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The Components of the System Unit by Mind Map: The Components of the
System Unit
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The Components of the System Unit

The System Unit

The system unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer used to process data



The inside of the system unit on a desktop personal computer includes:

Drive bay(s)

Power supply

Sound card

Video card



The motherboard is the main circuit board of the system unit

A computer chip contains integrated circuits


The processor, also called the central processing unit (CPU), interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate a computer

Multi-core processor

Dual-core processor

Quad-core processor

Contain a control unit and an arithmetic logic unit (ALU)

The control unit is the component of the processor that directs and coordinates most of the operations in the computer

The arithmetic logic unit (ALU) performs arithmetic, comparison, and other operations

For every instruction, a processor repeats a set of four basic operations, which comprise a machine cycle

The processor contains registers, that temporarily hold data and instructions

The system clock controls the timing of all computer operations

The pace of the system clock is called the clock speed, and is measured in gigahertz (GHz)

The leading manufacturers of personal computer processor chips are Intel and AMD

A processor chip generates heat that could cause the chip to burn up

Require additional cooling, Heat sinks, Liquid cooling technology


Memory consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed the processor, data needed by those instructions, and the results of processing the data

Stores three basic categories of items:

The operating system and other system software

Application programs

Data being processed and the resulting information

Each location in memory has an address

Memory size is measured in kilobytes (KB or K), megabytes (MB), gigabytes (GB), or terabytes (TB)

The system unit contains two types of memory

Volatile memory, Loses its contents when power is turned off (Example includes RAM), RAM, Three basic types of RAM chips exist:, Dynamic RAM (DRAM), Static RAM (SRAM), Magnetoresistive RAM (MRAM), RAM chips usually reside on a memory module and are inserted into memory slots

Nonvolatile memory, Does not lose contents when power is removed (Examples include ROM, flash memory, and CMOS), ROM, Read-only memory (ROM) refers to memory chips storing permanent data and instructions, A PROM (programmable read-only memory) chip is a blank ROM chip that can be written to permanently, Flash memory, Flash memory can be erased electronically and rewritten, CMOS, CMOS technology provides high speeds and consumes little power

Data Representation

Analog signals are continuous and vary in strength and quality

Digital signals are in one of two states: on or off

Most computers are digital, The binary system uses two unique digits (0 and1) Bits and bytes

ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) is the most widely used coding scheme to represent data

Expansion Slots and Adapter Cards

An expansion slot is a socket on the motherboard that can hold an adapter card

An adapter card enhances functions of a component of the system unit and/or provides connections to peripherals

Sound card and video card

Ports and Connectors

A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to or communicates with a system unit (sometimes referred to as a jack)

A USB port can connect up to 127 different peripherals together with a single connector, You can attach multiple peripherals using a single USB port with a USB hub

Other types of ports include:, Firewire port, Bluetooth port, SCSI port, eSATA port, IrDA port, Serial port, MIDI port

A connector joins a cable to a port


A bus allows the various devices both inside and attached to the system unit to communicate with each other

Data bus

Address bus

Word size is the number of bits the processor can interpret and execute at a given time

Common types of expansion buses include:

PCI bus

PCI Express bus

Accelerated Graphics Port

USB and FireWire bus

PC Card bus


A bay is an opening inside the system unit in which you can install additional equipment