the author

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the author by Mind Map: the author

1. as a result

2. to comment on sth.

2.1. to argue for/against/about sth.

2.2. to agree with someone (or) on sth.

2.3. to criticize sth.

2.4. to praise sth.

2.5. to demand sth.

3. to give/refute (widerlegen) arguments

4. although

5. to explain sth.

5.1. He explains the reasons for the problem.

6. to complain about sth.

7. reporting verbs (+sth.)

7.1. the author illustrates his theory with two examples

7.2. to write about sth.

7.2.1. to refer to sth.

7.2.2. to add sth.

7.2.2.1. He added some examples

7.2.3. to state sth.

7.2.4. to present sth.

7.3. to illustrate sth.

7.3.1. the graph illustrates the relation between health and happiness

7.4. to use sth.

7.4.1. he uses colloquial language and stylistic devices

8. reporting verbs (+that)

8.1. to write that...

8.1.1. to add that...

8.1.2. to report that...

8.1.3. to state that...

8.1.4. to explain that...

8.2. to argue that...

8.3. to claim that...

8.4. to recommend that...

8.4.1. ...ppl use less plastic

8.5. to show that...

8.5.1. to illustrate that...

8.5.2. to make it clear that...

8.6. to say that...

8.7. to tell the reader that...

8.8. to point out that ...

8.8.1. to emphasize that...

8.8.2. to highlight the fact that ...

8.8.3. to underline that...

8.9. to comment on the fact that...

8.10. to suggest that...

9. to address the reader/listener

9.1. the author addresses the reader on an emotional level

9.2. to involve the reader directly by +ING

10. to start by... +ING

10.1. he starts by reporting that 9 out of 10 Americans use too much plastic.

11. as a first/second/third argument for ..., the author ....

11.1. As a first argument for reducing plastic, the author refers to the polluted oceans.

12. first, second, third (or) firstly, secondly, thirdly

12.1. next, then, last(

12.2. finally

12.3. additionally, furthermore, besides

12.3.1. Besides, the author claims that...

12.4. at the end

13. Giving a result

13.1. thus

13.2. therefore

13.3. in conclusion

13.4. all in all

14. contrasting ideas

14.1. despite of

14.2. in contrast to

14.3. however

14.4. on the one hand...on the other hand

15. sequencing ideas

16. atmosphere, time, place, occasion (Anlass),

17. topic, intentions

17.1. pollitical / convincing people

17.2. entertainment

17.3. informative/statement

18. audience/reader

18.1. expectations

18.2. interests

18.3. knowledge

18.4. hopes / wishes

18.5. prejudices/stereotypes

19. rhetorical strategies

19.1. to refer to authorities/experts/studies/science/law/technical terms/bible/god

19.2. stylistic devices

19.3. to manipulate the audience/reader

19.3.1. to use/create emotions

19.3.2. to use humor [AE] / provocation

19.3.3. to distract/divert the reader's or audience's attention

19.3.4. to compliment/threaten the audience/reader

19.3.5. to talk about common interests/benefits/enemies

19.3.6. to exaggarate

19.3.7. to lie or misuse facts or quotations