Nicholas Alexandrovich Romanov, the last tsar of Russia., Both Mr. Jones and the Tsar were disliked for their incompetence. Just as Mr. Jones was overthrow by the pigs and the other animals, Nicholas was overthrown by the Bolsheviks. The fact that Jones re-appears to lead the Battle of Cowshed is a sign that he is not only a symbol for Nicholas II but for the Russian old guard at large. Nicholas II died before the Russian Civil War began, but many of those who fought against the Bolsheviks in the White Army would have been relatively sympathetic to the old tsar.
Alexandra Romanov, Tsar's wife, Same as Mr. Jones
Hitler, Chancellor of Germany, Initially, Frederick, like Pilkington, is worried about the Rebellion on Mr. Jones’s farm. He suspects that such revolutionary ideas may spread to his own animals. Napoleon changes things though. He has a pile of timber that he needs to sell, and after promising it to Pilkington, he suddenly switches and decides to sell it to Frederick. He has Squealer explain that he was playing the two farmers off against one another in order to drive up the price of the timber. But it turns out that Frederick has a trick up his sleeve and got the wood for free. This is an allusion to the broken non-aggression pact that Stalin signed with Hitler in 1941. The pact allowed Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany – which had been bitter enemies up to that time – to divide Eastern Europe between themselves. But the Nazi-Soviet agreement didn't last. Just like Mr. Frederick, Hitler broke the pact.
Capitalists who did business with the Slavic state, Whymper is an allusion to all those Westerners that catered to Soviet interests and helped spread the Soviet myth. As the harvests begin to shrink on Animal Farm, Napoleon uses Whymper to spread rumors that all is still going well. Similarly, Whymper conveniently hears nothing when Napoleon squashes out the Hens’ Rebellion by starving several of the hens.
Composite of all the leaders of England, He is on bad terms with the other neighbor, Mr. Frederick; This makes much more sense when you realize that Mr. Pilkington is a symbol for the West – both the United States and the United Kingdom – and the neighbor he quarrels with is a stand in for Germany.
the Working Class, Why? Boxer has a very strong work ethic, often saying "I will work harder." He has an undying loyalty to Napoleon and it quite simpleminded. Boxer is meant to stand for the Russian proletariat, the powerful but often simple-minded working class. Through characters like Boxer, it is clear that the narrator has little respect for the average working man’s intelligence and sees him as a pawn of the Soviet regime.
Female Working Class, Same as Boxer
Upper Class, Why? Mollie was always pampered by Mr. Jones just as the Upper Class of Russia were pampered by the the Romanov monarchs. After the revolution, Mollie complains about not having sugar cubes or ribbons that Mr. Jones had once given her. By the end, she has already left to live with other humans.
Stalin's secret police/ bodyguards (NKVD), Why? Napoleon steals the puppies when they are first born and keeps them hidden from everyone else. Later he brings them out and they are fulll grown and completely brainwashed to follow Napoleon.
Comintern, Why? The pigeons fly out each day and spread word about Animalism just as Comintern did about Communism
Stalin's bodyguards/announcer, Why? Napoleon has one who marched in front of him and acted as a kind of trumpeter just as Stalin had many bodyguards/announcers.
Ukranian Leaders of revolution, Why? The leaders of the Hen's resistance who made a determined effort to thwart Napoleon's wishes. Like the Ukrainian peasant leaders during the Ukrainian resistance.
Russian Orthodox Church, Why? Moses was Mr. Jones's pet who fled the farm shortly after the revolution but eventually returned but didn't work at all. The Russian Orthodox Church had been overly present during the tsarist regime, it was the tsar's 'pet'. After the revolution it not allowed and only returned near the end of Stalin's reign but with little power or influence.
Peasant Farmers/Ukranian Peasants, Why? Napoleon calls for the hens to surrender their eggs. This is a reference to Stalin's attempt to collectivize the peasant farmers. The hens attempted to resist at first, just as the peasant farmers of the Ukraine. But, just as in real life, they were eventually starved into submission.
Peasant Fishermen, Same as the Hens
Both Old men and the people who despised Communism but did nothing to battle against it.
Shady members of society: con men, circus folk, gypsies, Why? The cat doesn't actually do any work. It tried to convince the birds to join it on it's paw. It joined the re-education committee but didn't actually commit.
Thieves and Beggers, Why? The rats and rabbits were considered non-comrades before the revolution. There was a debate between whether or not they could be considered comrades like everyone else.
Masses at large, Why? The sheep most often agree to everything being said, it doesn't matter who actually says it.
Joseph Stalin, the second leader of the Soviet Union, Why? Though always present at the early meetings of the new state, Napoleon never makes a single contribution to the revolution. He never shows interest in the strength of Animal Farm itself, only in the strength of his power over it. He exiles snowball and takes complete control of the farm.He would rarely appear at any of the later meetings, and always had his puppies that he had trained in front of him for protection. He has squealer re-write the history of the farm to make himself look like the hero of the revolution. Later in the novel he kills anyone who confesses to having done something wrong. This is the same for Joseph Stalin, who Napoleon represents. Stalin didn't gain power until much later after the revolution. He exiled Trotsky, who represents Snowball. He had a secret army called the NKVD, which is symbolized by Napoleon's puppies. He had the Russian media alter the view of him in order to be more pleasing to the public. He killed off thousands of people in his "great purges" just as napoleon killed off the majority of the people on the farm.
Karl Marx, father of Communism, Old Major leaves his animals with revolutionary message. He even gives them "Beasts of England" to remember it by. Yet three days later, he dies, and the slow process of distorting his ideas and ruining his legacy begins. This follows with the order of events in which Karl Marx's ideal form of Communism was taken and distorted.
Leo Trotsky, one of the original revolutionaries, When Stalin came to power Trotsky became one of his biggest enemies. Trotsky was not only exiled in body but in the minds of the Russian people-his historical role was altered.
Russian Media, Squealer continually distorts reality to fit the needs of the Communist party. Basically Squealer brainwashes the animals so that they are in favor of Napoleon, just as Stalin did, using the Russian Media. He often had movies made of himself ,through the media, that told his version of history rather than reality.
The Communist Manifesto
Ideology of Communism. Also represents the song Internationale
Stain's five year plans, Why? Just as the windmill promised to make the animal's lives easier, so had the five year plan said. When the windmill had to be rebuilt it was just how Stalin kept churning out new five year plans.
Intoxicating effects of power
Hammer and Sickle, Why? The hammer and sickle are the symbols of communism. The two tools are the tools of the working class and the peasantry. So Communism is trying to show that it has to two working together in unity.
National Anthem of the Soviet Union/ Evidence of Stalin's more controlling power, Why? The "Animal Farm" song replaces the "Beasts of England" song. This demonstrates the alteration of Communist Marxist ideals to fit Stalin's idea of Communism.
As Napoleon becomes more powerful, he replaced "Animal Farm!" with another anthem, called "Comrade Napoleon". The anthem praised and glorified Napoleon, attributing many of the successes on the farm to him, even though he had little or no role in them. The poem marked the general happy feeling towards the rule of Napoleon at the time in the book and was painted on the wall of the big barn opposite the Seven Commandments.
1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy., How it changes by the end: 1. Four legs good, two legs better • Napoleon begins to trade with humans. • Squealer walks on hind legs. • Humans visit Animal Farm.
2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend., How it changes by the end: • Dogs attack Snowball • Dogs attack Boxer (even though Napoleon did not order them to but they got easily out of control.)
3. No animal shall wear clothes., How it changes: • Napoleon puts on Mr Jones hat. • Pigs put green ribbons on their tails on Sundays reminding us of Mollie. • Dogs wear collars.
4. No animal shall sleep in a bed., How it changes: 4. No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets. • Pigs sleep in the farmhouse bed with blankets, which is still a human action.
5. No animal shall drink alcohol., How it changes: 5. No animal shall drink alcohol to excess. • Pigs drink beer and whisky.
6. No animal shall kill any other animal., How it changes:6. No animal shall kill another animal without cause. • Pigs send Boxer to his death Napoleon kills many in the Great Purges
7. All animals are equal., 7. All animals are equal and some are more equal than others. • This was always a problem as the pigs were more intelligent thus the inequality immediately arose. • This is the only commandment that is left • Pigs take milk and apples • Pigs get up and hour later • Rations later reduced except for pigs and dogs.
The Russian Revolution, When Major dies, two pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, assume command and consider it a duty to prepare for the Rebellion. The animals revolt and drive the drunken and irresponsible Mr Jones from the farm, renaming it "Animal Farm". This symbolizes the Russian Revolution in which the communists, or the pigs, overthrow the monarchy, or the humans and rename "Russia" the "Soviet Union".
The battle of the tsarist forces against the bolshiviks. The Russian Civil War., In the book, Mr. Jones returns with some men and fights the animals. In reality, the tsar was already dead but it was fought by the tsarist forces of monarchists.
The soviet, pre-bolsheivik provisional government, Old Major, the old boar on the Manor Farm, calls the animals on the farm for a meeting, where he compares the humans to parasites and teaches the animals a revolutionary song, 'Beasts of England'.
Nazi-Soviet Pact, Napoleon made a deal with Frederick, just a Stalin made a deal, a pact, with Hitler.
Battle of Stalingrad-German invasion of Russia during WWII., Animal Farm has its own miniature version of World War II in the Battle of the Windmill. Things begin rapidly as Frederick’s men advance, take a pasture and blow up the Windmill. A number of animals are killed, and Boxer uses his hoofs to smash in the heads of the men.
The Great Purges of 1936-1938, Soon after, Napoleon calls a general meeting, and the dogs drag out several pigs. The pigs confess that they were working with Snowball and Mr. Frederick, and a moment later the dogs killed them. After that, the same thing happens with the surviving hens from the rebellion, and several other animals. At the end, there is "a pile of corpses and Napoleon’s feet". This is an allusion to the Great Purges, which took place between 1936 and 1938. Working to eliminate every last trace of the opposition, Stalin had executed or sent to Gulag labor camps many of those that might possibly be labeled "anti-Soviet." The estimates of how many died in the purges ranges from about 500,000 up to 2 million.
The Tehran Conference, Why? The Tehran Conference was intended to map out a strategy after World War II
Beginning of the Cold War, Why? At the time the West decided to play cards with the Soviet Union; they’d do anything to defeat the Germans. But the wartime alliance of Roosevelt and Churchill and Stalin was a temporary marriage of convenience; as soon as the war ended, it fell apart in a mess of mutual distrust, leading directly to fifty years of stalemate, to fifty years of such incredible tension between Russia and the West
The Soviet Union
Russia (name before the rev)
The whole world
Meaning animals good, humans bad. Or Communists good, monarchies and capitalists bad. Changes in the end so that Napoleon is walking on two feet and it changes to "two feet ok"
Criticizing Monarchies and Capitalists
Squealer brainwashing the other animals into supporting Napoleon.
Brainwashing the other animals in favor of Napoleon (Stalin)
The Pigs begin to resemble the very humans that they had overthrown.
When the pigs take over they claim that their goal is to preside over a farm of equal animals, all working together to support one another. Yet power quickly proves to be too much for a pig. Small privileges quickly bloom into full-scale corruption, and the pigs begin to resemble the humans they were trying to replace.
The pigs lie to the other animals about the past, convincing them that certain events did or did not occur. They deceive them as to the present, pretending that their situation is better than it really is. And they lie to them about plans for the future, telling them their dreams will come true.
Foolishness in Animal Farm takes it root in the lower class animals, who are duped into a life of hardship because of their lack of intellect. They fail to recognize the horrible nature of their oppression, the greed of the pigs, or the worsening of their lives.
Animal Farm, though it can be viewed as a allegory for the Russian revolution, More broadly can be seen as a criticism of utopian ideas in general. It is easy to see that the dreams instilled in the animals by Old Major are corrupted as time goes on, and you wonder if it were ever possible to fulfill them in the first place.
Squealer is always very clever as he tricks the animals into believing that Napoleon is doing what is right for them. He, and the other pigs, take advantage of the other animals' lack of intelligence, and gradually brainwash them and dupe them into a life of hardship.
Violence in Animal Farm is a tool of political oppression. Not only do we see actual violence used to kill and to exile enemies of the leadership, but there is also a threat of violence. If any animal rebels or questions the pigs’ leadership, he or she can expect to face violence as a punishment
Pride serves to unite the animals in some form of camaraderie. The animals take pride in banding together to overthrow their oppressive leader. Yet Napoleon, himself an extremely vain pig, quickly learns how to use the animals’ pride as a tool of manipulation. They are also so proud of their animal-run farm that they are blind to the fact that it is failing and corrupt.