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🥇Concept map for PHYSICS mind map Please register by link 👉 https://bit.ly/3btQtKQ 🔴 by Mind Map: 🥇Concept map for  PHYSICS  mind map Please register by link 👉 https://bit.ly/3btQtKQ  🔴

1. 2 kinds of circuits

1.1. series

1.2. parallel

2. Induction

2.1. Within a substance caused by a nearby  charged object, without direct contact between the substance and the object and the subject

3. Efficiency

3.1. Is the ratio of the useful energy that comes out of the device to the total energy that went in. Percent of efficiency= E out/ E in x 100

4. Renewable resource

4.1. One that can be reused more than once (eg. Sun and wind)

5. Generators

5.1. Transform the energy of motion into electric current, the magnets inside the generator are rotated by a turbine

6. Conductor And insulator

6.1. conductor

6.1.1. Material that allows electrons to change position (Eg. Copper wire)

6.2. insulator

6.2.1. Solid, liquid, or gas that blocks movement of electrons (Eg. Rubber)

7. Non-renewable resource

7.1. Non renewable: One that can't be replaced once it's used up (coal, Oil)

8. Potential energy

8.1. Measured by a voltmeter

8.2. Energy stored in an object

8.3. Also known as Voltage or Volt

8.4. The difference in electrical potential energy between 2 points in a circle

9. Safety device for electricity

9.1. Fuse: is a safety device that has a low melting point. If the electrical gets dangerously hot the fuse melts on to the circuit stopping the flow

9.2. Circuit breaker: Same thing as a fuse but instead of melting it has a a spring mechanism that turns off the electric flow when the wires get to hot

9.3. Three-Prong Plug: The third prong connects the device to the ground wire of the building, this sends any unwanted current flow directly to the ground

9.4. GFCI: Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter  is a device that when it detects a change in current it opens the circuit which stops the current flow.

10. kw*h

10.1. Means Kilowatt per hour

10.2. Measures the amount of electrical energy consumption

10.3. 1kW= 1000W

11. Calculating unknown quantity of volts, current and resistance

11.1. Known: V, I  Unknown: R

11.1.1. R=V/I

11.2. Known: I   Unknown: R

11.2.1. V=IR

11.3. Known: V  Unknown: I

11.3.1. I=V/R

12. Static electricity rules

12.1. Opposite charges attract

12.2. Similar charges repel

12.3. Only electrons move from one object to another

13. Electrochemical cell

13.1. Made out of 2 parts, 1 electrolyte and 2 electrodes

13.1.1. Electrolyte:                                                         Is a liquid or a paste that conducts electricity because it contains chemicals that form ions

13.1.2. Electrodes:                                                       Are metal strips that react with the electrolyte

14. Law of attraction And repulsion

14.1. Law of attraction

14.1.1. Particle with opposite charge attract

14.2. Law of repulsion

14.2.1. Particles with the same charges repel

15. Static

15.1. it's an Electric charge that  builds On the surface of the object

15.2. Static electricity

16. Low and high  resistance

16.1. Low: Metals

16.2. High: All substances resist electrons

16.2.1. When a current resist electrons it causes it to heat up and produce light

16.3. Resistance

16.3.1. Measured in Ohms and by an Ohmmeter

16.3.2. Example: Light bulb filament

17. Factors that affect resistance

17.1. Length: Longer wires offer more resistance

17.2. Temperature: If it increases so does the resistance

17.3. Material: Copper has low resistance rubber has high resistance

17.4. Cross sectional wires:Wider wires offer less resistance

18. Alternate sustainable to generate energy

18.1. Solar farm: Mirrors that focus sunlight onto a liquid that is heated and used water into steam to drive the turbines

18.2. Tidal: uses the energy of the powerful tides from the bay to spin the turbine

18.3. Wind: Uses the energy of moving air to spin the  generator

18.4. Solar cell: has 6 layers to capture electrons

19. Short circuit

19.1. An accidental low resistance  connection between 2 points In a circuit

19.2. Short circuits are dangerous because the conduction wires can be very hot

19.3. But It can be useful by allowing technicians to work on the device without interrupting the circuit

20. AC/DC

20.1. Current is measured in Amps by a device called an ammeter

20.2. Alternate current (AC) : Flows back and forth at regular intervals called cycles

20.3. Direct current(DC) : A current that flows in one direction

21. Wet cells, dry cells, and fuel cells

21.1. Dry cell: An electrochemical that uses a paste  Instead of a liquid electrolyte

21.2. Wet cell: An electro chemical cell that has a liquid electrolyte

21.3. Fuel cell: Is an electro chemical cell that generates electricity directly from a chemical  with a fuel

22. Concept Map PHYSICS

22.1. Physics Mindmap

22.2. 1. Periodic Table

22.3. 1.1. Russian Chemist Dmitri Mendeleev

22.4. 1.2. Divided into Groups and Periods

22.5. 1.2.1. Important Groups:

22.6. 1.2.1.1. Group 1: Alkali Metals

22.7. 1.2.1.1.1. Stored in paraffin as they are highly reactive and could react with oxygen or water

22.8. 1.2.1.2. Group 2: Alkali Earth Metals

22.9. 1.2.1.3. Group 7: Halogens

22.10. 1.2.1.4. Group 8: Noble Gases or Inert Gases

22.11. 1.2.1.4.1. Have full outer shell= they are stable

22.12. 1.2.1.5. Group no. determines the valence of an atom (how many electrons are in the last shell of an atom)

22.13. 1.2.2. Periods: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7

22.14. 1.2.2.1. Indicates how many energy levels/shells and atom has

22.15. 1.3. Atomic no. = no. of protons

22.16. 1.4. Diatomic Molecule: Two of the same non metal elements chemically bonded together

22.17. 1.4.1. 8 Diatomic Molecules: Nitrogen, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Astatine

22.18. 2. Classification of matter

22.19. 2.1. Pure Substance (substance that contains one type of particle)

22.20. 2.1.1. Elements (simplest type of substance cant be broken down using ordinary chemical reactions)

22.21. 2.1.1.1. Metals

22.22. 2.1.1.1.1. Shiny, High Density, Strong, Malleable, Ductile, Conduct heat and electricity, High melting point, Solid at room temperature except Mercury and Sonorous

22.23. 2.1.1.2. Metalloids (Semi-metals)

22.24. 2.1.1.2.1. Solids, brittle, greater resistance to electric current than metals,Conducts heat and electricity better than non-metals etc... (read through book for more characteristics)

22.25. 2.1.1.3. Non-metals

22.26. 2.1.1.3.1. Dull, Low density, Weak, Brittle, Non-ductile, Doesn't conduct heat or electricity, low melting points, half solid and half gas at room temperature except Bromine, Non-sonorous

22.27. 2.1.2. Compounds (two or more elements chemically bonded in fixed proportions)

22.28. 2.1.2.1. Compounds have different properties to the properties of the substance they are made from. They can be broken down into simpler forms.

22.29. 2.1.2.2. Two or more non-metals chemically join= Molecule (Covalent compound))

22.30. 2.1.2.3. Metal chemically combines with non-metal= Ionic Compound (Formula Unit)

22.31. 2.1.2.3.1. Crystal lattice structure/ SALT

22.32. 2.1.2.4. Chemical means of breaking down a compound:

22.33. 2.1.2.4.1. Heating (using heat energy to split compound)

22.34. 2.1.2.4.2. Electrolysis (using electrical energy to split a compound)

22.35. 2.1.2.4.3. Catalyst (adding another substance called a catalyst which causes slightly unstable compounds to split up faster)

22.36. 2.2. Mixtures (Impure substance) (where there are two or more types of particles physically mixed together) THEY DO NOT BOND TOGETHER

22.37. 2.2.1. Physical methods of separation (read book for more info)

22.38. 2.2.1.1. Hand sorting

22.39. 2.2.1.2. Chromatography

22.40. 2.2.1.3. Evaporation

22.41. 2.2.1.4. Filtration

22.42. 2.2.1.5. Distillation

22.43. 2.2.1.6. Magnetism

22.44. 2.2.1.7. Separating funnel

22.45. 2.2.2. When one substance dissolves into another its called a solution

22.46. 2.2.2.1. Two parts of a solution:

22.47. 2.2.2.1.1. Solute

22.48. 2.2.2.1.2. Solvent (forms the greater part of the solution)

22.49. 2.2.2.2. When a liquid dissolves in another liquid we call them miscible liquids.

22.50. 2.3. Nuclear Reactions vs chemical reactions

22.51. 2.3.1. Nuclear reaction splits nucleus of atom which can change the protons therefore making a different element.

22.52. 2.3.2. Nothing happens to nucleus only electrons involved in chemical reactions

22.53. 2.3.2.1. Properties of chemical reactions:

22.54. 2.3.2.1.1. A gas may be given off

22.55. 2.3.2.1.2. A precipitate (powder) may form

22.56. 2.3.2.1.3. The colour may change

22.57. 2.3.2.1.4. The temperature may change

22.58. 2.4. For differences between compounds and mixtures read book. Description of mixture separattio methods in book and read through experiments

22.59. 3. Atomic Structure

22.60. 3.1. Atoms are made up of particles of matter known as subatomic or fundamental particles. Atoms mostly consist of empty space. The nucleus is the center of the atom it consists of neutrons and protons grouped together, electrons orbit the nucleus

22.61. 3.1.1. Protons (positive charge)

22.62. 3.1.1.1. 'z' = atomic no.

22.63. 3.1.1.2. 'amu'=atomic mass unit

22.64. 3.1.1.3. neutrons+protons= atomic mass

22.65. 3.1.2. Neutrons (no charge)

22.66. 3.1.3. Electrons (negative charge)

22.67. 3.1.3.1. atoms can share, gain or lose electrons when they combine to form molecules.

22.68. 3.1.3.2. The way in which an atom reacts with other atoms is determined by the the electron configuration

22.69. 3.1.3.2.1. Electrons in an atom exist in layers called energy levels or shells. Electrons are arranged in energy levels according to different rules

22.70. 3.1.3.3. The BOHR diagram shows the electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom.

22.71. 3.1.3.4. Valency is how many electrons an atom must lose, share or gain to become stable

22.72. 3.1.4. Protons and neutrons have a similar mass. Electrons mass= 1/1840. (electron mass is negligible)