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2.1 Cell Theory by Mind Map: 2.1 Cell Theory
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2.1 Cell Theory

by using the SI Units compare the relative size of

a molecule

1 nm

thickness of cell membrane

10 nm


100 nm



eukaryotic cell

up to100 μm


up to 10 μm

outline one therapeutic use of stem cells

Where are stem cells found?

in bone marrow

Where stem cells can be used?

in bone marrow transplants to treat people who have certain types of cancer

What can kill the cancer cells?

high doses of chemotherapy

the normal cells in the bone marrow

What can the patient do before he is treated with chemotherapy?

He can undergo a bone marrow harvest in which stem cells are removed from the bone marrow by using a needle which is inserted into the hip bone

What is an alternative way to get stem cells?, Stem cells can be harvested from a matching donor.

Outline of cell theory

All living organisms are composed of cells.

Cells are the smallest unit of life.

New node

Cells come from pre-existing cells and cannot be created from non-living material.

the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size

Surface area affects the rate at which particles can enter and exit the cell

If the surface area to volume ratio gets too small then substances won’t be able to enter the cell fast enough to fuel the reactions and waste products will start to accumulate within the cell as they will be produced faster than they can be excreted

volume affects the rate at which material are made or used within the cell, hence the chemical activity per unit of time

cells will not be able to lose heat fast enough and so may overheat.

the rate of heat production/waste production/resource consumption of a cell is a function of its volume, whereas the rate of exchange of materials and energy (heat) is a function of its surface area

cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions

Rather than all cells carrying out all functions, tissues and organs specialize to particular functions.

Specialized cells have switched on particular genes (expressed) that correlate to these specialist functions.

These specific gene expressions produce particular shapes, functions and adaptations within a cell.

It is an advantage for multicellular organisms as cells can differentiate to be more efficient

Evidence for the cell theory

Scientists found out all living organisms are made up of cells

IThrough experiment scientists proved that cells cannot arise from non-living material

State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties

Multicellular organisms show emergent properties

Multicellular orgamisms> organ system> organ> tissue> cell

State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life

Metabolism: all chemical reactions which occur inside an organism

Response: (to the environment) is essential to survival

Homeostasis: Maintaining a constant internal environment e.g. temperature

Reproduction: hereditary molecules passed off to offspring

Growth: evident yet limited

Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification


1. Take measurement of the drawing (width or length)

2. Take the same measurement from the specimen

3. Convert units

Place values into the I AM calculation:, Magnification = Image size/actual size, Image size = actual size x magnification, Actual size = image size/magnification

State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways

Stem cells are the very early undifferentiated cells

This means that they are able to differentiate into cells made for specific functions

For example, cells in bone marrow have the capacity to differentiate into both red blood cells and white blood cells.