Psychological Disorders

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Psychological Disorders by Mind Map: Psychological Disorders

1. Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders

1.1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1.1.1. People with this disorder experience thoughts and urges that are intrusive and unwanted (obsessions) and/or the need to engage in repetitive behaviors or mental acts (compulsions).

1.1.2. The concordance rate of OCD among identical twins is around 57%. The disorder is five times more frequent in the first-degree relatives of people with OCD than in people without the disorder.

1.1.3. Illustration of OCD

1.2. Body Dysmorphic

1.2.1. The person is preoccupied with a perceived flaw in their physical appearance that is either nonexistent or barely noticeable to other people. The person engages in repetitive and ritualistic behavioral and mental acts, such as constantly looking in the mirror, trying to hide the offending body part, comparisons with others, and, in some extreme cases, cosmetic surgery.

1.2.2. Illustration of Body Dysmorphic

1.3. Hoarding Disorder

1.3.1. People with hoarding disorder cannot get rid of personal possessions, regardless of how valueless or useless these possessions are. Illustration of Hoarding Disorder

2. Mood Disorders

2.1. Major Depressive Disorders

2.1.1. Symptoms Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day (feeling sad, empty, hopeless, or appearing tearful to others) Loss of interest and pleasure in usual activities. Most people recover from Major Depression within a year but their chances to get another episode increase each time they have one. It is more common among women than among men, affecting approximately 20% of women and 13% of men at some point in their life. To receive a diagnosis of major depressive disorder, one must experience at least five symptoms for at least a two-week period. Significant weight loss (when not dieting) or weight gain and/or significant decrease or increase in appetite Difficulty falling asleep or sleeping too much Psychomotor agitation or psychomotor retardation Fatigue or loss of energy Feelings of worthlessness or guilt Difficulty concentrating and indecisiveness Suicidal ideation or attempt

2.1.2. Illustration of Major Depressive Disorder

2.2. Subtypes of Depression

2.2.1. Postpartum Illustration of Postpartum

2.2.2. Seasonal Illustration of Seasonal

2.2.3. Persistent Depressed moods most of the day nearly every day for at least two years, as well as at least two of the other symptoms. Illustration of Persistent

2.3. Bipolar Disorder

2.3.1. The person often experiences mood states that vacillate between depression and mania.

2.3.2. According to the DSM-5, a manic episode is characterized as a “distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood and abnormally and persistently increased activity or energy lasting at least one week,” that lasts most of the time each day.

2.3.3. Symptoms Mood that is almost euphoric. Excessively talkative. Spontaneously starting conversations with strangers. Excessively irritable. Abruptly switching from one topic to another. May exhibit grandiosity. Engage in recklessly pleasure activities that could have harmful consequences. (Gambling, reckless driving, etc.)

2.3.4. Illustration of Bipolar disorder

3. Dissociative Disorders

3.1. Dissociative Amnesia

3.1.1. The individual is unable to recall important personal information. (They may even forget who they are and adopt another identity for a few hours or days)

3.1.2. It usually follows an extremely stressful or traumatic experience such as combat, natural disasters, or being the victim of violence.

3.1.3. Illustration of Dissociative Amnesia

3.2. Depersonalization

3.2.1. The person believes his/her movements, thoughts and feelings are not their own.

3.2.2. Illustration Depersonalization

3.3. Derealization

3.3.1. The person feels that the world surrounding them is not real.

3.3.2. Illustration of Derealization

3.4. DID

3.4.1. Multiple Personality Disorder People with dissociative identity disorder exhibit two or more separate personalities or identities, each well-defined and distinct from one another. Causes About 95% of people with DID were physically and/or sexually abused as children.

3.4.2. Illustration of DID

4. Psychotic Disorders

4.1. Schizophrenia

4.1.1. Considered a psychotic disorder - the person’s thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors are impaired to the point where he/she is not able to function normally in life.

4.1.2. Symptoms Hallucination: a perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of external stimulation. Delusions: beliefs that are contrary to reality and are firmly held even in the face of contradictory evidence (paranoid, grandiose or somatic). Disorganized thinking: incoherent thought processes. Disorganized or abnormal motor behavior: unusual behaviors and movements (very active or catatonic). Negative symptoms: noticeable decreases and absences in certain behaviors, emotions, or drives.

4.1.3. Causes Both genetic vulnerability and environmental stress are necessary for schizophrenia to develop. Obstetric complications. (That affect brain development) Another variable that is linked to schizophrenia is marijuana use. Longitudinal studies have suggested that marijuana use is, in fact, a risk factor for schizophrenia. People that had used marijuana at least once in life were 2 times more likely to develop schizophrenia. People that had used it more than 50 times were 6 times more likely to develop schizophrenia.

4.1.4. Illustration of Schizophrenia


5.1. Social Anxiety Disorder

5.1.1. Also called Social Phobia

5.1.2. Is characterized by extreme and persistent fear or anxiety and avoidance of social situations in which the person could potentially be evaluated negatively by others

5.1.3. Illustration Social Anxiety Disorder

5.2. Social Anxiety Disorders

5.3. Panic Disorders

5.3.1. Imagine that you are at the mall one day with your friends and—suddenly and inexplicably—you begin sweating and trembling, your heart starts pounding, you have trouble breathing, and you start to feel dizzy and nauseous. This episode lasts for 10 minutes and is terrifying because you start to think that you are going to die. Symptoms Feeling dizzy, unsteady, lightheaded, shortness of breath, chest pain, palpitations and or /accelerated heart rate, nausea or abdominal stress.

5.3.2. Illustration of Panic disorder

5.4. Generalized Anxiety Disorders

5.4.1. Is a relatively continuous state of excessive, uncontrollable, and pointless worry and apprehension.

5.4.2. People with generalized anxiety disorder often worry about routine, everyday things, even though their concerns are unjustified.

5.4.3. Illustration General Anxiety Disorders

5.5. Phobias

5.5.1. Intense, unreasonable and persistent fear caused by the presence or anticipation of a specific object or situation Mexico 5 most common phobias: Aracnofobia Fobia social Aerofobia Agorafobia Claustrofobia

5.5.2. Illustration of Phobias

6. Personality Disorders

6.1. Cluster A

6.1.1. Disorders include paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder.

6.1.2. People with these disorders display a personality style that is odd or eccentric.

6.2. Cluster B

6.2.1. Disorders include antisocial personality disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

6.2.2. People with these disorders usually are impulsive, overly dramatic, highly emotional, and erratic.

6.3. Cluster C

6.3.1. Disorders include avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

6.3.2. People with these disorders often appear to be nervous and fearful.

6.4. Illustration of Cluster A, B and C

7. Trauma and Stress Disorders

7.1. PTSD

7.1.1. Extremely stressful or traumatic events, such as combat, natural disasters, and terrorist attacks, place the people who experience them at an increased risk for developing psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

7.1.2. Illustration of PTSD

8. Disorders in Childhood

8.1. Anxiety

8.1.1. Anxiety may present as fear or worry, but can also make children irritable and angry.

8.1.2. Symptoms Include trouble sleeping, as well as physical symptoms like fatigue, headaches, or stomachaches. Some anxious children keep their worries to themselves and, thus, the symptoms can be missed.

8.1.3. Types of Anxiety Being very afraid when away from parents (separation anxiety) Having extreme fear about a specific thing or situation, such as dogs, insects, or going to the doctor (phobias) Being very afraid of school and other places where there are people (social anxiety) Having repeated episodes of sudden, unexpected, intense fear that come with symptoms like heart pounding, having trouble breathing, or feeling dizzy, shaky, or sweaty (panic disorder)

8.1.4. Illustration of Anxiety

8.2. Depression

8.2.1. Occasionally being sad or feeling hopeless is a part of every child’s life. However, some children feel sad or uninterested in things that they used to enjoy, or feel helpless or hopeless in situations they are able to change. When children feel persistent sadness and hopelessness, they may be diagnosed with depression. Extreme depression can lead a child to think about suicide or plan for suicide. For youth ages 10-24 years, suicide is among the leading causes of death. Some children may not talk about their helpless and hopeless thoughts, and may not appear sad. Depression might also cause a child to make trouble or act unmotivated, causing others not to notice that the child is depressed or to incorrectly label the child as a trouble-maker or lazy

8.2.2. Behaviors Feeling sad, hopeless, or irritable a lot of the time. Not wanting to do or enjoy doing fun things Showing changes in eating patterns – eating a lot more or a lot less than usual Showing changes in sleep patterns – sleeping a lot more or a lot less than normal Showing changes in energy – being tired and sluggish or tense and restless a lot of the time Having a hard time paying attention Feeling worthless, useless, or guilty Showing self-injury and self-destructive behavior

8.3. ODD

8.3.1. When children act out persistently so that it causes serious problems at home, in school, or with peers, they may be diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). ODD usually starts before 8 years of age, but no later than by about 12 years of age. Children with ODD are more likely to act oppositional or defiant around people they know well, such as family members, a regular care provider, or a teacher. Children with ODD show these behaviors more often than other children their age.

8.3.2. Behaviours Often being angry or losing one’s temper Often arguing with adults or refusing to comply with adults’ rules or requests Often resentful or spiteful Deliberately annoying others or becoming annoyed with others Often blaming other people for one’s own mistakes or misbehavior

8.3.3. Illustration of ODD

8.4. CD

8.4.1. Is diagnosed when children show an ongoing pattern of aggression toward others, and serious violations of rules and social norms at home, in school, and with peers. These rule violations may involve breaking the law and result in arrest. Children with CD are more likely to get injured and may have difficulties getting along with peers.

8.4.2. Behaviors Breaking serious rules, such as running away, staying out at night when told not to, or skipping school Being aggressive in a way that causes harm, such as bullying, fighting, or being cruel to animals Lying, stealing, or damaging other people’s property on purpose

8.5. ADHD

8.5.1. Is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It is usually first diagnosed in childhood and often lasts into adulthood. Children with ADHD may have trouble paying attention, controlling impulsive behaviors (may act without thinking about what the result will be), or be overly active.

8.5.2. Symptoms Daydream a lot forget or lose things a lot squirm or fidget Talk too much Make careless mistakes or take unnecessary risks Have a hard time resisting temptation Have trouble taking turns Have difficulty getting along with others

8.5.3. Types Predominantly Inattentive It is hard for the individual to organize or finish a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow instructions or conversations. The person is easily distracted or forgets details of daily routines. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive The person fidgets and talks a lot. It is hard to sit still for long (e.g., for a meal or while doing homework). Smaller children may run, jump or climb constantly. The individual feels restless and has trouble with impulsivity. Someone who is impulsive may interrupt others a lot, grab things from people, or speak at inappropriate times. It is hard for the person to wait their turn or listen to directions. A person with impulsiveness may have more accidents and injuries than others. Combined Symptoms of the above two types are equally present in the person.

8.5.4. Causes Is caused by eating too much sugar, watching too much television, parenting, or social and environmental factors such as poverty or family chaos. Of course, many things, including these, might make symptoms worse, especially in certain people.

8.5.5. Treatment ADHD is best treated with a combination of behavior therapy and medication. For preschool-aged children (4-5 years of age) with ADHD, behavior therapy, particularly training for parents, is recommended as the first line of treatment before medication is tried. What works best can depend on the child and family. Good treatment plans will include close monitoring, follow-ups, and making changes, if needed, along the way.

8.5.6. Diagnosis Involves having a medical exam, including hearing and vision tests, to rule out other problems with symptoms like ADHD. Diagnosing ADHD usually includes a checklist for rating ADHD symptoms and taking a history of the child from parents, teachers, and sometimes, the child.

8.5.7. Illustration of ADHD

8.6. Tourette Syndrome

8.6.1. Tourette Syndrome (TS) is a condition of the nervous system. TS causes people to have “tics”. Tics are sudden twitches, movements, or sounds that people do repeatedly. There are 2 types of tics: motor and vocal.

8.6.2. Symptoms Usually begin when a child is 5 to 10 years of age. The first symptoms often are motor tics that occur in the head and neck area. Tics usually are worse during times that are stressful or exciting. They tend to improve when a person is calm or focused on an activity.

8.6.3. Illustration of Tourette Syndrome

8.7. OCD

8.7.1. Many children occasionally have thoughts that bother them, and they might feel like they have to do something about those thoughts, even if their actions don’t actually make sense Treatments can include behavior therapy and medication.

8.7.2. Symptoms Having unwanted thoughts, impulses, or images that occur over and over and which cause anxiety or distress. Having to think about or say something over and over (for example, counting, or repeating words over and over silently or out loud) Having to do something over and over (for example, handwashing, placing things in a specific order, or checking the same things over and over, like whether a door is locked) Having to do something over and over according to certain rules that must be followed exactly in order to make an obsession go away.

8.7.3. Illustration of OCD

8.8. PTSD

8.8.1. All children may experience very stressful events that affect how they think and feel. Most of the time, children recover quickly and well. However, sometimes children who experience severe stress, such as from an injury, from the death or threatened death of a close family member or friend, or from violence, will be affected long-term. The child could experience this trauma directly or could witness it happening to someone else. When children develop long term symptoms (longer than one month) from such stress, which are upsetting or interfere with their relationships and activities

8.8.2. Symptoms Reliving the event over and over in thought or in play Nightmares and sleep problems Becoming very upset when something causes memories of the event Lack of positive emotions Intense ongoing fear or sadness Irritability and angry outbursts Constantly looking for possible threats, being easily startled Acting helpless, hopeless or withdrawn Denying that the event happened or feeling numb Avoiding places or people associated with the event

8.8.3. Illustration of PTSD