Organizing Change, Strategy & Identity

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Organizing Change, Strategy & Identity by Mind Map: Organizing Change, Strategy & Identity

1. Organizational Identity

1.1. Albert & Whetten (1985)

1.1.1. Two uses of identity, by scientists and by organizations themselves

1.1.2. Suggests carrying out an EMA (Extended Methaphor Analysis)

1.1.2.1. To analyze in which extent a given organization is more like a church (normative) or like a business (utilitarian)

1.1.3. A critique of the mono identity assumption

1.1.3.1. Define Multiple Identity Organizations and Hybrid Organizations

1.1.3.1.1. Holographic pluralism: where units are different but identity shared

1.1.3.1.2. Ideographic pluralism: where the pluralism is evident across units, but not within them

1.1.3.1.3. Hybrids are organisations whose identity is composed of two or more types (p. 95)

1.2. Schultz & Hernes, 2013

1.2.1. "A temporal perspective on Organizational Identity"

1.2.1.1. A case study on LEGO

1.2.1.2. Demonstrates how viewing identity construction from the perspective of an ongoing present adds a new dimension to understanding the temporal dynamics of organizational identity

1.2.1.3. Introduced 3 forms of memory

1.2.1.3.1. 1) Textual memory

1.2.1.3.2. 2) Material memory

1.2.1.3.3. 3) Oral memory

1.2.1.3.4. Ways in which organizations evoke the past

1.2.1.4. A conceptual framework

1.2.1.5. Memory is a construct. The past depends on the now. We draw on the past when we claim future identities.

1.2.1.6. Identity construction is an ongoing process

1.3. Schultz & Hernes, 2019

1.3.1. "Temporal interplay between strategy and identity: punctuated, subsumed and sustained modes"

1.3.1.1. Understanding how temporal differences influence their multiple interplay between strategy and identity

1.3.1.2. Proposes "3 modes of interplay"

1.3.1.2.1. Punctuated

1.3.1.2.2. Subsumed

1.3.1.2.3. Sustained

1.3.1.3. Longitudinal study on the Carlsberg Group

1.4. Langley, Oliver & Rouleau (2020)

1.4.1. "Strategy & Identities in Organizations"

1.4.1.1. Meta-research paper, literature review

1.4.1.2. Compare 3 perspectives on Stategy & Identity

1.4.1.2.1. Entitative

1.4.1.2.2. Narrative

1.4.1.2.3. Work

2. Culture

2.1. Giorgi, Lockwood & Glynn (2015)

2.1.1. Review of the culture literature

2.1.2. Pendulum; switch back and forth between toolkits and values

2.1.3. Can be linked to Edgar Schein's 3 levels of culture

2.1.3.1. Artifacts, Espoused Values, and Basic Underlying Assumptions

2.1.4. Culture is seen as a web of meanings

2.1.5. "The Many Faces of Culture"

2.1.5.1. 4 different aspects of culture is found

2.1.5.1.1. Culture as values

2.1.5.1.2. Culture as stories

2.1.5.1.3. Culture as frames

2.1.5.1.4. Culture as toolkits

2.1.5.1.5. Culture as categories

2.2. Hatch, Schultz & Skov (2015)

2.2.1. Organizational Identity and Culture in the Context of Managed Change: Transformation in the Carlsberg Group, 2009-2013

2.2.1.1. Represents top and middle managers' experience and understanding of a 5 year tranformational change

2.2.1.2. The study shows that engaging in processes of reflecting, questioning and debating about their organization's identity, led middle managers and employees support the identity claims made by top management

2.2.1.2.1. Furthermore conclude a complex relation exists between culture and organizational identity

2.2.1.3. Cultural change mechanisms

2.2.1.3.1. Dis-embedding

2.2.1.3.2. Dis-enchanting

2.2.1.3.3. Dis-respecting

2.3. Hugh Wilmott (1993)

2.3.1. "Strength is ignorance; slavery is freedom: Managing culture in modern organizations"

2.3.1.1. (Very) Critical Mangement Studies - Literature review

2.3.1.1.1. Draw parallels to the Party in George Orwells 1984.

2.3.1.1.2. In the 80's, corp. culture is regarded as a competetive advantage

2.3.1.1.3. "Cultural diversity is dissolved in the acid bath of the core corporate values"

3. Narratives

3.1. Lounsbury & Glynn (2001)

3.1.1. "Cultural Entrepreneurship: Stories, Legitimacy and The Aquisition of Resources"

3.1.1.1. Define Cultural Entrepreneurship

3.1.1.1.1. "The process of storytelling, that mediates between entrepreneurial resources and subsequent wealth creation"

3.1.1.2. Propose a framework focusing on how entrepreneurial stories facilitate the crafting of new venture identities

3.1.1.3. Implications

3.1.1.3.1. Entrepreneurs must become "cultural operatives", skilled at telling stories about who they are and how their ideas will lead to future benefits for consumers and society as a whole

3.2. Foster et al.

3.2.1. Narratives can be used strategically, by reframing the facts

3.2.2. Key point: the past provides organisations strategic advantages

3.3. Barry & Elmes (not on reading list)

3.3.1. Famous article

3.3.2. Conncection between strategy & narratives

3.3.3. Language is used to construct meaning.

3.3.4. Relates to sensegiving

3.3.5. Narratives are about credibility

3.4. Stjerne, Wenzel & Svejenova (2020)

3.4.1. How temporal narratives enable commitment in fluid organizations

3.4.1.1. A case study on SDG2 Advocacy Hub

3.4.1.1.1. Fluid forms of organizing brings together heterogenous types of actors with diverse interests and expertise

3.4.1.1.2. Temporal narratives can enable commitment in fluid organisations

3.4.2. Identifies 3 types of organizing

3.4.2.1. Local

3.4.2.2. Universal

3.4.2.3. Connecting

3.5. Vaara, Sonenshein & Boje (2016

3.5.1. "Narratives as Sources of Stability and Change in Organizations: Approaches and Directions for Future Research"

3.5.1.1. Speaks nicely to the three elements of the course.

3.5.1.2. Narratives and organizing change

3.5.1.2.1. The plot of the story has an impact on the action/solution space

3.5.1.2.2. Narratives provides essential means for maintaining and reproducing stability and/or as to promote change

3.5.1.3. Critical review on the literature on organizational narratives

3.6. Saku Mantere (2013)

3.6.1. "What Is Organizational Strategy? A Language-based view"

3.6.1.1. Organizational Strategy is a Language Game

3.6.1.1.1. Doing strategy entails "Linguistic Labour"

3.6.1.1.2. Conceived as a rule-governed practice integrating communication and action

3.6.1.2. Helps to understand linkages between institutional, network, organizational and micro levels of strategy

3.6.1.3. A review on the strategy literature

3.6.1.4. Case study in Icarus Inc

3.6.1.4.1. Baffled by not understanding their management lingo

3.7. Kaplan & Orlokowski (2014)

3.7.1. "Beyond Forecasting: Creating New Strategic Narrativess"

3.7.1.1. Narratives needs to be coherent, plausible and acceptable

3.7.1.1.1. To create acceptable narratives, you need to satisfy the majority of stakeholders

3.7.1.2. Strategy Making is about constructions new narratives that tie together interpretations of the past, present and the future

3.7.1.2.1. It's about creating a "good enough for now" narrative for the situation

3.7.1.2.2. "Managers need to engage directly with the past to shape narratives"

3.7.1.2.3. Breakdowns in the strategy making is learning opportunities, not failure

3.7.1.3. Based on case study of "Comm Corp"

4. Crisis

4.1. Kornberger, Leixnering & Meyer (2019)

4.1.1. "The Logic of Tact: How Decisions Happen in Situations of Crisis"

4.1.1.1. The logic of tact

4.1.1.1.1. Many different players/actors

4.1.1.1.2. Similarities with logic of appropriateness

4.1.1.1.3. Overarching goal: we want to act in a humane way, with respect for the Austrians

4.1.1.1.4. Esprit de courage

4.1.1.2. Draws on James March & Weick

4.1.1.3. Aspect of agility

4.1.1.3.1. "The fog of war"

4.1.1.4. Focus on Refugee crisis in Vienna, Austria. Many different actors involved.

4.1.1.4.1. Unsure situation. Crisis. No templates.

4.1.1.5. Sensemaking

4.2. Ferraro, Etzion & Gehman (2015)

4.2.1. "Tackling Grand Challenges Pragmatically: Robust Action Revisited"

4.2.1.1. Defining robust action

4.2.1.1.1. Gives it new meaning

4.2.1.1.2. Can be defined as strategic action

4.2.1.2. Identify 3 robust action strategies

4.2.1.2.1. Participatory architecture

4.2.1.2.2. Multivocal inscriptions

4.2.1.2.3. Distributed experimentation

4.2.1.3. Based on prior empirical research

4.2.1.4. Novel approach on how to address the world's challenges

4.2.1.4.1. Based on American pragmatism and sociological concept of robust action

4.3. Scoblic, 2020

4.3.1. "Leaning From the Future: How to make robust strategy in times of deep uncertaunty"

4.3.1.1. We should try to strengthen our capabilities in strategic foresighting.

4.3.1.1.1. It's not predicting the future, but imagining multiple futures in creative ways that heighten our ability to sense, shape and adapt.

4.3.1.1.2. A tool could be scenario planning

4.3.1.1.3. It should be institutionalized

4.3.2. Written in the midst of COVID-19

5. Sensemaking

5.1. Langley & Ravasi (2019)

5.1.1. Visual Artifacts as Tools for analysis and theorizing

5.1.1.1. Mapping

5.1.1.2. Analyzing

5.1.1.3. Conceptual

5.1.1.4. Communicating

5.2. Karl Weick (1979)

5.2.1. "Interlocked behaviours and organizing"

5.3. Maitlis & Sonenshein (2010)

5.3.1. "Sensemaking in Crisis & Change: Inspiration and Insights from Weick (1988)"

5.3.1.1. Argue for two core themes that underlie sensemaking in crisis

5.3.1.1.1. Shared meaning

5.3.1.1.2. Emotion

5.3.1.2. Draw on Weick's definitions and case studies

5.3.1.2.1. Main focus is on the 1988 Weick case study on the Bhopal Gas leakage

5.3.1.3. Literature review on Sensemaking in crisis

5.4. Karl Weick (1995) - Not on readings

5.4.1. Storytelling is a process of making sense of actions, events and objects, or of explaining the relationships between them

5.4.1.1. When change happens and the organization is altered, people need a good story to feel coherence

5.4.1.1.1. (…) something that preserves plausibility and coherence, something that is reasonable and memorable, something that embodies past experience and expectations, something which resonates with other people, something that can be constructed retrospectively, something that captures both feeling and thought, something that allows for embellishment to fit current oddities, something that is fun to contrast. In short, what is necessary in sensemaking is a good story (p. 60-61).

5.4.2. We act in the light of sense we have previously made of things

5.4.3. Defines sensemaking

5.4.3.1. The process of social construction that occurs when conflicting individuals retrospectively develop plausible meanings that rationalize action

5.4.3.1.1. In doing so, you bracket cues from the environment and interpret them

5.4.4. Three sets of interweaving processes

5.4.4.1. The perception of cues

5.4.4.2. Making interpretations

5.4.4.3. Engaging in action

5.5. Salanchic (1979)

5.5.1. "Commitment and the control of Organizational Behavior and Belief"

5.5.1.1. Several degrees of commitment

5.5.1.2. Lists four characteristics of behavioural acts that are binding

5.5.1.2.1. Explicitness

5.5.1.2.2. Revocability/Reversability

5.5.1.2.3. Volition (will)

5.5.1.2.4. Publicity

5.6. Smircich & Morgan (1982)

5.6.1. "Leadership as a process of framing (sensegiving)"

5.6.1.1. Leadership is realized in the process of successfully framing and defining the reality for others

5.6.1.1.1. Leadership depends on the existence of individuals willing to surrender to some extent the power of shaping and defining their own reality

5.7. Holt & Corneliussen (2014)

5.7.1. "Sensemaking revisited"

5.7.1.1. Man Gulch Fire and Weicks' interpretation of it in his 1993 case study

5.7.1.2. Heidegger, "Being and time", explores the close connectivity with sensemaking

5.7.1.3. Sensemaking is about the process of framing, narrating and categorizing organizational situations

5.7.1.3.1. To contextualize a specific cue or experience in the context of a learnt frame, narrative og category

5.7.1.4. Provide an overview of the Sensemaking literature

6. Strategy

6.1. Michael Porter (1996)

6.1.1. What is strategy?

6.1.1.1. Super normative approach

6.1.1.2. 1. Operational Effectiveness is not strategy

6.1.1.2.1. Mind your own business! Stop looking after competitors, it is not enough in the long run. You have to evaluate how you can create unique value

6.1.1.3. 2. Strategy Rest on Unique Activities

6.1.1.3.1. The essence of strategy is choosing to perform activities differently than rivals do

6.1.1.4. 3. A Sustainable Strategic Position Requires Trade-offs

6.1.1.4.1. You can not be a football star and a top league tennis player at once

6.1.1.4.2. Another essence of strategy is choosing what not to do

6.2. Michael Porter (2008)

6.2.1. "The 5 Competetive Forces that shape Strategy"

6.2.1.1. 1. Threat of New Entrants

6.2.1.2. 2. Barganing Power of Buyers

6.2.1.3. 3.Threat of Substitute Product or Service

6.2.1.4. 4. Barganing Power of Suppliers

6.2.1.5. 5. Rivalvry Amongst Competitors

6.2.1.6. The framework can be applied EVERYWHERE

6.3. Kim & Mauborgne (2005)

6.3.1. Blue Ocean Strategy

6.3.1.1. "The language of strategy is deeply imbued with military references"

6.3.1.1.1. Strategy is also seen as a language game

6.3.1.2. Focus away from competition, making competitors irrelevant by creating new market space/value

6.3.1.2.1. In opposition to Michael Porter's rivalry POW. Still positioning and value creation though.

6.4. Alstyne, Parker & Choudary (2016)

6.4.1. Pipelines, Platforms and The New Rules of Strategy

6.4.1.1. Scale trumps differentiation

6.4.1.1.1. Examples? Uber, Alibaba, Apple, AirBnB...

6.4.1.2. Platforms are not new, but information technology has reduced the need to own assets and physical infrastructure

6.4.1.2.1. New rules, cuz' this is a goddam game changer

6.4.1.2.2. From resource control to resource orchestration

6.4.1.2.3. Focus on demand-side of economics of scale -> Network effects

6.5. Harreld, O’Reilly, Tushman (2007)

6.5.1. Dynamic Capabilities at IBM, Driving Strategy into Action

6.5.1.1. Over a 20 year period IBM went from succes to failure and back to succes

6.5.1.1.1. They leveraged intellectual capital in a profitable way

6.5.1.1.2. A narrative about the interplay between dynamic capabilities and strategy

6.5.1.1.3. Ongoing process of disciplined factbased conversations

6.5.1.2. They critizise Porter for being too static - that the 5 forces framework only can tell about a single point in time

6.5.1.3. Dynamic capabilities built on core competences and can be built and adapted by management to adress rapidly changing environments

6.5.1.3.1. Sustained competetive advantages come from the firms ability to leverage and reconfigure existing competences and abilities

6.5.1.3.2. It is about sensing opportunities and seize them succesfully by allocating ressources

6.5.1.3.3. It is the job of management to create the best conditions for dynamic capabilities

6.5.1.4. Processual view. Culture is needed. Annual planning doesn't make sense anymore.

6.5.1.4.1. Importance of multiple strategies (scenario planning).

6.5.1.5. Link to James March: Exploration and exploitation (ambidexterity). There's a trade-off between limited assets/resources to be allocated.

6.6. Mitzberg & Waters (1985)

6.6.1. "Of Strategies: Deliberate & Emergent"

6.6.1.1. Criticize strategy as plans and famously coins strategy "as a pattern in a stream of decisions"

6.6.1.1.1. There's often a discrepancy between planned strategies and realized strategy

6.7. Gans, Scott, & Stern (2018)

6.7.1. "Strategy for Start-Ups"

6.7.1.1. Present the framework"The Entrepreneurial Strategy Compass"

7. Social Movements

7.1. Nyberg & Wright (2012)

7.1.1. "Justifying business response to climate change: discursive strategies of similarity and difference"

7.1.1.1. Demonstrate how businesses justify their actions in order to meet critcism and challenges

7.1.1.2. Identify different discursive justification strategies

7.1.1.2.1. Based in Economies of Worth Framework

7.2. Cloutier, Gond & Leca (2017)

7.2.1. "Justification, Evaluation and Critique: An Introduction to the Volume"

7.2.1.1. They highlight why Boltanski & Thévenot's framework, Economies of Worth, is important in evaluating, critizing and understanding the justication of organizations

7.2.1.1.1. They see an untapped potential in the framework

7.3. The mobilization of citizens to achieve political and social change

7.4. Boltanski & Thévenot (1999)

7.4.1. Economies of Worth Framework

7.5. Polletta & Jasper (2001)

7.5.1. "Collective Identity & Social Movements"

7.5.1.1. P&J try to define collective identity, the forms it comes in, and what it's not

7.5.1.1.1. It's not the aggregated individuals' identity, but more of a construct in constant negotiation.

7.5.1.2. P&J criticize how the term collective identity is being used and point out several misunderstandings

8. Change

8.1. Kurt Lewin

8.1.1. Sociologist

8.1.1.1. Unfreeze - move - refreeze

8.2. Weick & Quinn (1999)

8.2.1. "Organizational Change & Development"

8.2.1.1. Episodic change

8.2.1.1.1. Unfreeze-Change/Transition-Freeze

8.2.1.1.2. Change is infrequent, discontinuous and intentional

8.2.1.2. Continuous change

8.2.1.2.1. Freeze-Rebalance-Unfreeze

8.2.1.2.2. Organizations are emergent and self-organizing, change is constant, evolving and cumulative

8.2.1.3. Episodic change and continuous change are contrasts

8.3. Van de Ven & Poole (1995)

8.3.1. Meta study on change

8.3.2. "Explaining Development & Change in Organizations"

8.3.3. Introduce four basic theories to serve as building blocks in describing org. change

8.3.3.1. Life Cycle

8.3.3.1.1. Organic growth

8.3.3.2. Teleology

8.3.3.2.1. Purposeful cooperation

8.3.3.3. Dialectics

8.3.3.3.1. Conflict, opposition

8.3.3.4. Evolution

8.3.3.4.1. Competetive survival

8.3.3.5. Represent different sequences driven by different motors

8.4. Suddaby & Foster (2017)

8.4.1. "History and Organizational Change"

8.4.1.1. Introduce historical consciousness to studying organizational change

8.4.1.1.1. Assumptions about history made explicit in order to construct models of change

8.5. David Buchanan (2017)

8.5.1. "Managing Change"

8.5.1.1. Assesment of value of change guidelines

8.5.1.2. Review of the change management literature

8.5.1.3. Critical management studies

8.6. John Kotter

8.6.1. 8 step acceleration model

8.6.1.1. 1. Create a sense of urgency

8.6.1.2. 3. Form a strategic vision

8.6.1.3. 4. Communicate the strategy and vision

8.6.1.4. 8. Institutionalize the change in the organizational culture

8.6.2. Distinction between change managers and change leaders (2012b)