Learning Theories Concept Map

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Learning Theories Concept Map by Mind Map: Learning Theories Concept Map

1. Cognitivism

1.1. Lev Vygostky (1970) Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development: How Relationships Increase Learning

1.1.1. Learning Teories

1.2. SSL 1 Cognitive Approach General Learning Mechanism

1.2.1. Input-Based Emergentist Perspectives

1.2.2. Processing -Based Perpectives

1.3. Cognitive Approach to Second language Learning

1.3.1. General Learning Mechanisms

1.3.2. Memory Systems

1.4. Bloom's Taxonomy

1.4.1. Place emphasis in a concept as a whole instead of just pieces.

1.5. David Paul Ausubel Ausebel’s theory focuses on meaningful learning. According to his theory, to learn meaningfully, individuals must relate new knowledge to relevant concepts they already know. New knowledge must interact with the learner’s knowledge structure.

2. History of Second language Learning Research: Learning Theories TIME LINE

2.1. 1920's

2.1.1. Watson 1924 Published behaviorism approach in Psychology

2.2. 1930's

2.2.1. Bloomfield 1933

2.3. 1940"s

2.3.1. 1945 Fries, Based of Behaviorism develops Pedagogy of Language

2.4. 1950's

2.4.1. Structuralism Used Structuralism drew from Palmer 1920's and Fries 1940's

2.4.2. Behaviorism

2.4.3. Developmentalism Place behaviorism in the background and brings new developmental theories in the late 1950's Noam Chomsky 1957 Publishs "Syntactic Structures" Book

2.4.4. Lado, R 1957 Compares languages to establish differences "Contrastive Analisys"

2.4.5. Noam Chomsky 1959 Criticizes Skinner and promotes the innate learning language faculties later know as UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR.

2.5. 1960's

2.5.1. Lado 1964 Draws in the structuralist linguistics and Behaviorist Psychology to develop a teaching approach thru audiolinguistics

2.5.2. Newmark, L. 1966 Takes and opposite approach to Lado's, arguing that teachers should let the learning process to take a free course, rather than the audiolinguistic.

2.5.3. Corder, S. P. 1969 Studies the significance of learners errors base on L1, and that learners have a sillaby of their own as was previously proposed by Chomsky (1959)

2.5.4. Lennenberg, E. 1967 Children have a spontaneous and innate ability to learn the L1 language.

3. Models of language

3.1. The Affective filter Hypothesis

3.2. The Monitor hypotheis

3.3. Acquisition Learning Hypotheris

3.4. The Input Hypothesis

3.5. Spolsky's General Model of Second language Learning.

3.6. Monitor Model

3.6.1. Krashen's 1970Stephen Krashen on Language Acquisition

3.7. Acculturation Model

3.7.1. Schumann's Pidginization Acculturation Model 1970"s Investigated adult language learning, trading of language or simply pidging.

3.8. Formalist

3.9. Functionalist

3.10. Emergentist

3.11. Communicative Competence

3.12. CAF; Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency FRAMEWORK.

3.13. Information Processing Models

3.14. Connectivism

3.14.1. Bring people together through connections by using networking. XXI century theory by George Siemens and Stevens Downs

3.15. The Natural Order Hypothesis

4. References

5. Behaviorism

5.1. Thorndike 193 Trial and Error Theory of Learning

5.1.1. Tle Law of effect

5.2. Skinner 1957 "Verbal Behavior" Skinner’s Operant Conditioning: Rewards & Punishments

5.2.1. Assert that language learning develops through stimuli, response and reinforcement

5.3. Pavlov's Conditioning Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning

6. Development

6.1. Piaget Congnitive development theory 1970 Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

7. Constructivism

7.1. Learn through experiences, self-directed learning.Constructivism is based on the idea that people actively construct or make their own knowledge, and that reality is determined by your experiences as a learner.

7.2. Main Theorists. John Dewey (1933/1998) is often cited as the philosophical founder of this approach. Bruner (1990) and Piaget (1972) are considered the chief theorists among the cognitive constructivists, while Vygotsky (1978) is the major theorist among the social constructivists. (Education Theory/Constructivism and Social Constructivism - UCD - CTAG, 2020)

8. Connectivism Connectivism is a theoretical framework for understanding learning in a digital age. It emphasizes how internet technologies such as web browsers, search engines, wikis, online discussion forums, and social networks contributed to new avenues of learning.

8.1. SSL Interaction on Second Language Learning

8.1.1. The Revised Interaction Hypothesis and Appeal to Cognitive Theory (Long 1996)

8.1.2. Negotiation of Meaning and the Learning of Target L2 structures and Vocabulary

8.1.3. The Role of Feedback during Oral interaction

8.1.4. The Problem of noticing

8.1.5. L2 Development in Computer-mediated Interaction

8.1.6. Characteristics of Learners and Of Tasks

8.2. David Sousa's theory of information processing He states as his main teaching philosophy, "Teaching is the only profession on this planet whose job it is to change the human brain every single day."1 He believes that the more that teachers know about the brain, the better they can change it.

9. SLL Theories Cultural Aspect of language learning

9.1. SSL Language Learning Research and Acquisition

9.1.1. 1970's Daniel Slobin 1970 1985 Acquisition of language in young children Selinker, L. 1972 Develops the Interlanguage idea that L2 learners develops interlocking systems of learning. Gardner, R. C. 1972 & Lambert, W. C. Influential proposal of MOTIVATION. Roger Brown 1973 Children language learning stages are similar all over the world. Morpheme Studies on second language acquisition Dulay H. & Burr M. 1973 First major study of Learners errors. Baddeley, A.D. & Hitch, G. 1974 Worked on investigation of tides, between Working Memory and SLA (second language Acquisition) Bailey, N., Madden, C. & Krashen, S. 1974 Work on studies of L2 adult learners, using morphemes, results, L2 acquisition are driven, rather than behavior are driven by internal mechanisms. Richards, J. 1974 Takes out the lab and into the classroom research of l2 learners errors analysis. Schumann, J. 1978 Pidginization Process, Model of Second Language Learning, Bialystok, E. 1978 First to produce a distinction between Conscious, explicit and subconscious, implicit knowlede in SLA. Givon, T 1979 Early stages of learners Speech emulates “pragmatic mode” also, contrasts it with the "syntactic mode"

9.1.2. 1980's Long, M. (1980) Input Interaction and Second Language Acquisition Krashen, S (1981) Second Language Acquisition and Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language - natural communication - in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. ...Second language Learning Huebner 1983 and Dittmar 1984 Pioneered invetigation interlanguage produced by migrant learners reflected in their communications needs. Krashen, S (1985) The input Hypothesis

9.1.3. 1990's Schmidt, R (1990) The Role of Consciousness in SSL. Applied linguistics. Lantolf, J. P.(Ed.), (1994) Sociocultural Theory and Second Language learning Applies Vygotsky Sociocultural framework. Lyster, R., & Ranta, E. (1997) Corrective Feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies Birdsong, D. (E. D) (1999) Second Language Acquisition and the Critical Period Hypothesis.

9.1.4. 2000's Kasper and Rose (2002) Pragmatic Development in Second language, Surveys of Studies in L2 learning. Paradis (2004) Studies on Neurolinguistics using the the newest technology such are fMRI's. Ortega, L. (2013) SLA for the 21st Century. Strong argument for multilingualism.

9.2. SSL Meaning- Based Perspectives on Second Language Learning

9.2.1. Early Functional Studies of SLL

9.2.2. Functionalism Beyond the Case Study

9.2.3. "Time Talk" Developing the Mea ns to Talk about Time.

9.2.4. The Aspect Hypothesis

9.2.5. Cognitive Linguistics "Thinking for Speaking".

9.2.6. Second Language Pragamatics

9.3. SSL Linguistics and Language Learning

9.3.1. Noam Chomsky Noam Chomsky 1981. 1986 Noam Chomsky on universal grammar and the genetics of language with captioning is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans, independent of sensory experience. UG Universal Grammar

9.3.2. UG and L1 Aquisition

9.3.3. UG and L2 Acquisition

9.3.4. Evaluation oa UG Base Approaches to L2 Language Acquisition

9.4. SLL Key concepts and Issues

9.4.1. What makes a good theory? Characteristics of a good theory Know the facts -- It fits Predicts new discoveries It is falsifiable, It may be proven wrong. Theory must be testable It is parsimonious --Simple

9.4.2. How to view the nature of the language? Levels of Language Competence and Performance

9.4.3. How we view the learning processes? Nurture Nature Modularity Vs Unitary views of cognition

9.4.4. What are the views of the language learners? The learners as Language Procesors Differences between Individual learners Language aptitude Memory Systems Language Learning Strategies Language Actitudes Motivation Affect Anxiety and wiliness to comunicate. The learner as a Social Being

9.4.5. Acquisition

9.4.6. Learning

10. Multiple intelligences

10.1. Gardner's (1985)

10.1.1. The theory of multiple intelligences was first proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book “Frames of Mind”, where he broadens the definition of intelligence and outlines several distinct types of intellectual competencies. Gardner developed a series of eight inclusion criteria while evaluating each "candidate” intelligence that was based on a variety of scientific disciplines. (Marenus, 2020)

11. Sociolinguistics Is the study of the sociological aspects of language. Linked to the part that language role in a community.

11.1. Sociolinguistics Perspective on Second Language Learning

11.1.1. Sociolinguistically Driven Variability in Second Language Use

11.1.2. Second Language Socialization

11.1.3. Conversation Analysis and Second Language Learning

11.1.4. Communities of Practice and Situated Learning

11.1.5. The language Learner as Social Been: L2 Identity, Agency and Investment

11.2. Sociocultural Perspective on Second Language Learning

11.2.1. Socio-Cultural Theory

11.2.2. Applications of SCT to Second Language Learning

11.3. William Labov (1972) regarded as the founder of sociolinguistics studies. He introducing the quantitative analysis of language variation and change, making the sociology of language into a scientific discipline.