivist-inspired learning activities and d) 5-min summary on key learning points. In the beginning and the end of this study students completed a 17-item multiple choice knowledge test. Two-way analysis of variances (ANOVA), with repeated measures on the last factor, were conducted to determine effect of method groups (TLI, HLI) and measures (pre-test, post-test) on knowledge test. The measures main effect was significant, as well as the groups x measures interaction effect. Two independent-samples t test were conducted to follow up the significant interaction. Differences in mean ratings of knowledge performance between the two teaching groups were not significantly different at first measure, while the TLI method group yielded a significantly lower mean rating at second measure. The findings indicated that HLI approach might be a superior option for undergraduate students on learning the Microsoft office PowerPoint 2003 program.

Stanford, R.. Web-conferencing: An analysis of course delivery systems on student achievement at a technical college. Ph.D. dissertation, Capella University, United States -- Minnesota. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication No. AAT 3495161).--NO COPY YET

Abstract: Web-conferencing software was chosen for course delivery to provide flexible options for students at a two-year technical college. Students used technology to access a live, synchronous microeconomics course over the internet instead of a traditional face-to-face lecture. This investigation studied the impact of implementing web-conferencing technology and instructional design on student success. This ex post facto study compared students who took comparable sections of microeconomics in either traditional face-to-face or web-conferencing courses. The two delivery types were compared to determine whether or not web-conferencing had an impact on student success. Both course retention and grade distribution were compared. Three years of data were used comparing thirteen sections of microeconomics. A chi square independent test was used for analysis. The data analysis showed a statistical significance in both student retention and grade distributions. Students in web-conferencing were clearly less likely to succeed. In comparison to students in traditional face-to-face microeconomics courses, students in web conferencing courses were at a clear disadvantage.

Sorden, S.. Relationships among collaborative learning, social presence and student satisfaction in a blended learning environment. Ed.D. dissertation, Northern Arizona University, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication No. AAT 3490523). No copy yet? Preview only

Abstract (Summary) The Social Cognitive Framework for Blended Learning (SCFBL) is proposed as a guide for designing blended learning experiences. The components of the framework include the executive function, learning goals and objectives, learning space, learning design, interactive environment and affective results. The primary conceptual framework for this model is based on social cognitive theory (SCT) and the related theory of self-regulated learning in social settings, focusing on the study of social knowledge and the cognitive processes that occur when humans construct their own subjective reality. This approach differs from sociocultural theory in that it focuses on the individual and how the individual interacts, affects and is affected by the social environment. The SCFBL is a social influence model rather than a sociocultural model. This study reports results of the Collaborative Learning, Social Presence, and Satisfaction (CLSS) Questionnaire for subjects from one campus in a multi-campus community college system who participated in the spring 2011 study (98 students from 11 blended courses). The CLSS questionnaire measured the amount of perceived collaborative learning, perceived social presence and reported satisfaction in a blended course. The questionnaire consisted of a section of demographic questions and then three sections that measured the three constructs with a total of 34 questions (11 satisfaction, 8 collaborative learning, and 17 social presence). The data analysis consisted of (a) data screening (which brought the number of participants down from 108 to 99), (b) assessing for normality (which brought the number of participants down from 99 to 98), (c) descriptive analysis, and (d) correlational analysis using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson's r). A Mann Whitney U test was run separately on the nominal variables for Caucasian and Latino ethnicity, which found a significant, higher perception of social presence for the Latino participants. The descriptive analysis showed that the sample roughly mirrored the general population of the college. The correlational analysis resulted in the rejection of the first three null hypotheses, while the fourth was retained. The study concludes with a discussion on the implications of the results for education and blended learning, along with recommendations for future research.

Colm Fearon, Simon Starr, & Heather McLaughlin. (2012, March). Blended learning in higher education (HE): conceptualising key strategic issues within a business school. Development and Learning in Organizations, 26(2), 19-22. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2583638871).

Du, C.. (2011). A Comparison Of Traditional And Blended Learning In Introductory Principles Of Accounting Course. American Journal of Business Education, 4(9), 1-10. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2462316541).

Abstract (Summary) This paper examines whether a blended course that introduces lower-level education online learned by students before they come into class and after class online assignments and online discussions enhances student performance for an introductory principles of accounting course over the period 2009-2010. The blended course design includes (1) before-class online quizzes, (2) after-class online homework assignments and online quizzes, (3) after-class comments postings, and (4) company case and project online postings. The regression results show that the above designed blended course improves the student final examination/course performance through in-depth in class activities after controlling for prior GPA, math grade, gender, transfer, homework grade, online quiz grade, and in-class exercise grade. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

Alonso, F., Manrique, D., Martinez, L., & Vines, J.. (2011). How Blended Learning Reduces Underachievement in Higher Education: An Experience in Teaching Computer Sciences. IEEE Transactions on Education, 54(3), 471-478. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ProQuest Technology Journals. (Document ID: 2559705001).

Abstract (Summary) This paper presents a blended learning approach and a study evaluating instruction in a software engineering-related course unit as part of an undergraduate engineering degree program in computing. In the past, the course unit had a lecture-based format. In view of student underachievement and the high course unit dropout rate, a distance-learning system was deployed, where students were allowed to choose between a distance-learning approach driven by a moderate constructivist instructional model or a blended-learning approach. The results of this experience are presented, with the aim of showing the effectiveness of the teaching/learning system deployed compared to the lecture-based system previously in place. The grades earned by students under the new system, following the distance-learning and blended-learning courses, are compared statistically to the grades attained in earlier years in the traditional face-to-face classroom (lecture-based) learning.

Blended Learning of Programming in the Internet Age S. Djenic, R. Krneta, J. Mitic. IEEE Transactions on Education. New York: May 2011. Vol. 54, Iss. 2; pg. 247

Abstract (Summary) This paper presents an advanced variant of learning programming by the use of the Internet and multimedia. It describes the development of a blended learning environment, which, in addition to classroom (face-to-face) lessons, introduces lessons delivered over the Internet: the use of multimedia teaching material with completely dynamic interactive simulations; the use of applications for regular checking and self-checking of the acquisition of knowledge; and applications for regular communication on the teaching material between students and lecturers. This blended learning environment has been developed with the purpose of upgrading the basic programming courses (Programming Fundamentals 1 and Programming Fundamentals 2) at the Advanced School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (VISER) in Belgrade, Serbia. The paper contains a brief description of the goals set, their development and implementation (structure design, the development of teaching materials, scenario implementation, and evaluation), and the results of the implementation and evaluation of these courses.

Stewart, M., Stott, T., & Nuttall, A. (2011). Student Engagement Patterns over the Duration of Level 1 and Level 3 Geography Modules: Influences on Student Attendance, Performance and Use of Online Resources. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 35(1), 47-65. doi:10.1080/03098265.2010.498880

Abstract (Summary) Greater flexibility in delivery resulting from increased use of e-learning will inevitably change the way university students approach studying. Recent studies have examined relationships between attendance, online learning and performance but findings are inconclusive. One concern is that an unintended consequence of placing lecture resources online may be increased absenteeism possibly leading to decrease in performance. This study explores patterns of student engagement across two geography courses. Findings corroborate the importance of attendance as a predictor of performance, demonstrate how assessment influences study behaviour, particularly online, and provide evidence for a need for integrated blended learning designs. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

MISC RESEARCH

Nowell, G.. (2011). Student Course Evaluations In Traditional And Blended Courses: A Case Study. American Journal of Business Education, 4(1), 13-18. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2264694041).

Blended Learning: Beyond Initial Uses To Helping To Solve Real-World Academic Problems Mark A McCarthy, Elizabeth A Murphy. Journal of College Teaching and Learning. Littleton: May 2010. Vol. 7, Iss. 5; pg. 67, 4 pgs Abstract (Summary)

Research related to use of technology in teaching mathematics

USING WEB-BASED MATERIALS IN LARGE-SCALE PRECALCULUS INSTRUCTION?

Students’ perceptions of a blended web-based learning environment Vinesh Chandra and Darrell L. Fisher Learning Environments Research, 2009, Volume 12, Number 1, Pages 31-44

Acelajado, M. J. (2011). Blended Learning: A Strategy for Improving the Mathematics Achievement of Students in a Bridging Program. Electronic Journal Of Mathematics & Technology, 5(3), 342-351.

Research specific to higher education

Blended university teaching using virtual learning environments: conceptions and approaches Petros Lameras, Philippa Levy, Iraklis Paraskakis and Sheila Webber Instructional Science, 2012, Volume 40, Number 1, Pages 141-157

From Gatekeeping to Engagement: A Multicontextual, Mixed Method Study of Student Academic Engagement in Introductory STEM Courses Josephine A. Gasiewski, M. Kevin Eagan, Gina A. Garcia, Sylvia Hurtado and Mitchell J. Chang 2012, Volume 53, Number 2, Pages 229-261

Tselios, N., Daskalakis, S., & Papadopoulou, M. (2011). Assessing the Acceptance of a Blended Learning University Course. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 14(2), 224-235.

Benson, V., & Anderson, D. (2010). Towards a strategic approach to the introduction of blended learning: Challenges faced and lessons learned. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(6), E129-E131. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01066.x

Mitchell, P., & Forer, P. (2010). Blended Learning: The Perceptions of First-year Geography Students. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 34(1), 77-89. doi:10.1080/03098260902982484

Blended learning in higher education: Students’ perceptions and their relation to outcomes M. Victoria López-PérezCorresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, M. Carmen Pérez-López E-mail the corresponding author, Lázaro Rodríguez-Ariza E-mail the corresponding author

Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between on-line and face-to-face teaching and learning Paul GinnsCorresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, Robert Ellis The Internet and Higher Education Volume 10, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 53–64

Oh, E., & Park, S. (2009). How are universities involved in blended instruction? Educational Technology & Society, 12 (3), 327– 342.

Research specific to flipping/blending

Bringing the Classroom to the Web: Effects of Using New Technologies to Capture and Deliver Lectures Abstract Technology expands instructional options for faculty, and this study examines the differential learning... Eric L. Dey, Helen E. Burn and David Gerdes 2009, Volume 50, Number 4, Pages 377-393

Learning presence: Towards a theory of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments Peter Sheaa, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, Temi Bidjeranob, E-mail the corresponding author a University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY

Keengwe, J. & Kidd, T. (2010) Towards Best Practices in Online Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 6 (2).

Shitvetts, Courtney (2011) Elearning and Blended Learning: A Literature Review; The importance of the learner

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