Multiple Intelligences

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Multiple Intelligences by Mind Map: Multiple Intelligences

1. Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory is an important contribution to cognitive science and constitutes a learner-based phylosophy which is an increasingly popular approach to characterizing the ways in which learners are unique and to developing instruction to respond to this uniqueness.

1.1. MIT is a rationalist model that describes seven different intelligences.

1.1.1. THE LOGICAL-MATHEMATICAL FRAME.

1.1.1.1. logical-mathematical intelligence gives us the ability to use numbers effectively and to understand the underlying principles of a causal system.

1.1.2. THE MUSICAL-RHYTHMIC FRAME.

1.1.2.1. The musical-rhythmic intelligence has to do with the ability to perceive and appreciate rhythm, pitch and melody.

1.1.2.1.1. Musical intelligence in the second language classroom can have benefits such as helping students to concentrate and connect with their inner self, stimulating creative processes, cutting out the black noise, eliminating distracting sounds from in or outside the classroom, and above all fostering a relaxed but motivating and productive classroom atmosphere.

1.1.2.2. Rauscher, Shaw and Ky point to the effect of listening to music on the development of learners’ spatial/temporal intelligence. Music also has physical effects such as the adaptation of breathing to the musical rhythms, the impact on muscular energy and psychological effects.

1.1.3. THE VISUAL-SPATIAL FRAME.

1.1.3.1. Visual-spatial intelligence is the ability we have to perceive all the elements necessary to create a mental image of something. Mental images are present in thought and have a strong influence on reasoning. Visual elements are especially useful for providing comprehensible and meaningful input for second language learners.

1.1.3.2. Paivio’s influential dual coding theory posits that we have two processing systems, a verbal system for language items and a non-verbal system for images.

1.1.4. THE BODILY-KINAESTHETIC FRAME.

1.1.4.1. This intelligence refers to the ability to use the body to express oneself, to handle physical objects dexterously.

1.1.4.1.1. Non-verbal aspects of communication are also very relevant in language teaching.Gestures are culture-bound and need to be taught in the second language classroom.

1.1.4.2. According to the ancient Roman saying, mens sana in corpore sano; working on this intelligence not only affects health and fitness but also is important for cultivating the powers of the mind.

1.1.5. THE INTERPERSONAL FRAME.

1.1.5.1. The ability to understand other people, to work cooperatively and to communicate effectively is part of the interpersonal intelligence and strongly connected to learning a second language.

1.1.5.2. Social constructivism in education stresses the importance of interaction of the participants in the learning situation.

1.1.5.2.1. Vygotsky emphasized that learning is mediated or shaped and influenced by social interaction; as Dornÿei & Murphey explain from a Vygotskian constructivist point of view, learning happens intermentally first, between minds in interaction, and only later becomes one’s own learning, intramentally.

1.1.5.3. Cooperative Learning is a method which helps to develop this intelligence in the language classroom

1.1.5.3.1. Crandall points out how it is useful in competitive societies where it can help foster the development of social skills needed to interact and communicate equitably with diverse groups of people.

1.1.6. THE INTRAPERSONAL FRAME.

1.1.6.1. The intrapersonal intelligence gives us the capacity to understand the internal aspects of the self and to practise self-discipline

1.1.6.1.1. It can be related to studies about metacognitive knowledge and language learning, where metacognition refers to knowledge about oneself, about the language and about the procedures or strategies to be used for certain types of tasks.

1.1.6.2. Self-discipline is based on three metacognitive abilities: that of the perception of personal emotions, the ability to control them and the talent for motivating the self.

1.1.7. THE NATURALIST FRAME.

1.1.7.1. The ability to discriminate among numerous species of flora and fauna, enjoyment of the natural world and ecological sensitivity are characteristics of the naturalist intelligence, one of the two intelligences which Gardner included after his original formulation but which have not yet been developed extensively in the classroom.

2. MOTIVATION AND STIMULUS APPRAISAL.

2.1. The stimulus appraisal concept connects with and provides support for MIT at various points.

2.2. Schumann establishes the close relationship between motivation research and stimulus appraisal: it is reasonable to consider that motivation consists of various permutations and patterns of these stimulus appraisal dimensions.

2.2.1. Schumann’s model incorporates the five dimensions of stimulus appraisal that Scherer postulates where an event is evaluated on the following:

2.2.1.1. Novelty

2.2.1.2. Pleasantness

2.2.1.3. The relevance to the individual’s needs and goals.

2.2.1.4. The individual’s ability to cope with the event.

2.2.1.5. The compatibility of the event with socio-cultural norms or with the individual’s self concept.

2.3. Motivation is a complex construct which depends to a great degree on the way we evaluate the multiple stimuli we receive in relation to a specific context.

3. THE HOLISTIC NATURE OF LEARNERS.

3.1. Gardner's cognitive model proposes that humans beings are multidimensional subjects that need to develop not only their more cognitive capacities but also other abilities as the physical, artistic and spiritual.

4. TEACHABILITY OF INTELLIGENCES.

4.1. Neuroscience explains that the human brain is a neurally distributed processing model where neurons interact and knowledge depends on the connections or synapses of the units.

4.1.1. Bransford, Brown and Cocking affirm that learning changes the physical structure of the brain, that learning organizes and reorganizes the brain and the different parts of te brain may be ready to learn at different times.

5. LANGUAGE APTITUDE

5.1. Good second language speakers are often considered to be talented people with special verbal abilities who possess more than one code to understand and acquire knowledge in order to use it in new situations.

5.2. Skehan reviewed empirical research done on language aptitude, and defined this human capacity as a triarchic concept based on auditory ability, linguistic ability and memory abilitY.

5.2.1. Skehan affirms that exceptional foreign language learners are those that in a relatively short period of time become fluent speakers, and exhibit a highly developed memory ability.

5.2.2. Skehan emphasizes that language performance is memory and accessibility dependent.

6. PERSONAL MEANINGFULNESS AND ENGAGING MEMORY PATHWAYS.

6.1. Jensen explains that meaning occurs in many areas of the brain and distinguishes between reference and sense meaning.

6.1.1. He includes relevance, emotional connection, pattern-making and context as central elements to create a meaningful message.

6.2. According to Caine and Caine, meaningful learning refers to storage of items that have so many connections, and are of such quality, that they can be accessed appropriately in unexpected contexts.

6.3. Language learning can be supported by bringing in the musical, visual-spatial, bodilykinaesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, mathematical and naturalistic abilities as they constitute distinct frames for working on the same linguistic content.

6.3.1. Schumann claims that sustained deep learning is controlled by stimulus appraisal. This learning is characterized as sustained because an extended period of time is required to achieve it.