Existing Research

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Existing Research by Mind Map: Existing Research

1. "Other schools have found that the use of the “inverted” classroom, where students are engaged in the business of the disciplines, heightens student engagement and reduces situations of entitlement (Lege, Platt, and Treglia 2000)." as cited in Lippman, et al, p.202

2. Lage, Platt & Treglia (2000) as described in STUDENT ENTITLEMENT ISSUES AND STRATEGIES FOR CONFRONTING ENTITLEMENT IN THE CLASSROOM AND BEYOND Stephen Lippmann, Ronald E. Bulanda, and Theodore C. Wagenaar

3. Edginton, A., & Holbrook, J. (2010). A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Basic Pharmacokinetics and the Significance of Face-to-Face Interaction. American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(5), 1-11.

3.1. Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Design. Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-toface problem-solving tutorials.

3.2. Assessment. A precourse questionnaire to assess students’ level of enthusiasm towards the blendedlearning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students’ concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased.

3.3. Conclusion. Students’ initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course.

3.4. Moore, N., & Gilmartin, M. (2010). Teaching for Better Learning: A Blended Learning Pilot Project with First-Year Geography Undergraduates. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 34(3), 327-344. doi:10.1080/03098265.2010.501552

3.4.1. Abstract (Summary) Internationally, recognition is growing that the transition between post-primary and higher education is raising a number of challenges for both students and educators. Simultaneously with growing class sizes, resources have become more constrained and there is a new set of expectations from the "net generation" (Mohanna, 2007, p. 211) The use of e-learning in medical education, Postgraduate Medical Journal, 83, p. 211). Within this transforming context, modes of instruction that cater for different paces of learning and learning styles by combining traditional and electronic media have become increasingly important. This paper discusses the transformation of an introductory human geography module at University College Dublin using a blended learning approach that extends beyond the media used to incorporate all aspects of, and inputs into, the learning process. Our experience highlights how blended learning can aid the achievement of a range of objectives in relation to student engagement and the promotion of deeper learning. However, blended learning is not a quick-fix solution to all issues relating to new university students and our analysis draws out a more complex relationship than anticipated between blended learning and student retention that will require further examination. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

4. Students’ experiences with contrasting learning environments: The added value of students’ perceptions Katrien Struyven, Filip Dochy, Steven Janssens and Sarah Gielen

4.1. Abstract This study investigated the effects of two contrasting learning environments on students’ course experiences: a lecture-based setting to a student-activating teaching environment. In addition, the evaluative treatment involved five research conditions that went together with one of four assessment modes, namely, portfolio, case-based, peer assessment, and multiple-choice testing. Data (N = 608) were collected using the Course Experience Questionnaire. Results showed that the instructional intervention (i.e. lectures versus student-activating treatment) influenced students’ course experiences, but in the opposite direction to that expected. In declining order, the following scales (5 out of 7) revealed statistically significant differences: Clear Goals and Standards; the General scale; Appropriate Workload; Good Teaching; and Independence. Moreover, when the assessment mode was considered, also the Appropriate Assessment scale demonstrated significant differences between the five research conditions. Moreover, the same teaching/learning environments led to diverse students’ perceptions. While the perceptions of lecture-taught students were focused and concordantly positive, students’ course experiences with student-activating methods were widely varied and both extremely positive and negative opinions were present. Students’ arguments in favour of the activating setting were the variety of teaching methods, the challenging and active nature of the assignments and the joys of collaborative work in teams, whereas students expressed dissatisfaction with the perceived lack of learning gains, the associated time pressure and workloads, and the (exclusive) use of collaborative assignments and related group difficulties.

5. The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment (dissertation) Strayer, 2007

5.1. compares flip to traditional structure in statistics course

5.1.1. Flip: in class did active learning project to develop course concepts and ITS to deliver lectures outside of class "One statistics class was structured according to the classroom flip method and met in a computer lab. Outside of class, students were introduced to new content by working with the Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces (ALEKS) intelligent tutoring system (for an explanation of all acronyms, see Appendix A). When students came to class, they completed activities that were designed to help them engage the content they were learning in ALEKS in a different context. Students could interact with each other and the professor in class as they worked to strengthen their understanding of the more formal mathematical material presented in ALEKS. Often, these activities required students to use the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet program as a tool." (Strayer, p.74-75)

5.1.2. Traditional: studs attended lectures in class with powerpoints then did hw OUTSIDE of class "The other statistics class was structured according to a traditional lecturehomework format where students came every day to a classroom with tables and chairs and heard a lecture over statistics content. These lectures were heavily content driven. I would introduce statistical concepts and then work though examples that used those concepts. During the lectures, students had opportunities to ask questions or answer my questions related to the examples discussed. In this way, I made an effort to make the lectures as interactive as possible. After 2 or 3 class periods, students were assigned a set of problems from the book to complete as homework." (Strayer, p. 74)

5.2. Data collection:

5.2.1. CUCEI "This is the time I chose to administer the College and University Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) questionnaire (Fraser et al., 1986). The CUCEI questionnaire provided insight into: (1) students’ perceptions of their actual learning environment and (2) students’ opinions of what their ideal (preferred) learning environment would look like. The CUCEI was developed to measure student and teacher perceptions of classroom psychosocial environment in college and university classrooms. The instrument is grounded in Moos’ theory that all human environments contain, at minimum, relationship dimensions, personal development dimensions, and system maintenance and system change dimensions (Moos, 1974). Pertaining to the relationship dimension, the CUCEI focuses on identifying the nature and intensity of personal relationships, assessing the extent to which students are invested in their environment and support and help each other. The CUCEI also seeks to assess the extent to which the environment pushes students toward personal growth and self-enhancement (the personal development dimension). Finally, the CUCEI strives to measure the overall orderliness of the environment, its responsiveness to change, and the clarity of expectations (the system maintenance and system change dimension). These dimensions of the environment, then, are measured on the CUCEI using the following seven scales: personalization, innovation, student cohesion, task orientation, cooperation, individualization, and equity. The development of this instrument was guided by findings of studies that used similar validated instruments to measure learning environments in elementary and secondary 80 schools. Further, the CUCEI’s internal consistency for the seven subscales has been measured in multiple studies and has been shown to be quite acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.90 (Fraser, 1998; Fraser et al., 1986)." (Strayer, p.80-81)

5.2.2. field notes "I kept a “field notes log” that focused on student behavior in the classroom. I also wore a microphone to audiotape selected class sessions (at the beginning, middle, and end of the semester). After class was over, I listened to these tapes and wrote my observations of the class. I also had members of my data collection team come into the classroom and observe the classroom settings during the middle of the semester and then again towards the end of the semester." (Strayer, p.82)

5.2.3. classroom transcripts

5.2.4. student interviews "Three members from the data collection team (the social work professor and the two senior students) conducted one-on-one and focus group interviews at the end of the semester in order to collect this important type of data. Hoping that students would be more candid, I did not participate in these interview sessions. I promised students that I would not view the interview transcripts or listen to the tapes until after the semester was over so that there was no potential for their grades to be affected by what they said in these sessions." (Strayer, p.85)

5.2.5. instructor journal entries "In this journal, I focused more on myself as teacher in the classroom. I documented my thoughts on how I thought class was going in general, my struggles and successes, the emotions I felt, how well I thought students were learning, and how I changed course instruction throughout the semester. This movement of looking inward and then outward between then the personal and the cultural is typical of this type of research." (Strayer, p. 82)

5.2.6. student reflections

5.3. Data Analysis

5.3.1. t-tests "The quantitative analysis began with finding means and standard deviations for the preferred and actual versions of the CUCEI for all students involved in the study. Recall that in the preferred version, students were expressing their opinions of their ideal learning environment, and in the actual version they were expressing their opinions of their actual class experiences. Next, the means and standard deviations were found for each class (traditional and flip) individually. I then grouped the results into the 7 subscales of the classroom environment (personalization, innovation, task orientation, student cohesion, cooperation, individualization, and equity) and ran a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance test to see if there were significant effects between which class the student was in and the student’s scores on the actual and preferred versions of the CUCEI." (Strayer, p.87) there was a stat sign difference betw the means of preferred vs. actual environment on all subscales (actual is sign lower than preferred) (paired t-test) there was New node

5.3.2. MANOVA

5.3.3. grounded theory open coding, axial coding

5.4. Findings:

5.4.1. lower student satisfaction in flipped classrooms on how the classroom structure oriented them to the learning tasks in the course. I.e. students had sense of "unsettledness" (p.iii) "A careful analysis of the quantitative data in this study shows that students in the flip environment preferred and experienced a higher level of innovation and cooperation in their classroom. It is unclear how much the semester long experience in the flip environment itself influenced students’ preferences since their learning environment preference was not measured at the beginning of the semester to compare with their endof- semester responses. However, at some level, it is safe to say that students came to be contented with an innovative teaching approach in the classroom that required working with others when completing learning tasks. The analysis also revealed that students in the flip environment preferred the same level of task orientation as students in the lecturehomework environment; however, students in the flip environment report that they experienced lower levels of task orientation throughout the semester than students in the lecture-homework environment. These results present a dynamic flip environment where students prefer collaboration and innovative teaching strategies, but they are less satisfied with how the environment orients them toward course content. As the analysis moves to the qualitative findings, it is important to draw on the qualitative data to compare how the differences in innovation and cooperation influenced the learning environments in the two different sections. It is also important to draw on the qualitative data to see how students dealt with the learning challenges in the flip environment due to the deficient task orientation dimensions in the structure of the classroom. I use activity theory to help set the framework for this aspect of the analysis." (Strayer, p.107) "Students in the flip classroom both preferred and experienced more innovation and cooperation in their classroom learning experience when compared to the traditional classroom students. This consequence could be a result of attending a class for an entire semester where more cooperation was required, and innovative methods were employed in an effort to successfully “flip” the classroom." (Strayer, p.180) "students in the flip classroom were less satisfied with how the structure of the class oriented them to the learning tasks in the course. The analysis showed that the variety of learning activities in the flip classroom contributed to an unsettledness among students (a feeling of being “lost”) that students in the traditional classroom did not experience." (Strayer, p.180)

5.5. Did a pilot study prior to his dissertation study where students viewed lectures & did online homework with immediate feedback outside of class, then worked together in class & got instructor help

5.5.1. felt no greater connectedness with instructor or other students/ many felt less connected to instructor

5.5.2. felt less satisfied with technology as the semester progressed

5.5.3. no stat sign diff on whether they had more control over their learning and on whether technology gave them better opportunity to master precalculus students had technology frustrations

5.5.4. concerns about whether classtime was worth attending since studs had already learned material outside of class

5.5.5. resulted in 2 conclusions technology had better work smoothly using technology to introduce concepts may result in less connectedness with instructor and may make transfer of learning more difficult "When students feel class is a waste of time, this is an indication that the professor must offer something beyond more difficult practice problems in class. Perhaps the professor should focus classroom activity on helping students transfer their learning to new situations. Whatever the case, professors must offer something in the classroom that students cannot get elsewhere. They must create an environment where the classroom becomes a dynamic learning community. "(page 8)

5.6. Did a second pilot study where one class section was flipped for a chapter and another was not- 3 day time period. Goal was to investigate how the change in communication would influence students' experiences with the flip

5.6.1. traditional studs scored signif. higher on test and had sign. higher confidence than flipped studs

5.6.2. some students reported the flip conflicted with their personal learning preferences both in how they prefer to get content delivered and in the in class group work some reported that group work casts more doubt and less self confidence for that student; whereas working by self not as big of a problem.

5.6.3. thought short in duration, 3 days, results show how profoundly the flip structure changes the learning environment for students; they need time to adjust

5.6.4. 3 general findings: students must have time to adjust to flip must be flexibility so studs can get comfortable with amount of control they have studs must appreciate benefits of group activities in their learning

5.7. Problem statement:"As a result, I was interested in studying how the complexities inherent in the classroom flip method of structuring a course influences the learning environment for students as they progress through the course. " (p.13)

5.7.1. Learning environments have 3 domains (Moos, 1979, 2003 as cited in Strayer, p. 13) relationships "The relationship domain has to do with the extent to which students are involved in the classroom. The variables in this domain are closely tied to the sense of community students feel with one another and the teacher. They include the extent to which students help and support one another, the level of morale in the class, how freely students share ideas, how students share in work responsibilities, the level of participation in classroom discussions, how attentive students are to the course content and the class activities, and the depth of student relationships with other students and the teacher." (Strayer, p.47) personal growth "Personal growth dimensions involve how the goals of the classroom encourage student development and learning. Student independence is key in this domain since true learning and development occur when students are free to succeed or fail. The ways the environment encourages students to be aware of significant course concepts is also an important feature of this domain. If a classroom places a great deal of importance on academic, intellectual, and scholarly activities, the students’ desire to grow and learn will be affected. Other factors that influence personal growth and learning in a classroom setting include the level of competition in the class and how the grading policies in the course are structured." (Strayer, p.47) system maintenance & change "The system maintenance and change domain is concerned with the formal structure of the classroom and how this plays out in the day-to-day operation of the classroom. The clarity of classroom expectations, the ways communication occurs in the classroom, the rules and policies that govern normal operation in the classroom, the practicality of the classroom (how orderly it is supervised), classroom propriety (how considerate and polite the environment is), and the ways the classroom adapts to change all relate to the system maintenance and change domain. These dimensions set the stage for how the classroom is run and how students interact within its structure." (Strayer, p.48)

5.7.2. ITS was used to introduce content outside of class, projects in class vs. traditional class 2 guiding questions how does learning environment in flipped classroom compare to traditional learning environment? how does activity in a flipped classroom that used an ITS compare with a tradiitional class & what is its influence on learning?

5.7.3. "As individual students interact with their learning environments, the socialenvironmental domains of the classroom come into contact with the personal system each student brings with them to the class (see Figure 2.8). As a student learns, the interaction between her social environment and personal system instigates a series of struggles and adaptations as she strives to learn in that environment. A student’s personal system includes age, gender, ability level, interests, values, attitudes, expectations, and coping 49 preferences. When a student is confronted with a learning experience, she will experience a need to change. Her personal system and social environment will influence how she appraises the situation cognitively as well as the actions she decides to make within that environment (activation). Once the student acts in the environment, she will go through cycles of adaptation and coping until equilibrium is re-established and change (learning) has occurred." (Strayer, p.48)

5.8. Conceptual Framework of this study

5.8.1. :The conceptual framework for this study describes how the classroom flip uses technology and ITS,

5.8.2. how mathematical representations relate to learning theory,

5.8.3. how activity theory is used to analyze various types of learning activity,

5.8.4. how students adapt to classroom learning environments as conceptualized by Moos’ (1979) three domains.

5.9. Design

5.9.1. qualitative "A search for deeper understanding in participants’ lived experiences and an exploration of the complexities of context and setting will require a research strategy that draws on qualitative methods (Marshall & Rossman, 1999). In an effort to collect data that would provide insight into the underlying complexities of the classroom learning environments in this study, I collected and analyzed data from student interviews and focus groups, in-class observations, audiotaped classroom sessions, student assignments, student written reflections, and researcher reflections." (Strayer, p. 73) "Two senior social work majors also participated in collecting data for this research. These two students had both taken introduction to statistics and an upper level undergraduate research methods course the year before they assisted with this research. The social work professor and I met with these two students multiple times to discuss graduate level articles on taking field notes and conducting interviews. With these experiences serving as a foundation, these students observed class sessions, conducted interviews, and observed the focus groups for this research. Members of the data collection team had a protocol for asking questions in interviews and focus groups (see Appendix E). When the team was observing and taking field notes, there was no formal written protocol defined. However, since the data collection team was familiar with the guiding questions of the study, they all focused their observations mainly on how students were engaged with the professor, each other, and the learning content while in the classroom. I also was a part of the data collection team. I audiotaped class sessions, kept a reflective journal, took observations after class sessions using a course log, and conducted member checking interviews. In the paragraphs below, I describe my activities as an educator and researcher over the past 10 years or so." (Strayer, p.76)

5.9.2. quantitative "A number of validated quantitative instruments have been developed to study learning environments. Since these instruments have driven most of the research on learning environments, it was important to use one of these to investigate students’ perceptions of their learning environments in this research study (Fraser, 1998; Fraser, Treagust, & Dennis, 1986). However, the complexities that make up the learning environment cannot be sufficiently accounted for by giving students a survey on one particular day towards the end of the semester. For this reason, many learning environments studies are incorporating multiple methods to investigate the intricacies of this research domain (Fraser, 1998)." (Strayer, p. 72)

5.10. conclusions:

5.10.1. those who choose to flip classrooms should offer students choices on how to interact with content (Strayer, p. 196)

5.10.2. if an introductory course is flipped, make activities more step by step instead of open-ended (Strayer, p. 196)

5.10.3. "A flip classroom is structured so differently that students will become more aware of their own learning process than students in more traditional settings. Students will therefore need to have more space to reflect on their learning activities so they can make the necessary connections to course content. The teacher must structure a major component into the course structure that will allow for this reflection to take place and for the teacher to be able to see and comment on specific aspects of student reflection. This feedback cycle will be crucial for student learning." (Strayer, p.196)

5.10.4. "The disequilibrium or unsettledness that students face in a flip classroom is not necessarily at cross-purposes with successful learning. It is just extremely important that the teacher adjusts the system maintenance and change dimensions of the learning environment to support students’ meaning making from activity in the flip classroom. These support structures must be built into the course so that teachers and students alike can monitor student self-efficacy as they complete tasks, particularly at the beginning and middle of open ended tasks. Depending on the classroom, these adjustments could have serious practical challenges. Therefore, it may be preferable for some teachers to do a less radical classroom flip that gives students an opportunity to view course content outside of the classroom in a number of different formats, but still includes regular 30 minute lectures followed by 30 minutes of learning activity and homework out of a book. Other teachers may see a radical classroom flip that includes only learning activity in class and total introduction to course content outside of class would work well for their class." (Strayer, p.197)

5.11. implications for future research

5.11.1. "The conclusions of this research have hinted that the classroom flip may be better suited for certain classrooms or courses than others. This is the first area for future research that I suggest. What are the characteristics of course material that would lend itself to being taught in a course using the classroom flip structure? Are there certain characteristics of a group of students that would tend to make the classroom flip structure work better with them than with a group of students with different characteristics?" (STrayer, p.198)

5.11.2. "I believe it would be useful to further explore the three properties of comfortability with activity outlined in this study (structure, approach, and mind-set)." (Strayer, p.199)

5.11.3. "A final potential thread of investigation related to comfortability I want to suggest involves “pragmatic learners.” These learners are defined by Broad et al. (2004) as only being interested in completing assignments and not exploring implications of concepts. I believe it could be productive to investigate pragmatic learners’ comfortability in classroom learning activity." (Strayer, p. 199)

5.12. Theoretical Basis

5.12.1. Theoretical Basis: Learning Environments Research Students were given the College and Univ. Classroom Environment Inventory (CUCEI) concept of student "comfortability with learning activity"

5.12.2. Theoretical Basis: Activity Theory

6. Definition of Flipped Classroom (cited in Strayer as Baker 2000) or Inverted Classroom (cited in Strayer as (Lage & Platt, 2000; Lage, Platt & Tregalia, 2000)

6.1. Traditional: content delivery in class and deeper engagement activities outside of class

6.2. Flip: introduction outside of class with engagement during class

6.2.1. two features according to Strayer, p.15 (not cited) Extensive use of technology to deliver course content students can interact with material at the their own pace (Strayer, p. 18) Active learning during classtime requires that a person act on ideas (Piaget) Framework:

6.2.2. "Inverting the classroom means that events that have traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa." (Lage et al.,2000, p.32).

6.3. technology advancements have provided educators with tools to create more interactive learning environments instead of one-way transmission of knowledge models (Bransford, Brophy & Williams, 2000 as cited in Strayer, p. 17)

6.3.1. Greater expectations for Face to face educators to use online course tools available in a CMS in their f2f classes (Turoff, 1999 as cited in Strayer, p.18) Baker (2000) called it the Flip Lage, Platt,and Treglia (2000, p.32 as cited in Strayer, p.18)) called it inverted classroom. "Events that traditionally taken place inside the classroom now take place outside the classroom and vice versa."

6.4. Flipped classrooms are popular in workshops, articles about pedagogy, even textbook publishing. (Strayer, p.19)

6.5. New node

7. Baker (2000) AS DESCRIBED IN STRAYER, 2007, P. 61-62

7.1. "In a study using the classroom flip, Baker (2000) provided lecture notes on a web page, extended classroom discussions through online threaded discussion, and used online quizzes in two of his courses (Graphic Design for Interactive Multimedia and Communication in the Information Age). His aim was to achieve the following goals: reduce time spent on lecturing, focus on understanding and application, provide students with more control over their own learning, give students a sense of responsibility for their learning, and give students an opportunity to learn from their peers. Baker’s action research project evidenced increased interactivity and collaboration in both courses when compared with other courses the students have taken. Students noted an increase in collaboration both in the classroom and out of the classroom (using technology). Students felt they received more personal attention due to the structure of the class, had more control over their learning, and were able to engage in critical thinking that explored the implications of their learning (Baker, 2000)."

7.2. "The success of the Baker study suggests that the flip format may work best in a setting where most of the students in the course are deeply interested in the content to begin with." (Strayer, p. 184)

7.3. "Students in this position would be motivated to take it upon themselves to do what it takes outside of class so they will be productive during activities carried out inside the classroom. Baker’s aims for flipping his classroom (to reduce time spent on lecturing, focus on understanding and application, provide students with more control over their own learning, give students a sense of responsibility for their learning, and give students an opportunity to learn from their peers) requires a level of maturity and a persistence that may just naturally fit better with an upper division course than with a lower division course." (Strayer, p. 184)

8. Lage, Platt, & Traglia (2000) Inverting the Classroom: A Gateway to Creating an Inclusive Learning Environment

8.1. focuses on learning styles of students

8.1.1. "Grasha- Reichmann learning styles questionnaire (GRLSQ) categorizes students as either dependent, collaborative, or independent learners. Dependent learners require a large amount of direction from the teacher, whereas collaborative learners work best when learning as part of a team. The independent learner learns best when left to his or her own devices." (Lage et. al. (2000), p.31)

8.1.2. "The Keirsey-Bates categorization of learning styles is based on personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI classifies all individuals along four different personality scales. The scales identify how the individual relates to the world (Introvert or Extrovert); processes information (Sensing or Intuitive); makes decisions (Thinking or Feeling); and evaluates the environment (Judging or Perceiving). These personality traits affect an individual’s learning style and preferred teaching style (Lawrence 1993; Keirsey and Bates 1984). Borg and Shapiro (1996) and Ziegert (forthcoming) show that a match between a stu- Winter 2000 31 Downloaded by [University of Missouri Columbia] at 14:15 12 March 2012 dent’s and the professor’s MBTI classifications results in improved student performance. They suggest that instructors should consider alternatives to the traditional lecture when presenting course material in class." (Lage et al, 2000, p. 31)

8.1.3. "The third classification of learning styles focuses on how students both take in and process information (Kolb 1981). On the basis of these two criteria, learners are divided into four categories: assimilators, convergers, divergers, and accommodators. Assimilators and convergers take in information through abstract conceptualization, whereas divergers and accommodators take in information through concrete experiences. Convergers and accommodators process information via active experimentation, but divergers and assimilators process information through observation and reflection. Researchers employing this theory of learning conclude that students are more likely to major in a field where teaching and learning styles match (Fry and Kolb 1979). The importance of matching teacher and student learning styles within the Kolb framework is emphasized in Bartlett (1997, 148)" (Lage et al, 2000, p.32)

8.2. students like the inverted classroom better;

8.3. females liked it more than males; this design had collaborative activiities and that may be more suited to females. Because of this they claim " In addition, evidence from student and faculty perceptions suggests that such a course may help attract female students, who have been traditionally underrepresented in the field of economics." (Lage et. al.,, 2000, p.41)

8.4. Lage & Platt (2000) as described in Strayer (2007)

8.4.1. "In a study by Lage, Platt, and Treglia (2000), Introduction to Microeconomics courses were modified by asking students to read assigned sections of the textbook and view either videotaped lectures or PowerPoint lectures with sound before coming to class. The first part of each class session involved answering questions, which usually lead to a mini-lecture lasting no more than 10 minutes. If there were no questions, there would be no lecture. The rest of the class time was spent in an experiment, lab, or group work that investigated the topic at hand. Lage’s and Platt’s goal for inverting the classroom was to give students opportunities to learn economics according to their individual learning style. Students could learn course content by choosing between reading the textbook, watching a traditional lecture, or viewing PowerPoint with sound. They could also combine or repeat these content delivery methods according to their individual preferences. Hands-on activities inside the classroom added further diversity to the available teaching and learning styles. This study of 80 introductory economics students showed positive student attitudes toward the inverted classroom. In fact, the evidence showed that students would prefer to have an inverted classroom rather than a traditional lecture class. The study also evidenced increased faculty-student interactions and the development of student communication skills. Since the material in the course is presented in a number of different formats, it was shown that students’ learning preferences were better matched to course pedagogy (Lage & Platt, 2000)."

9. Work In Progress: Current projects involve engineering (Kellogg, 2009)

9.1. a result of inversion is less time on lecture and more time on active/collaborative problem solving; exam performance shows slight improvements as does student opinion of a more conducive learning environment (Kellogg, 2009)

10. Work in Progress – Developing and Implementing an Inverted Classroom for Engineering Statics Christopher Papadopoulos, Aidsa Santiago-Román, and Genock Portela

10.1. New node

10.2. Students generally indicated that the Inverted method caused them to devote more time than for other 3 credit courses. Most (25/36, 70%) indicated that their time was “worth it” or about the right amount, but several (9/36, 25%) responded that it was not “worth it”. Students further indicated that the Inverted method caused them to spread out their effort more regularly (rather than laying off and then cramming). However, they were roughly split as to whether this was primarily motivated by the intrinsic reward of learning, or the pressure that if they did not regularly participate (e.g., Problem-Solving Sessions), they would not be able to complete the course assignments independently. Students also indicated that the Modules were clear and well designed, and that the Lectures were useful and interactive. Usage statistics further demonstrate that students had a high compliance with completing the required exercises associated with the Modules. However some felt that some material was not covered in Lecture because the instructor assumed it was delivered in the Modules. Perhaps the strongest endorsement of the Inverted Class was that 29/36 (81%) preferred the Inverted format with Problem-Session and no solution manual over a single other alternative of a traditional lecture-only class with a solution manual and no Problem-Session. Students also expressed a willingness to pay, on average, $2.39 per Problem-Solving Session in the event that fiscal constraints would prevent their continued availability. However, as a general rule, D/F students indicated lower levels of enthusiasm for, perceived usefulness of, and compliance with the Inverted classroom format and associated activities.

11. Using YouTube to Enhance Student Class Preparation in an Introductory Java Course (2010) Martin C. Carlisle, Distinguished Educator United States Air Force Academy

11.1. "While we have a similar goal (making the classroom more interactive), our approach is different. Rather than having students watch a full lecture before coming to class, we instead provide very short videos that give the highlights and introduce students to the material. By keeping the videos short, we hope to maintain a high level of motivation and viewing." (Carlisle,2010 p.471)

11.2. "Creating short videos can be a positive way to get students to engage with the material before coming to class. Students indicated the videos helped them learn the material. The professors who reduced their lecture time found that students prepared more for class not only in watching videos, but also in doing the reading. These students preferred the shorter lectures and having more time to work on programming in class. They also performed better on the test (though the sample size was not sufficient for this to be statistically significant). The videos are not only helpful for an on-campus course, but placing them on YouTube can be a simple outreach for your university (we had a large number of views from 13-17 year olds). One possible future experiment is having multiple different narrators for the same videos. This would allow us to test how important it is for students to have a connection to the narrator. Another useful experiment would be to create videos for a larger course, which would provide bigger sample sizes for the statistical analysis." (Carlisle, 2010, p.473)

11.3. "We provided 21 short YouTube videos for an Introduction to Programming in Java course. Students were surveyed on how often they watched the videos and did the readings, and how much these activites contributed to their learning. When professors reduced lecture time and increased lab time, students watched videos and read significantly more. Their test scores were at least as high and they indicated they would prefer to not have more lecture. The YouTube videos also provided a source of outreach for the university, drawing a large number of views, including the 13-17 year-old demographic." (Carlisle, 2010 p.470)

12. Schullery, N. M., Reck, R. F., & Schullery, S. E. (2011). Toward Solving the High Enrollment, Low Engagement Dilemma: A Case Study in Introductory Business. International Journal Of Business, Humanities & Technology, 1(2), 1-9.

12.1. Abstract: The challenges of high enrollment, apparent low engagement, questionable evaluation, and a scarcity of faculty to teach an introductory business course were addressed by reformatting the course delivery to a hybrid style “inverted classroom,” which devotes classroom time to active learning and assigns reading and videotaped lectures for completion outside class. In 75 minute class meetings each week, faculty and part-time businessoriented instructors work with 24 students per section to clarify and reinforce concepts through discussion of related current events and a group problem-solving exercise. We sought to determine if the new format achieved our learning objectives and engaged students. Factor and content analyses of student surveys (N = 868) show that the students’ level of overall satisfaction with the course and their perceived learning of concepts correlates with their in-class engagement. Results indicate the reformatted delivery has successfully addressed the challenges presented by this high enrollment course.

12.2. Focus on Engagement & Learning in this study

13. Toward Solving the High Enrollment, Low Engagement Dilemma: A Case Study in Introductory Business, Schullery, Reck & Schullery, (2011)

13.1. abstract: The challenges of high enrollment, apparent low engagement, questionable evaluation, and a scarcity of faculty to teach an introductory business course were addressed by reformatting the course delivery to a hybrid style “inverted classroom,” which devotes classroom time to active learning and assigns reading and videotaped lectures for completion outside class. In 75 minute class meetings each week, faculty and part-time businessoriented instructors work with 24 students per section to clarify and reinforce concepts through discussion of related current events and a group problem-solving exercise. We sought to determine if the new format achieved our learning objectives and engaged students. Factor and content analyses of student surveys (N = 868) show that the students’ level of overall satisfaction with the course and their perceived learning of concepts correlates with their in-class engagement. Results indicate the reformatted delivery has successfully addressed the challenges presented by this high enrollment course.

13.2. qualitative content analysis of open-ended survey qeuestions & quantitative factor analysis on Likert responses

13.3. most students liked the format and felt a connection to the instructor;32% urged a return to traditional lecture format

14. Vernadakis, N., Antoniou, P., Giannousi, M., Zetou, E., & Kioumourtzoglou, E. (2011). Comparing hybrid learning with traditional approaches on learning the Microsoft Office Power Point 2003 program in tertiary education. Computers & Education, 56(1), 188-199.

14.1. Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a hybrid learning approach to deliver a computer science course concerning the Microsoft office PowerPoint 2003 program in comparison to delivering the same course content in the form of traditional lectures. A hundred and seventy-two first year university students were randomly assigned into two teaching method groups: traditional lecture instruction (TLI) and hybrid lecture instruction (HLI). Each group received six 95-min periods of instruction divided into 4 sections: a) 5-min brief outline of the key learning points, b) 40-min lecture on general knowledge c) 45-min constructivist-inspired learning activities and d) 5-min summary on key learning points. In the beginning and the end of this study students completed a 17-item multiple choice knowledge test. Two-way analysis of variances (ANOVA), with repeated measures on the last factor, were conducted to determine effect of method groups (TLI, HLI) and measures (pre-test, post-test) on knowledge test. The measures main effect was significant, as well as the groups x measures interaction effect. Two independent-samples t test were conducted to follow up the significant interaction. Differences in mean ratings of knowledge performance between the two teaching groups were not significantly different at first measure, while the TLI method group yielded a significantly lower mean rating at second measure. The findings indicated that HLI approach might be a superior option for undergraduate students on learning the Microsoft office PowerPoint 2003 program.

15. Stanford, R.. Web-conferencing: An analysis of course delivery systems on student achievement at a technical college. Ph.D. dissertation, Capella University, United States -- Minnesota. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication No. AAT 3495161).--NO COPY YET

15.1. Abstract: Web-conferencing software was chosen for course delivery to provide flexible options for students at a two-year technical college. Students used technology to access a live, synchronous microeconomics course over the internet instead of a traditional face-to-face lecture. This investigation studied the impact of implementing web-conferencing technology and instructional design on student success. This ex post facto study compared students who took comparable sections of microeconomics in either traditional face-to-face or web-conferencing courses. The two delivery types were compared to determine whether or not web-conferencing had an impact on student success. Both course retention and grade distribution were compared. Three years of data were used comparing thirteen sections of microeconomics. A chi square independent test was used for analysis. The data analysis showed a statistical significance in both student retention and grade distributions. Students in web-conferencing were clearly less likely to succeed. In comparison to students in traditional face-to-face microeconomics courses, students in web conferencing courses were at a clear disadvantage.

16. Sorden, S.. Relationships among collaborative learning, social presence and student satisfaction in a blended learning environment. Ed.D. dissertation, Northern Arizona University, United States -- Arizona. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from Dissertations & Theses: A&I.(Publication No. AAT 3490523). No copy yet? Preview only

16.1. Abstract (Summary) The Social Cognitive Framework for Blended Learning (SCFBL) is proposed as a guide for designing blended learning experiences. The components of the framework include the executive function, learning goals and objectives, learning space, learning design, interactive environment and affective results. The primary conceptual framework for this model is based on social cognitive theory (SCT) and the related theory of self-regulated learning in social settings, focusing on the study of social knowledge and the cognitive processes that occur when humans construct their own subjective reality. This approach differs from sociocultural theory in that it focuses on the individual and how the individual interacts, affects and is affected by the social environment. The SCFBL is a social influence model rather than a sociocultural model. This study reports results of the Collaborative Learning, Social Presence, and Satisfaction (CLSS) Questionnaire for subjects from one campus in a multi-campus community college system who participated in the spring 2011 study (98 students from 11 blended courses). The CLSS questionnaire measured the amount of perceived collaborative learning, perceived social presence and reported satisfaction in a blended course. The questionnaire consisted of a section of demographic questions and then three sections that measured the three constructs with a total of 34 questions (11 satisfaction, 8 collaborative learning, and 17 social presence). The data analysis consisted of (a) data screening (which brought the number of participants down from 108 to 99), (b) assessing for normality (which brought the number of participants down from 99 to 98), (c) descriptive analysis, and (d) correlational analysis using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (Pearson's r). A Mann Whitney U test was run separately on the nominal variables for Caucasian and Latino ethnicity, which found a significant, higher perception of social presence for the Latino participants. The descriptive analysis showed that the sample roughly mirrored the general population of the college. The correlational analysis resulted in the rejection of the first three null hypotheses, while the fourth was retained. The study concludes with a discussion on the implications of the results for education and blended learning, along with recommendations for future research.

16.2. Colm Fearon, Simon Starr, & Heather McLaughlin. (2012, March). Blended learning in higher education (HE): conceptualising key strategic issues within a business school. Development and Learning in Organizations, 26(2), 19-22. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2583638871).

17. Du, C.. (2011). A Comparison Of Traditional And Blended Learning In Introductory Principles Of Accounting Course. American Journal of Business Education, 4(9), 1-10. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2462316541).

17.1. Abstract (Summary) This paper examines whether a blended course that introduces lower-level education online learned by students before they come into class and after class online assignments and online discussions enhances student performance for an introductory principles of accounting course over the period 2009-2010. The blended course design includes (1) before-class online quizzes, (2) after-class online homework assignments and online quizzes, (3) after-class comments postings, and (4) company case and project online postings. The regression results show that the above designed blended course improves the student final examination/course performance through in-depth in class activities after controlling for prior GPA, math grade, gender, transfer, homework grade, online quiz grade, and in-class exercise grade. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

18. Alonso, F., Manrique, D., Martinez, L., & Vines, J.. (2011). How Blended Learning Reduces Underachievement in Higher Education: An Experience in Teaching Computer Sciences. IEEE Transactions on Education, 54(3), 471-478. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ProQuest Technology Journals. (Document ID: 2559705001).

18.1. Abstract (Summary) This paper presents a blended learning approach and a study evaluating instruction in a software engineering-related course unit as part of an undergraduate engineering degree program in computing. In the past, the course unit had a lecture-based format. In view of student underachievement and the high course unit dropout rate, a distance-learning system was deployed, where students were allowed to choose between a distance-learning approach driven by a moderate constructivist instructional model or a blended-learning approach. The results of this experience are presented, with the aim of showing the effectiveness of the teaching/learning system deployed compared to the lecture-based system previously in place. The grades earned by students under the new system, following the distance-learning and blended-learning courses, are compared statistically to the grades attained in earlier years in the traditional face-to-face classroom (lecture-based) learning.

19. Blended Learning of Programming in the Internet Age S. Djenic, R. Krneta, J. Mitic. IEEE Transactions on Education. New York: May 2011. Vol. 54, Iss. 2; pg. 247

19.1. Abstract (Summary) This paper presents an advanced variant of learning programming by the use of the Internet and multimedia. It describes the development of a blended learning environment, which, in addition to classroom (face-to-face) lessons, introduces lessons delivered over the Internet: the use of multimedia teaching material with completely dynamic interactive simulations; the use of applications for regular checking and self-checking of the acquisition of knowledge; and applications for regular communication on the teaching material between students and lecturers. This blended learning environment has been developed with the purpose of upgrading the basic programming courses (Programming Fundamentals 1 and Programming Fundamentals 2) at the Advanced School of Electrical and Computer Engineering (VISER) in Belgrade, Serbia. The paper contains a brief description of the goals set, their development and implementation (structure design, the development of teaching materials, scenario implementation, and evaluation), and the results of the implementation and evaluation of these courses.

20. Stewart, M., Stott, T., & Nuttall, A. (2011). Student Engagement Patterns over the Duration of Level 1 and Level 3 Geography Modules: Influences on Student Attendance, Performance and Use of Online Resources. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 35(1), 47-65. doi:10.1080/03098265.2010.498880

20.1. Abstract (Summary) Greater flexibility in delivery resulting from increased use of e-learning will inevitably change the way university students approach studying. Recent studies have examined relationships between attendance, online learning and performance but findings are inconclusive. One concern is that an unintended consequence of placing lecture resources online may be increased absenteeism possibly leading to decrease in performance. This study explores patterns of student engagement across two geography courses. Findings corroborate the importance of attendance as a predictor of performance, demonstrate how assessment influences study behaviour, particularly online, and provide evidence for a need for integrated blended learning designs. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

21. Frederickson (2005) as described in Strayer 2007

21.1. "Although the classroom flip terminology was not specifically stated, this instructional method was used in a study involving 16 graduate level research methods and statistics students to compare lecture-based versus computer-based methods for presenting students with course content (Frederickson, Reed, & Clifford, 2005). These researchers were interested in seeing if there were differences in the level of learning and student opinions of the learning environment between the two groups. The 16 students were randomly assigned to two different groups: one group spent an hour in a computer lab going through a web-page based presentation of the material while the other students spent the hour in a classroom listening to a lecture over the same material with overheads and handouts. The random assignment in this study is a very important and unusual aspect when compared to other current studies. Most studies that compare different pedagogical approaches allow students to choose which group (lecture-based or technology-based) they will be in for obvious ethical reasons. However, in this study, all 16 students agreed to be randomly assigned to a group. It is also important to note that the information in the web-page presentation and the lectures were developed by the same instructor and were virtually identical. Frederickson et al (2005) gave both groups of students pretests and posttests to detect changes in their statistical knowledge and levels of math anxiety. Results showed that both the lecture-based and the web-based groups increased their understanding of statistical knowledge from pretest to posttest. However, there was no significant 64 difference between the two groups on either the pretest or posttest. There were no other significant effects between the two groups in terms of their pre-anxiety and post-anxiety levels. The researchers also solicited written feedback and they performed a cursory qualitative theme analysis on those responses." (Strayer, p. 63)

21.2. "Frederickson et al.’s (2005) important study provides evidence that similar gains in knowledge will occur for students whether the material is presented in a web-based or lecture-based format, and math anxiety does not appear to be influenced by one method or the other. Qualitative data were also collected through open-ended questions on a survey given to all students. The analysis of this data suggested students were more critical of the web-based format. Students in this environment wanted their learning goals to be more clearly defined so they could check to see if they were “on the right track” along the way. They wanted more explanations and examples on the websites and a more interactive experience. Although the lecture-based students received the same stated learning goals, explanations, and examples, they made no mention of the need for more feedback and reinforcement as the web-based students did." (Strayer, p.64)

21.3. "Analyzing these results (Frederickson et al., 2005) from an activity theory perspective suggests that the introduction of a new tool (the web-page driven learning modules) caused a disruption in the students’ activity system. Now, new rules were needed to define how learning was to occur in this environment. Further, the division of labor changed since the teacher was less involved in the presentation of material and the student had more responsibility. Students responded to these disruptions by taking more responsibility for deepening and monitoring their learning (the demand for more examples and clarity in learning goals). From a learning environments perspective, what 65 at first appears as student dissatisfaction with the system maintenance and change domain of the learning environment (unclear goals) may have actually had a positive effect on the personal growth domain since the environment now encouraged students to be more aware of the content and their own learning process." (Strayer, p.64)

21.4. "With the Frederickson et al. study, students in the flip and the traditional groups both performed at the same level, but students in their flip classroom had concerns about the structure of the classroom. That graduate level students struggled with adjusting to the flip classroom format further suggests that an introductory level course may not be the best place to implement the classroom flip." (Strayer, p.184)

21.5. graduate level statistics course

22. Canfield, 2001 (as described in Strayer, 2007)

22.1. "One study has been conducted that investigated the learning environment of students who used the ALEKS intelligent tutoring system (Canfield, 2001). Three classes of 10 students each participated in a Basic Mathematics course that used ALEKS at a U.S. university and completed a questionnaire at the end of the term. Results showed that students liked the detailed explanations and feedback, the tailored review problems, and the self-paced nature of the work. Students also reported lower stress levels as compared to traditional lecture style mathematics courses they had taken. Eighty percent of the students in these courses reported that they learned as much or more in the ALEKS course as compared to other courses, they would take another mathematics course that used ALEKS, and they would recommend ALEKS to another student. Canfield contends that since ALEKS teaches the standard factual knowledge usually found in traditional lectures, teachers have an opportunity to make their classrooms a place where inventing, abstracting, conjecturing, proving, and applying mathematics in realistic situations is the norm. This is the essence of the classroom flip." (Strayer, p. 65)

23. Broad, Matthews, & McDonald, 2004, as described in Strayer, 2007.

23.1. "Broad, Matthews, and McDonald conducted a study to investigate the effect a virtual learning environment had on students’ learning preferences (Broad, Matthews, & McDonald, 2004). These researchers took content from an accounting course and packaged it in a hypermedia environment on a CD (similar to a courseware management system like Blackboard, but self-contained). The content on the CD took many different forms (static text, hypertext, quizzes, PowerPoint presentations, practice exercises, and online links) so that a variety of learning styles could be accommodated. Students began working through this material at the beginning of the term and attended 2 lecture sessions a week as the term progressed. The lectures were meant to add value to the virtual learning environment through personal interaction and the ability to target the lectures at trouble spots for students. As students worked in this environment, researchers collected data on their learning preferences. The significant findings of the Broad et al. (2004) study show that students using the integrated virtual learning environment became progressively less pragmatic in their approach to learning. Pragmatic learners tend to focus on doing what is necessary to complete assignments and are not as concerned with engaging in theoretical discussions or exploring the implications of the concepts they are learning. This suggests students have adjusted their approach to learning and as a result of the change in learning environment. This evidence is in accordance with the Frederickson et al. (2005) study suggesting that as students use courseware learning systems to learn content, they tend to adjust their activity systems in a way that strengthens their awareness of the learning process and course content (the personal growth domain)." (Strayer, p. 66)

24. Buerck, Malmstrom, & Peppers, (2003) (as described in Strayer, 2007)

24.1. "A study involving computer science students at the university level studied learner preferences and students’ choice of learning environment (face-to-face or on-line) (Buerck, Malmstrom, & Peppers, 2003). Twenty-nine students at a U.S. university participated; all were working at least 40 hours per week and all were at least 22 years old. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the academic performance of the two groups. There was evidence, however, that computer science students who chose the on-line format were converging learners and students who chose face-to-face were assimilating learners. Convergers tend to be good problem solvers and decision makers. They more easily see practical applications for theories, and therefore prefer to work on technical tasks more than interpersonal ones. Convergers like to experiment with new ideas and therefore prefer laboratory assignments and practical applications. Assimilators, on the other hand, are good at transforming information in a logical manner to create theoretical models. Therefore, assimilators prefer to read, hear explanations, and explore analytic models. Having time to think through things is very important for assimilators. While Buerck et al. (2003) looked only at computer science majors, their study speaks to all fields because it highlights an aspect of the personal system that students bring with them into the learning environment, learning preference. Students with different learning preferences will adjust differently to a technologically rich learning environment, some needing more time and help than others. If possible, the technological learning environment should be developed so that learners of all different styles can find ways to learn that are comfortable for them (see Lage et al., 2000)." (Strayer, p. 67)

25. Elen and Clarebout (2001) (decribed in Strayer, 2007)--focus on K-12, involved in collaborative projects

25.1. "The surprising result is that student beliefs about the benefits of learning through collaboration while using a variety of technological tools decreased. This result led the researchers to evaluate the learning environment as planned and the learning environment as it was implemented. They found that the implementation did not mirror the planned learning environment, and students’ changes in beliefs reflected their ability to adapt to their learning environment as it was implemented. This evidence further supports claims that the introduction of tools (assorted technologies) and objects (an open-ended collaborative assignment) into the learning environment can cause profound disequilibrium in the activity system. This disequilibrium will result in a need for a readjustment in the rules, division of labor, and the community itself. Without a concerted focus on helping students through this re-adjustment, they can become disillusioned and withdraw from the learning process." (Strayer, p. 69)

26. The Relationship between motivation, learning strategies and choice of environment, Clayton, Blumberg and Auld (2010)

26.1. self efficacy


27.1. Nowell, G.. (2011). Student Course Evaluations In Traditional And Blended Courses: A Case Study. American Journal of Business Education, 4(1), 13-18. Retrieved March 22, 2012, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2264694041).

27.1.1. Abstract (Summary) It is generally held that blended learning is gaining acceptance and being adopted at college campuses throughout the U.S. Accompanying this trend has been an expansion of the research efforts in this area. These efforts have been guided mainly by the five pillars of the Sloan Consortium Quality Framework (Sloan-C) and two large questions. One question is, "Is blended learning better than other learning environments?" In this study, this question was examined from the perspective of the Sloan-C's student satisfaction pillar. The research question was stated as follows: "Is the level of student course satisfaction generated by blended learning higher than that which is generated by traditional face-to-face classroom learning?" The results of this study revealed "no differences" between blended and traditional learning on the student course satisfaction variable. In this regard, it is important to note that this finding of "no differences" is consistent with the existing research findings on student learning effectiveness as well. Given this combined evidential pattern the following question is relevant and has implications for future research efforts in this area: "Within the context of cost/benefit analysis, why should an institution invest the additional resources needed to effectively implement a blended format when, in accordance with the existing research evidence, there is little or no net benefit in terms of its impact on students; i.e., either in terms of student satisfaction or student learning?". [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

27.2. Blended Learning: Beyond Initial Uses To Helping To Solve Real-World Academic Problems Mark A McCarthy, Elizabeth A Murphy. Journal of College Teaching and Learning. Littleton: May 2010. Vol. 7, Iss. 5; pg. 67, 4 pgs Abstract (Summary)

27.2.1. Blended learning strategies can be employed in innovative ways to solve real-world academic problems across all academic disciplines. This article can provide administrators and faculty with specific examples to guide them when making decisions about academic planning or institutional strategies for any discipline at all levels of higher education. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

28. Research related to use of technology in teaching mathematics


28.1.1. This paper outlines an attempt at integrating web-based activities into a precalculus course at a large university. A discussion of the development of the web-based activities is initially provided. Distinctions are made between transpositional uses of web-based technology and uses that take advantage of the full potential of the technological medium. A report of a study that investigated the effects of the use of the activities in four classrooms follows. The report focuses on the use of the activities by two instructors, only one of whom received mentoring in that regard. The unmentored instructor entered the course with an instructional philosophy more compatible to the goals of the activities than the mentored instructor, and it was found that this led to more appropriate uses of the activities during instruction, despite a lack of mentoring. The difficulties of the unmentored instructor were not inherent in the technology, but in the pedagogic incongruences between the goals of the instructor and the web-based activities. Evidence was also found that these instructional differences impacted how the two groups of students approached the tasks, as well as differences in their understandings of the underlying mathematical ideas of covariance and rate of change. Implications and recommendations are then given.

28.2. Students’ perceptions of a blended web-based learning environment Vinesh Chandra and Darrell L. Fisher Learning Environments Research, 2009, Volume 12, Number 1, Pages 31-44

28.2.1. Abstract The enhanced accessibility, affordability and capability of the Internet has created enormous possibilities in terms of designing, developing and implementing innovative teaching methods in the classroom. As existing pedagogies are revamped and new ones are added, there is a need to assess the effectiveness of these approaches from the students’ perspective. For more than three decades, proven qualitative and quantitative research methods associated with learning environments research have yielded productive results for educators. This article presents the findings of a study in which Getsmart, a teacher-designed website, was blended into science and physics lessons at an Australian high school. Students’ perceptions of this environment were investigated, together with differences in the perceptions of students in junior and senior years of schooling. The article also explores the impact of teachers in such an environment. The investigation undertaken in this study also gave an indication of how effective Getsmart was as a teaching model in such environments.

28.3. Acelajado, M. J. (2011). Blended Learning: A Strategy for Improving the Mathematics Achievement of Students in a Bridging Program. Electronic Journal Of Mathematics & Technology, 5(3), 342-351.

28.3.1. Two groups of 20 students each from the Bridging Program of the College of Saint Benilde, De La Salle University, who were enrolled in Algebra during the Second Term, SY 2009-2010, served as respondents in this study. The groups were alternately exposed to the blended learning strategy and the traditional face-to-face classroom instruction strategy. A pretest and a posttest together with a perceptions inventory related to the use of blended learning were administered to the respondents to gauge and compare their achievement in each topic and to capture their reactions regarding the use of blended learning strategy. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean achievements of the two groups in all topics under consideration in favor of the blended learning strategy. Students’ general reactions to using the blended learning strategy point to the merits of having several alternatives in learning, the improved attitude and confidence in mathematics, and the increased motivation and enjoyment afforded by this strategy in understanding the lessons.

29. Research specific to higher education

29.1. Blended university teaching using virtual learning environments: conceptions and approaches Petros Lameras, Philippa Levy, Iraklis Paraskakis and Sheila Webber Instructional Science, 2012, Volume 40, Number 1, Pages 141-157

29.1.1. Abstract This paper reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into blended university teaching using virtual learning environments (VLEs). Interviews with 25 Computer Science teachers in Greek universities illuminated a spectrum of teachers’ conceptions and approaches from ‘teacher-focused and content-oriented’, through ‘student-focused and content-oriented’, to ‘student-focused and process-oriented’. Using VLEs was described as a means of supporting: A—information transfer; B—application and clarification of concepts; C—exchange and development of ideas, and resource exploration and sharing; D—collaborative knowledge-creation, and development of process awareness and skills. The study suggests that pedagogical beliefs and circumstances underpinning face-to-face teaching are more influential in shaping approaches to blended VLE use than VLE system features. The authors propose that the findings could be used to inform educational enhancement initiatives and that there is a need for further discipline-focused research on blended teaching.

29.2. From Gatekeeping to Engagement: A Multicontextual, Mixed Method Study of Student Academic Engagement in Introductory STEM Courses Josephine A. Gasiewski, M. Kevin Eagan, Gina A. Garcia, Sylvia Hurtado and Mitchell J. Chang 2012, Volume 53, Number 2, Pages 229-261

29.2.1. Abstract The lack of academic engagement in introductory science courses is considered by some to be a primary reason why students switch out of science majors. This study employed a sequential, explanatory mixed methods approach to provide a richer understanding of the relationship between student engagement and introductory science instruction. Quantitative survey data were drawn from 2,873 students within 73 introductory science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses across 15 colleges and universities, and qualitative data were collected from 41 student focus groups at eight of these institutions. The findings indicate that students tended to be more engaged in courses where the instructor consistently signaled an openness to student questions and recognizes her/his role in helping students succeed. Likewise, students who reported feeling comfortable asking questions in class, seeking out tutoring, attending supplemental instruction sessions, and collaborating with other students in the course were also more likely to be engaged. Instructional implications for improving students’ levels of academic engagement are discussed.

29.3. Tselios, N., Daskalakis, S., & Papadopoulou, M. (2011). Assessing the Acceptance of a Blended Learning University Course. Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 14(2), 224-235.

29.3.1. ABSTRACT Usefulness and ease of use proved to be key determinants of the acceptance and usage of e-learning. On the contrary, little is known about students’ perceptions in a blended learning setting. In this paper, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was utilised, in order to investigate Greek university students’ attitudes toward blended learning. The goal of the study was twofold. First, to investigate whether the students’ perceptions in a blended learning setting were comparable with other studies reporting perceptions in the context of distant learning. Second, to investigate variation in students’ perceptions before and after actual system use. A sample of 130 students before actual system use and 102 students after the end of the semester was used. As derived from the model analysis using partial least squares, the e-learning system was well accepted and the majority of our hypotheses were confirmed. The most notable difference between pre- and post- use scenario was that perceived usefulness did not prove to have a significant effect on behavioral intention before system use, whereas, in the end, it appeared to be significant. The results are compared with similar studies focused on elearning acceptance. The implications, both for the designer of a blended learning course as well as for the educational community, are also discussed.

29.4. Benson, V., & Anderson, D. (2010). Towards a strategic approach to the introduction of blended learning: Challenges faced and lessons learned. British Journal Of Educational Technology, 41(6), E129-E131. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01066.x

29.4.1. The article focuses on the challenges encountered when implementing a faculty-wide blended learning strategy in a business school in Great Britain. It states there is little emphasis in research ...

29.5. Mitchell, P., & Forer, P. (2010). Blended Learning: The Perceptions of First-year Geography Students. Journal Of Geography In Higher Education, 34(1), 77-89. doi:10.1080/03098260902982484

29.5.1. ABSTRACT Focusing on Digital Worlds, a first-year geography blended learning course at the University of Auckland, this paper gives voice to the students, examining how they perceived e-learning versus traditional learning mechanisms; how e-learning mechanisms have affected their learning behaviour; and why certain e-learning mechanisms offered in the course were more appealing than others. It demonstrates that students’ views are determined by their individual learning styles and how they perceive the university experience. Information and communication technologies were recognized to provide complementary learning benefits, especially when other factors inhibited learning, but traditional mechanisms such as lectures were still greatly valued

29.6. Blended learning in higher education: Students’ perceptions and their relation to outcomes M. Victoria López-PérezCorresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, M. Carmen Pérez-López E-mail the corresponding author, Lázaro Rodríguez-Ariza E-mail the corresponding author

29.6.1. Abstract New information and communication technologies (ICTs) provide educators and learners with an innovative learning environment to stimulate and enhance the teaching and learning process. In this context, novel educational concepts such as blended learning are being developed. In the present paper, we present the results obtained from a blended learning experience carried out at the University of Granada. A total of 17 groups took part, with 1431 students registered for the 2009–2010 academic year. In this study, we use objective outcomes and the students’ perceptions regarding the blended learning activities performed. The study shows that the use of blended learning has a positive effect in reducing dropout rates and in improving exam marks. Moreover, the students’ perceptions on blended learning are interrelated, with their final marks depending on the blended learning activities, and on the students’ age, background and class attendance rate.

29.7. Quality in blended learning: Exploring the relationships between on-line and face-to-face teaching and learning Paul GinnsCorresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, Robert Ellis The Internet and Higher Education Volume 10, Issue 1, 2007, Pages 53–64

29.7.1. Abstract This project draws on a large body of seminal research showing that the approaches students take to learning, and the subsequent quality of their learning, is closely related to their perceptions of their learning experience. Recent research has demonstrated these findings also hold for non-standard modes of delivery such as distance education using on-line strategies. However, there is currently little research about how predominately campus-based students' experiences of the on-line part of their course are associated with their experience of the course as a whole. The present study extends previous research into the domain of blended learning, by exploring the relations between student perceptions of the e-Learning environment, approaches to study, and student grades.

29.8. Oh, E., & Park, S. (2009). How are universities involved in blended instruction? Educational Technology & Society, 12 (3), 327– 342.

29.8.1. ABSTRACT The purposes of this study are to examine faculty involvement in blended instruction and their attitudes towards the instructional method. The study also explored how universities support faculty in their current practices on blended instruction and the challenges in supporting faculty. The target population of this study was Institute of Higher Education (IHE) coordinators and faculty members of 151 extensive doctoral research universities classified by the Carnegie Foundations. Two online survey instruments, one for the coordinators and the other for faculty were administered to the target population. Of the 151 targeted population, 34 IHE representatives and 133 faculty members from 33 universities responded to the survey questionnaires. The study found that the most commonly selected blended method (64.4%) was face-to-face instruction with supplementary online instructional materials. In addition, faculty (95.9%) actively participated in designing, developing, and/ or maintaining their instructional materials. Most had positive attitudes towards blended instruction as they believed it played a role in improving the quality of their instruction. In addition, participating universities reported providing faculty with the necessary help such as an online help desk, workshops, instructional designers, and technology specialists in support of goals to increase the number of online or blended instruction. However, faculty workload (70.6%) and lack of faculty motivation and enthusiasm (61.8%) were the biggest challenges in pursuing the institutional goals. Based on the findings, suggestions are made to promote blended instruction.

30. Research specific to flipping/blending

30.1. Bringing the Classroom to the Web: Effects of Using New Technologies to Capture and Deliver Lectures Abstract Technology expands instructional options for faculty, and this study examines the differential learning... Eric L. Dey, Helen E. Burn and David Gerdes 2009, Volume 50, Number 4, Pages 377-393

30.1.1. Abstract

30.1.2. Technology expands instructional options for faculty, and this study examines the differential learning effects of offering a lecture on physics to students in a traditional classroom versus internet video formats. Based on an experiment conducted in a natural educational context, results indicate enhanced transfer of lecture information in the video formats relative to the live condition, with students also responding more positively to personalized video presentation.

30.2. Learning presence: Towards a theory of self-efficacy, self-regulation, and the development of a communities of inquiry in online and blended learning environments Peter Sheaa, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, Temi Bidjeranob, E-mail the corresponding author a University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY

30.2.1. Abstract In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners. We present the results of a study of 3165 students in online and hybrid courses from 42 two- and four-year institutions in which we examine the relationship between learner self-efficacy measures and their ratings of the quality of their learning in virtual environments. We conclude that a positive relationship exists between elements of the CoI framework and between elements of a nascent theoretical construct that we label “learning presence”. We suggest that learning presence represents elements such as self-efficacy as well as other cognitive, behavioral, and motivational constructs supportive of online learner self-regulation. We suggest that this focused analysis on the active roles of online learners may contribute to a more thorough account of knowledge construction in technology-mediated environments expanding the descriptive and explanatory power of the Community of Inquiry framework. Learning presence: Towards a Theory of Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, and the Development of a Communities of Inquiry in Online and Blended Learning Environments.

30.3. Keengwe, J. & Kidd, T. (2010) Towards Best Practices in Online Learning and Teaching in Higher Education. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching 6 (2).

30.3.1. This article examines a review of literature related to online learning and teaching. The authors provide a brief historical perspective of online education as well as describe the unique aspects of online teaching and learning. The barriers to online teaching, the new faculty roles in online learning environments, and some implications for online learning and teaching are also provided. This article is intended to stimulate reflections on effective strategies to enhance faculty success in their transition from traditional pedagogical platforms to online learning and teaching. http://jolt.merlot.org/vol6no2/keengwe_0610.htm

30.4. Shitvetts, Courtney (2011) Elearning and Blended Learning: A Literature Review; The importance of the learner

30.4.1. This paper reviews the literature and finds that the learner is an important factor in how successful a blended course will be.

31. New node

32. New node