Basic Concepts, Mind as an information processor, Mind representations and mental models, Thinking involves manipulation of respresentations, students remember rules, patterns and strategies
Structures and Processes, Structures, Receptors, Reception of patterns of neural impulses, Short term memory, Long-term memroy, Search Processes, Response generator, Sensory registers, Effectors, Peformance, reinforcement, Control processes, attention, selective perception, rehearsal, semantic encoding, retrieval, response organization, feedback, executive control process
Cognitivists, Gagne, instruction consists of a set of events external to the learner designed to support the internal processes of learning, ‘where they are’ to achievement of the capability identified as the target objective
Basic Concepts, mind as a black box in the sense, totally ignoring the possibility of thought processes occurring in the mind, quantitatively, response to stimulus can be observed
Behaviorists, Skinner, accepting feelings, state of mind, introspection as existent, scientifically treatable, Pavlov, classical conditioning, stimulus and response
Basic Concepts, learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perception of experiences, an individual’s knowledge is a function of one’s prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events
Constructivists, Kolb, the cycle of experiential learning to support active learning in constructivism, Concrete experience, Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualization, Active experimentation, Jean Piaget, Learners actively construct knowledge in their mind based on their experiences, Behavioural factors, Cultural factors, Biological factors, Social factors
Nature of Instruction, set of events, set of communications to the students, verbal, oral, printed such as gestures or pictures, getting the student from one state of mind to another, Self-instruction and the self-learner
Objective, how to achieve the objective through a set of instruction, goal schema
Approach of instruction, cognitive skills approach, provide for efficient communication of information, effective strategies for remembering, cognitive constructivist approach, focus on experiences, activities that promote the individual development of the appropriate cognitive networks or mind maps, social constructivist or sociocultural approach, opportunities for embedding learning in authentic tasks leading to participation in a community of practice
mind, computer, brain, rhizome
- as a special component of Design Stage- as a Quality Assurance- as a Project Management
Models, Linear Model by Dick & Carey, Spiral Model by Romiszowski, Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer
Stages (ADDIE), Analysis, Needs Analysis, Audience Analysis, Environment Analysis, Content Analysis, System Analysis, Feasibility Analysis, Risk Analysis, Project Proposal, Design, Content Flowchart, Detailed Flowchart, Storyboards & Script, Specification, Development, A/V Production, Graphics Creation, Authoring, Manuals, Implementation, Delivery, Publishing, Evaluation, Summative Evaluation
The processes involved in an act of learning are, to large extent, activated internally. Output of any one structure becomes an input for the next and influenced by external events
Informing learner of the objective
Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning
Presenting the stimulus materials
Providing learning guidance
Eliciting the performance
Providing feedback about performance correctness
Assessing the performance
Enhancing retention and transfer
Read-Write Web, Features, create information and contribute to the sites by publishing content as infoware, read the web page and add their comments, text, graphics, animations, and other media and provide links to other sites, Subscribing to Information, subscribe and delivere, syndication feed and RSS allows information to be pushed to subscribers, Postcast our own audio and video content to anyone who wants to subscribe to it, Types, a collection of links maintained by individual, linklogs, blogging with content posted from mobile devices, moblogs, video recordings, vlogs, audio recordings, audilogs, collective publishing activities, wiki, collective intelligence like Facebook, create, manage, publish information, resources, blogs, information about favorite activities, movies, bands, images, audio / video clips, Resources sharing and referencing, add resource, create tags for “dig” through when searching for resoucre, provide recommendations and comments, assign a number of stars to the resource indicating its value, Internet-based information retrieval methodology like folksonomy, explore how the majority values the resource, examining tags used by community to describe that resource, explore the collective perception, The design of flexible systems like amazon.com online store, provide recommendations and comments, learn and improve based on users’ activities, as a Platform like Google Docs, transport traditionally computer-based software into the Internet environment, free for use, resides online, accessed by predefined group of collaborator, contain tools traditionally understood as being native to desktop computers, familiar interface and works in a similar way, documents, insert table and images, check spelling, format look and feel, in Education, e-learning 2.0, Integrate digital Element onto a e-lesson, Develop digital resources for learning activity, increased use of blogging in classrooms, attempts to use podcasting in teaching and learning, design learning management systems based on web2.0 like Nuvvo
Promise of Multimedia Learning, combining pictures with words, consistent with how people learn, aids to human learning, learn more deeply from well-designed multimedia presentations than from traditional verbal-only, teachers can tap the power of visual and verbal forms of expression, research base and theoretical framework that provide answers to basic questions
Multimedia Instructional Message, Words, picture, broader definitions, meaningful learning, not an arbitrary list of facts or procedure, provide explanations of how something works
Cognitive theory, Multimedia Presentation, Words, Pictures, Sensory Memory, Ears, Eyes, Short-term Memory, Selecting, Sounds, Images, organizing, Verbal Model, Pictorial Model, Long-term Memory, Integrating, Prior Knowledge
nature of human learning, daul channel assumption, the limited capacity assumption, active learning assumption, paying attention to relevant incoming words and pictures, mentally organizing them into coherent verbal and pictorial representations, mentally integrating verbal and pictorial representations with each other and with prior knowledge
Design Methods, multimedia effect, coherence effect, spatial contiguity effect, personalization effect
Personal Digital Assistants
GPS and GIS in the Classroom
Portable Electronic Keyboards
Chapter 10 “The events of instruction” from Gagne, R., Briggs, L. J., & Wager, W. W. (1992). Principles of instructional design. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.
Mayer, E. R. (2003). The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media. Learning & Instruction, 13, 125-139.
Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38
Bonk, C. J., & Cunningham, D. J. (1998). Searching for learner-centered, constructivist, and sociocultural components of collaborative educational learning tools. In C.J. Bonk, & K.S. Kind (Eds.), Electronic collaborators: Learner-centered technologies for literacy, apprenticeship, and discourse, (pp. 25-50). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.
Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64
Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.
Learning Theories Knowledgebase (2010), retrieved from http://www.learning-theories.com/constructivism.html
Handheld Devices in the Classroom, retrieved from http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic78.htm
Constructivism, Understanding is in our interactions with the environment, Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned., stimulus for learning, Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings, individual level ~ for testing our understanding, collaborative group ~ for enriching, interviewing, and expanding our understanding of particular issues or phenomena., develop a set of propositions (knowledge) compatible with our individual constructions or understanding of the world, all views, or all constructions are not equally viable, personal experiences
Instructional Principles, Anchor all learning activities to a larger task or problem, support the learner in developing ownership for the overall problem or task, solicit problems from the learners, use those as the stimulus for learning activities, design an authentic task, discussion and negotiation with the learner to develop a problem or task, Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment, cognitive apprenticeship, cognitive flexibility theories, reflects the importance of context in determining the understanding, Give the learner ownership of the process used to develop a solution, particular problem solving or critical thinking methodology be used, particular domains must be “learned”, Design the learning environment to support and challenge the learner’s thinking, support the learner in becoming an effective worker/thinker, Encourage testing ideas against alternative views and contents., Knowledge is socially negotiated, Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process, what was learned
media, people, places or ideas that have the potential to support learning
information assets-data points organized by an individual or individuals to convey a message
involves the reuse of availabe assets to suppport varied learning needs.