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Storage by Mind Map: Storage

1. Objective Overview

1.1. Differentiate between storage devices and storage media

1.2. Describe the characteristics of an internal hard disk including capacity, platters, read/write heads, cylinders, sectors and tracks, revolutions per minute, transfer rate, and access time

1.3. Discuss the purpose of network attached storage devices, external and removable hard disks, and hard disk controllers

1.4. Describe the various types of flash memory storage

1.5. Describe cloud storage and explain its advantages

1.6. Describe the characteristics of optical discs

1.7. Differentiate among various types of optical discs: CDs archive discs and Picture CDs, DVDs, and Blu‐ray Discs

1.8. Identify the uses of tape, magnetic stripe cards, smart cards , microfilm and microfiche, and enterprise storage

2. Storage

2.1. Storage holds data, instructions, and information for future use

2.2. A storage medium is the physical material on which a computer keeps data, instructions, and information

2.3. Capacity is the number of bytes a storage medium can hold

2.4. A storage device is the computer hardware that records and/or retrieves items to and from storage media

2.4.1. Reading is the process of transferring items from a storage medium into memory

2.4.2. Writing is the process of transferring items from memory to a storage medium

2.5. Access time measures: – The amount of time it takes a storage device to locate an item on a storage medium – The time required to deliver an item from memory to the processor

3. Hard Disks

3.1. A hard disk contains one or more inflexible, circular platters that use magnetic particles to store data, instructions, and information

3.2. Hard disks can store data using longitudinal recording or perpendicular recording

3.3. Characteristics of a hard disk include:

3.3.1. Capacity

3.3.2. Platters

3.3.3. Read/Write Heads

3.3.4. Cylinders

3.3.5. Sectors and Tracks

3.3.6. Revolutions per Minute

3.3.7. Transfer Rate

3.3.8. Access Time

3.4. Formatting is the process of dividing the disk into tracks and sectors so that the operating system can store and locate data and information on the disk

3.5. The hard disk arms move the read/write head, which reads items and writes items in the drive – Location often is referred to by its cylinder

3.6. • A head crash occurs when a read/write head touches the surface of a platter • Always keep a backup of your hard disk

3.7. • RAID (redundant array of independent disks) is a group of two or more integrated hard disks • A network attached storage (NAS) device is a server connected to a network with the sole purpose of providing storage

3.8. An external hard disk is a separate freestanding hard disk that connects to your computer with a cable or wirelessly

3.9. A removable hard disk is a hard disk that you insert and remove from a drive

3.10. Internal and external hard disks are available in miniature sizes (miniature hard disks)

3.11. A disk controller consists of a special‐purpose chip and electronic circuits that control the transfer of data, instructions, and information from a disk to and from the system bus and other components of the computer

4. Flash Memory Storage

4.1. • Flash memory chips are a type of solid state media and contain no moving parts • Solid state drives (SSDs) have several advantages over magnetic hard disks:

4.1.1. Last longer

4.1.2. Generate less heat and consume less power

4.1.3. Faster transfer rates

4.1.4. Faster access time

4.2. A memory card is a removable flash memory device that you insert and remove from a slot in a computer, mobile device, or card reader/writer

4.2.1. CompactFlash ( CF)

4.2.2. Secure Digital ( SD)

4.2.3. Secure Digital High Capacity (SDHC)

4.2.4. microSD

4.2.5. microSDHC

4.2.6. xD Picture Card

4.2.7. Memory Stick

4.2.8. Memory Stick Micro (M2)

4.3. USB flash drives plug into a USB port on a computer or mobile device

4.4. • An ExpressCard module is a removable device that fits in an ExpressCard slot • Developed by the PCMCIA • Commonly used in notebook computers

5. Cloud Storage

5.1. Cloud storage is an Internet service that provides storage to computer users

5.2. Users subscribe to cloud storage for a variety of reasons:

5.2.1. Access files from any computer

5.2.2. Store large files instantaneously

5.2.3. Allow others to access their files

5.2.4. View time‐critical data and images immediately

5.2.5. Store offsite backups

5.2.6. Provide data center functions

6. Optical Discs

6.1. • An optical disc consists of a flat, round, portable disc made of metal, plastic, and lacquer that is written and read by a laser • Typically store software, data, digital photos, movies, and music • Read only vs. rewritable

6.2. • Optical discs commonly store items in a single track that spirals from the center of the disc to the edge • Track is divided into evenly sized sectors

6.3. CD‐ROM

6.3.1. A CD‐ROM can be read from but not written to • Read from a CD‐ROM drive or CD‐ROM player

6.4. CD‐R

6.4.1. A CD‐R is a multisession optical disc on which users can write, but not erase

6.5. CD‐RW

6.5.1. A CD‐RWis an erasable multisession disc • Must have a CD‐RW drive

6.6. Archive disc

6.6.1. • Stores photos from an online photo center

6.6.2. • Resolution usually is 7200 pixels per photo

6.6.3. • Cost is determined by the number of photos being stored

6.7. Picture CD

6.7.1. • Single‐session CD‐ROM that stores digital versions of film

6.7.2. • Typically uses a 1024 x 1536 resolution

6.7.3. • Many photo centers offer Picture CD services

6.8. DVD‐ROM

6.8.1. A DVD‐ROM is a high‐capacity optical disc on which users can read but not write or erase • Requires a DVD‐ROM drive

6.9. Blu‐ray Disc‐ROM

6.9.1. A Blu‐ray Disc‐ROM (BD‐ROM) has a storage capacity of 100 GB

6.10. DVD‐RW, DVD+RW, and DVD+RAM

6.10.1. DVD‐RW, DVD+RW, and DVD+RAM are high‐capacity rewritable DVD formats

7. Other Types of Storage

7.1. Tape

7.1.1. Tape is a magnetically coated ribbon of plastic capable of storing large amounts of data and information

7.2. tape drive

7.2.1. A tape drive reads and writes data and information on a tape

7.3. magnetic stripe card

7.3.1. A magnetic stripe card contains a magnetic stripe that stores information

7.4. smart card

7.4.1. A smart card stores data on a thin microprocessor embedded in the card

7.5. Microfilm and microfiche store microscopic images of documents on a roll or sheet flim

7.6. Enterprise storage stores huge volumes of data and information for large businesses – Uses special hardware for heavy use, maximum availability, and maximum efficiency

8. Putting It All Together

8.1. Power User

8.1.1. • 2.5 TB hard disk

8.1.2. • Cloud storage

8.1.3. • Optical disc drive

8.1.4. • Portable for backup

8.1.5. • USB flash drive

8.2. Enterprise User (desktop computer)

8.2.1. • 1 TB hard disk

8.2.2. • Optical disc drive

8.2.3. • Smart card reader

8.2.4. • Tape drive

8.2.5. • USB flash drive

8.3. Enterprise User (server or mainframe)

8.3.1. • Network storage server

8.3.2. • 40 TB hard disk system

8.3.3. • Optical disc server

8.3.4. • Microfilm or microfiche