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Overview of Macrolides by Mind Map: Overview of Macrolides
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Overview of Macrolides

General information

antibiotics

large macrocyclic lactone ring to which deoxy sugars are attached

fist macrolide was erythromycin

semi-synthetic derivatives (commonly used)

Ketolides are active against some macrolide-resistant strains

Mechanism of action

bacteriostatic (inhibit protein synthesis)

binds irreversibly to 50 S ribosomes

same or close to binding site of chloramphenicol (so they antagonize each other)

Antimicrobial spectrum

gm+, and to lesser extend gm- cocci. gm- bacilli are resistant

gm+

clarithromycin is superior especially with strept. pygenes and strept. pneumoniae

gm-

other

pharmacokinetics

Erythromycin

Clarithromycin

Azithromycin

Therapeutic uses

Respiratory tract infections

Skin and soft tissue infections

Diphtheria

Campylobacter infections

Helicobacter pylori infection

Mycobacterial infections

Prophylactic uses

Adverse effects

Erythromycin causes heptotoxicity and epigastric distress

clarithromycin and azithromycin have the same side effects but at lower rate

Erythromycin and clarithromycin causes ventricular techycardia

allergenic reactions may occur

Drug interactions