MITE6330 MindMap

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MITE6330 MindMap by Mind Map: MITE6330  MindMap

1. Learning Theories

1.1. Cognitive Learning Theories

1.1.1. Basic Concepts Mind as an information processor Mind representations and mental models Thinking involves manipulation of respresentations students remember rules, patterns and strategies

1.1.2. Structures and Processes Structures Receptors Reception of patterns of neural impulses Short term memory Long-term memroy Search Processes Response generator Sensory registers Effectors reinforcement Control processes attention selective perception rehearsal semantic encoding retrieval response organization feedback executive control process

1.1.3. Cognitivists Gagne instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning ‘where they are’ to achievement of the capability identified as the target objective

1.2. Behaviorism Learning Theories

1.2.1. Basic Concepts mind as a black box in the sense totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind quantitatively response to stimulus can be observed

1.2.2. Behaviorists Skinner accepting feelings state of mind introspection as existent scientifically treatable Pavlov classical conditioning stimulus and response

1.3. Constructivism

1.3.1. Basic Concepts learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perception of experiences an individual’s knowledge is a function of one’s prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events

1.3.2. Constructivists Kolb the cycle of experiential learning to support active learning in constructivism Jean Piaget Learners actively construct knowledge in their mind based on their experiences

2. Instructional Design

2.1. Concepts

2.1.1. Nature of Instruction set of events set of communications to the students verbal, oral, printed such as gestures or pictures getting the student from one state of mind to another Self-instruction and the self-learner

2.1.2. Objective how to achieve the objective through a set of instruction goal schema

2.1.3. Approach of instruction cognitive skills approach provide for efficient communication of information effective strategies for remembering cognitive constructivist approach focus on experiences activities that promote the individual development of the appropriate cognitive networks or mind maps social constructivist or sociocultural approach opportunities for embedding learning in authentic tasks leading to participation in a community of practice

2.1.4. mind computer brain rhizome

2.2. Product Development Stages

2.2.1. Models Linear Model by Dick & Carey Spiral Model by Romiszowski Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer

2.2.2. Stages (ADDIE) Analysis Needs Analysis Audience Analysis Environment Analysis Content Analysis System Analysis Feasibility Analysis Risk Analysis Project Proposal Design Content Flowchart Detailed Flowchart Storyboards & Script Specification Development A/V Production Graphics Creation Authoring Manuals Implementation Delivery Publishing Evaluation Summative Evaluation

2.3. Instructional Events

2.3.1. Gaining attention

2.3.2. Informing learner of the objective

2.3.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

2.3.4. Presenting the stimulus materials

2.3.5. Providing learning guidance

2.3.6. Eliciting the performance

2.3.7. Providing feedback about performance correctness

2.3.8. Assessing the performance

2.3.9. Enhancing retention and transfer

3. Technologies

3.1. Web 2.0

3.1.1. Read-Write Web Features create information and contribute to the sites by publishing content as infoware read the web page and add their comments text, graphics, animations, and other media and provide links to other sites Subscribing to Information Types a collection of links maintained by individual blogging with content posted from mobile devices video recordings audio recordings collective publishing activities collective intelligence like Facebook Resources sharing and referencing Internet-based information retrieval methodology like folksonomy The design of flexible systems like online store as a Platform like Google Docs in Education e-learning 2.0 increased use of blogging in classrooms attempts to use podcasting in teaching and learning design learning management systems based on web2.0 like Nuvvo

3.2. Multimedia Learning

3.2.1. methods

3.2.2. media

3.2.3. Promise of Multimedia Learning combining pictures with words consistent with how people learn aids to human learning learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia presentations than from traditional verbal-only teachers can tap the power of visual and verbal forms of expression research base and theoretical framework that provide answers to basic questions

3.2.4. Multimedia Instructional Message Words picture broader definitions meaningful learning not an arbitrary list of facts or procedure provide explanations of how something works

3.2.5. Cognitive theory Multimedia Presentation Words Pictures Sensory Memory Ears Eyes Short-term Memory Selecting organizing Long-term Memory Integrating

3.2.6. nature of human learning daul channel assumption the limited capacity assumption active learning assumption paying attention to relevant incoming words and pictures mentally organizing them into coherent verbal and pictorial representations mentally integrating verbal and pictorial representations with each other and with prior knowledge

3.2.7. Design Methods multimedia effect coherence effect spatial contiguity effect personalization effect

3.3. Handheld Devices

3.3.1. Personal Digital Assistants

3.3.2. GPS and GIS in the Classroom

3.3.3. Portable Electronic Keyboards

3.3.4. Digital Cameras

4. Reflection and References

4.1. Reflection

4.2. References

4.2.1. Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

4.2.2. Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.

4.2.3. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38

4.2.4. Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

4.2.5. Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

4.2.6. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64

4.2.7. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.

4.2.8. Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2010), retrieved from

4.2.9. Handheld Devices in the Classroom, retrieved from

5. Learning Models

5.1. Problem Based Learning

5.1.1. Constructivism Understanding is in our interactions with the environment Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned. stimulus for learning Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings individual level ~ for testing our understanding collaborative group ~ for enriching, interviewing, and expanding our understanding of particular issues or phenomena. develop a set of propositions (knowledge) compatible with our individual constructions or understanding of the world all views, or all constructions are not equally viable personal experiences

5.1.2. Instructional Principles Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task solicit problems from the learners use those as the stimulus for learning activities design an authentic task discussion and negotiation with the learner to develop a problem or task Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment cognitive apprenticeship cognitive flexibility theories reflects the importance of context in determining the understanding Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution particular problem solving or critical thinking methodology be used particular domains must be “learned” Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner’s thinking support the learner in becoming an effective worker/thinker Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and contents. Knowledge is socially negotiated Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process what was learned

5.2. Resource-based learning

5.2.1. media, people, places or ideas that have the potential to support learning

5.2.2. information assets-data points organized by an individual or individuals to convey a message

5.2.3. involves the reuse of availabe assets to suppport varied learning needs.