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The Components of the System Unit by Mind Map: The Components of the System Unit
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The Components of the System Unit

The System Unit

The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data

The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:

The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit


The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

The processor contains registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions

The system clock controls the timing of all computer operations

The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD


Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

Stores three basic categories of items:

Each location in memory has an address

Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)

The system unit contains two types of memory

Data Representation

Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality

Digital signals are in one of two states: on or off

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

Ports and Connectors

A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)

A connector joins a cable to a port


A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time

Common types of expansion buses include:


A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment