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Aminoglycosides by Mind Map: Aminoglycosides
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Aminoglycosides

Derived from Streptomyces

streptomycin

kanamycin

tobaramycin

superior activity against P. aeruginosa

granulocytopenia and sepsis

neomycin

topical infection

paromomycin

Derived from Micromanosporum

astromycin

gentamicin

first choice

prolonged use is toxic

treat bacterial endocarditis

sisomicin

Semi synthetic

arbekacin

netlimicin

not metabolized by amino glycoside inactivating enzymes

resistant bacteria

may be less toxic (animal studies)

amikacin

gm- bacilli - hospital acquired, resistant to gentamicin and tobramycin (nosocomial)

not metabolized by amino glycoside inactivating enzymes

Mechanism

irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis

Interference with formation of 30S

cause the 30S to misread the genetic code

break up the polysomes of nonfunctional monosomes

Pharmacokinetics

highly polar

poor in adipose tissue

do not enter CNS and eyes

poorly absorbed from the GI unless diseased

rapidly absorbed IM

shock absorption due to poor perfusion

usually given IV

excreted by kidney

concentration dependent effect

usually used in combination with beta lactum or glycopeptide

adverse effects

toxicity from local application after long time

causes nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity

ototoxicity in fetus (late pregnancy)

rashes (topical)

Indications

resistant UTI

hospital acquired pneumonia

combined with BL

resistant meningitis

bacterial endocarditis

granulocytopenia and sepsis

nosocomial infections