Popular and Folk Culture in Germany

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Popular and Folk Culture in Germany by Mind Map: Popular and Folk Culture in Germany

1. Religion- Taner Cetin

1.1. The most prominent religion in Germany is Christianity with 65% to 70% of the population identifying as a denomination of Christian.

1.1.1. Christianity finds its roots in the middle east in the first centaury C.E In the borders of the Roman Empire. Them empire prosecuted Christian began prosecuting Christians in 64 C.E under the reign of Emperor Nero. Under the reign of empower Constantine, in 313 C.E. In 10 years, it became the official religion of the empire.

1.1.1.1. During the fifteenth centaury, the protestant reformation occurred, this caused a rift in the Christian faith as a whole creating many similar faiths. The Reformation led by Martin Luther began in Germany, than part of the Holy Roman Empire, and split the populations faiths to today

1.1.1.1.1. Catholic

1.1.1.1.2. https://media.npr.org/assets/img/2017/10/26/gettyimages-107875396-2-_vert-463f56204b4dacb870a5b85e58d4d7e3be8ac53d-s800-c85.jpg

1.1.1.1.3. The modern protestant church is know as Evangelical Church in Germany. This church is composed of Twenty Lutheran, Reformed and United regional churches. These protestant churches combined with each church still retaining sovereignty over its own area.

1.1.1.1.4. Lutheran

1.1.1.1.5. Calvinists

1.1.2. About half the German Christian population is Catholic, With the other half being other denominations with most belonging to the Evangelical Church of Germany.

1.1.2.1. https://platform.globig.co/data/media/312/Religion_in_Germany.PNG

1.1.3. https://images-na.ssl-images-amazon.com/images/I/51IO708qWVL._AC_SX522_.jpg

1.2. Though Christianity is the most popular faith in Germany other religions do exist the most popular of these being Judaism and Islam

1.2.1. Due to an increase in immigrants from the middle east, the amount of people who practice Islam has seen in increase in recent years.

1.2.1.1. https://www.ancient-symbols.com/images/crescent.gif

1.2.1.2. The largest denomination of Islam in Germany is Sunni. The main difference between Sunni and other denominations is who they believe was the successor to Muhammad. Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was the successor to Muhammad.

1.2.1.2.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Ahlul_Sunnah.png

1.2.2. Judaism used to have more of a foothold in Germany, but with the events of the Holocaust, the effects of the Holocaust can still be seen in the amount of people who practice Judaism. Only 800,000 still practice it.

1.2.2.1. https://cdn.britannica.com/11/50111-050-812233FF/Star-of-David.jpg

2. Music and Dance - Rohan Gupta

2.1. Music and dance in Germany have major cultural significance impacting not only the folk culture, but also the pop culture of German citizens.

2.1.1. In the 12th and 13th centuries, German poets and musicians known as minnesingers wrote and sang love songs for the Hohenstaufen dukes.

2.1.1.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Codex_Manesse_Walther_von_der_Vogelweide.jpg

2.1.1.2. These early hymns revolutionized music in this time period and became the basis for the emergence of all different genres. These genres have slowly evolved over time to become the modern day music of Germany.

2.1.1.2.1. Today in Germany, one will find music such as rock, punk, hiphop, rap, and electronic. While it may seem like these would have little connection to traditional folk music, these genres have all taken aspects of German history as well as adding a modern twist.

2.1.1.2.2. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6f/Beethoven.jpg

2.1.1.3. In the 18th and 19th centuries, composers such as Ludwig Van Beethoven, Felix Mendelssohn, and Robert Schumann arose and dominated the classical era of music. These composers, while originating in Germany, had their music spread all throughout Europe during this time period,

2.1.1.3.1. While classical music became relatively unpopular by the 21st century, it is starting to come back in the forms of music for relaxation and focusing. Classical music is used often in German restaurants, shops, and public areas to provide a calming and professional look to customers.

2.1.1.3.2. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/38/Felix_Mendelssohn_Bartholdy.jpg

2.1.1.3.3. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/Robert-schumann.jpg

2.1.2. The variety of early dance in Germany including "Der Deutsche", "The Ländler", "Zwiefacher", and especially old fashioned expressionist dancing started an evolution that eventually led to modern day dance.

2.1.2.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/2016_DM_Formationen_Standard_-_Boston-Club_Duesseldorf_-_by_2eight_-_DSC0420.jpg

2.1.2.2. Zweifacher Performance at Oktoberfest

2.1.2.2.1. This is an example of "Zwiefacher", but with a more modern appeal. This dance involves a partner and a musical rhythm to follow, and can involve multiple couples ranging anywheres from just a few to up to 20.

2.1.2.3. The Waltz is the most commonly known dance from the area of early Austria and Germany, and evolved from "Der Deutsche" in the early nineteenth century. It actually began as a peasant dance and quickly worked its way up into the high society. At first it was regarded as vulgar by religious leaders due to close proximity with a partner, but soon became normalized and a staple of any formal event all across Europe.

2.1.2.3.1. Basic Waltz

2.1.2.4. Another form of dance that started in Germany around the 19th century is the "Schuhplattler", which is mainly connected to Bavaria, and was often performed in traditional Bavarian costumes.

2.1.2.4.1. https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/pictures/120000/velka/traditional-bavarian-costume.jpg

2.1.2.5. Modern Street Dance

2.1.2.5.1. Modern Dance in Germany involve the dancing to pop and hiphop songs, and groups like the very popular “Flying Steps” add heavily to the growing popularity.

2.1.2.6. Another important form of German dance are Maypole dances.

2.1.2.6.1. The maypole dance is not strictly set to a dance and rhythm, but rather a whole ensemble of particular activities and festivities. Many believe the roots to this pole stem from Germanic paganism, which would be the most probable answer to do the nature of the dance. In Bavaria on May Day (May 1), villagers put up a decorated tree trunk, and a dance is performed around the trunk.

2.1.2.7. Expressionist Dancing

2.1.2.7.1. Expressionist dance became most famous in Germany during the Weimar period (early 1900s). Mary Wigman was the leading pioneer of this movement along with Rudolf von Laban. Wigman was a student of Laban, and she revolutionized his ideas into an "existential human experience." Wigman toured in the USA and marked Expressionist dance as a German dance, which influenced modern dance in the US.

3. Sports - Vincent Rotunno

3.1. The playing and spectating of sports are an important tradition and have a large impact on popular culture in Germany.

3.1.1. There are many different popular sports played and watched in Germany, including Tennis, Handball, Basketball, Golf, Cycling, and Skiing, to name a few.

3.1.1.1. Many Germans enjoy watching sports on television. Millions of Germans tune into watch many sports, including popular sports other than soccer, like cycling and boxing.

3.1.1.1.1. Cycling used to be more popular in German than it is today, however it still remains very popular today. This can be seen especially for people living in the most western parts of Germany, near the French border, due to the "Tour de France". There is nothing quite as exciting in terms of cycling in Germany as the "Tour de France", so many Germans will travel to the course or watch the event live on TV. It can be very exciting for people who are involved in cycling.

3.1.1.1.2. Millions of Germans often tune into to watch a boxing match, and popular matches in Germany can gain national following, especially when two famous and well recognized fighters square off. Pictured is the famous German boxer

3.2. Soccer (football) is by far the most popular sport in Germany. Millions of people follow soccer and watch the sport.

3.2.1. Soccer in Germany is believed to have first been played in the town of Braunschweig. This was the hometown of Konrad Koch, the man who is believed to have introduced the game to Germany. Koch was a school professor, and i tis believed that he introduced a ball game to his students that was similar to soccer that he acquired from England.

3.2.1.1. Soccer was also influenced by military terminology and jargon from Germany, given that wars were quite common at the time of its introduction. For example, the German term "Torhützenkönig" which loosely translates to "skilled marksman", was developed into a term meaning the person who scores the most goals in a soccer match.

3.2.1.2. Fun Fact: When soccer became more popular in Germnay, many people disliked it due to its English origin!

3.2.1.3. https://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ_sIXlg3aIOnOnyFEOoTn4vY0fjJgwd5D6sVxwAlOtdzSLymyVY8cK2TJzntvu

3.2.1.4. Modern students in the town of Braunschweig have the oppurtunity to participate in the Konrad Koch soccer tournament each summer.

3.2.2. https://cdn.pixabay.com/photo/2020/03/11/06/23/football-4921126_960_720.png

3.2.3. https://img.theculturetrip.com/1440x/smart/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/germany_and_argentina_face_off_in_the_final_of_the_world_cup_2014_-2014-07-13_5.jpg

3.2.4. Many cities in Germany are known for their popular soccer clubs like: Hamburg, Bremen, Berlin, and many more! All together, Germany has around 87,000 soccer clubs across the country where citizens can have fun and play some soccer.

3.2.4.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/German_football_team_2016_Olympics_women.jpg

4. Holidays - Mark Turkovich

4.1. Public Holidays

4.1.1. New Year's Day

4.1.1.1. January 1, 2020

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4.1.1.1.2. New Year's Day celebrates the start of a new calendar year in Germany. Germans celebrate the start of the new year at midnight with concerts, parties, and fireworks. After these celebrations, friends and families relax and have a nice meal together for lunch or dinner. Although widely accepted as January 1st, some parts of Germany celebrated the new year on March 25th up to the 16th century. This was because of the spring equinox and the sun once again returning to the northern hemisphere.

4.1.2. Three Kings Day

4.1.2.1. January 6, 2020

4.1.2.1.1. https://i.imgur.com/WOs48aX.jpg?1

4.1.2.1.2. Three Kings Day, also known as the Epiphany officially ends the Christmas Season. This day marked the day when the three wise men arrived with gifts for baby Jesus. Christian believe the Magi (three wise men) saw a bright star in the sky, leading them to Jesus in Bethlehem where Jesus was born. People celebrate Three Kings Day by attending church services and placing the Magi in the crib of baby Jesus both at church and at home. Some Germans gather with their friends and family the evening before to drink for health and the luck of family and friends in the new year. Bockbier is a special beer brewed for this event. Finally, kids will dress up as the three kings, go to houses, and sing hymns to announce the birth of Jesus Christ and the three kings' visit to Jesus.

4.1.3. Fasching

4.1.3.1. February 24, 2020 (Date Varies)

4.1.3.1.1. https://i.imgur.com/zFdzO3m.jpg?1

4.1.3.1.2. Fasching is known as the carnival season in Germany and the date changes based on when Easter falls. Fasching represented the ending of winter and the ghosts of darkness who began losing their powers as the days grew warmer. Although not a public holiday, many German cities celebrate with carnivals and parties before the start of Lent.

4.1.4. Good Friday

4.1.4.1. April 10, 2020 (Date Varies)

4.1.4.1.1. https://www.vaticannews.va/content/dam/vaticannews/agenzie/images/afp/2018/03/30/18/germany-religion-easter-1522435685213.jpg/_jcr_content/renditions/cq5dam.thumbnail.cropped.750.422.jpeg

4.1.4.1.2. Good Friday marks the day of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. Some people attend special church services and these services do not use organs or bells representing the solemn time with Jesus being dead. Most Christians do not eat meat and instead eat fish. Good Friday is also a fast day meaning that Christians do not eat anything between meals representing their sacrifice to Christ as he died to save Christians from their sins.

4.1.5. Easter Sunday

4.1.5.1. April 12, 2020 (Date Varies)

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4.1.5.1.2. Easter Sunday is the day Christians celebrate the resurrection of the body of Jesus Christ. Church services are celebratory, rejoicing over the resurrection of Christ. Churches are decorated with spring flowers and many Germans have special breakfasts, lunches, and/or dinners with friends and family. People give and receive easter eggs which are usually chocolate or hard boiled. The hard-boiled eggs are decorated with paint or dye and are hidden for easter egg hunts.

4.1.6. Easter Monday

4.1.6.1. April 13, 2020 (Date Varies)

4.1.6.1.1. Easter Monday is a continuation of Easter Sunday with more egg hunts and church services. In some parts of Germany, especially Southern Germany, early-morning candle-lit parades are held to represent the walks Jesus took when he rose from the dead. In the afternoon

4.1.7. Labour Day

4.1.7.1. May 1, 2020

4.1.7.1.1. https://c.tadst.com/gfx/750w/may-day-germany.jpg

4.1.7.1.2. Labour Day, also known as May Day, celebrates German workers and their contributions to society. Traditionally, people believed witches held Walpurgis Night celebrations from April 30 to May 1 at the summit of Blocksberg, a mountain in Saxony-Anhalt. For these reasons, people lit fires and dances around the fires to scare of the witches and evil spirits. People still light fires and young kids like to prank others as though witches were intruding. Finally, people organize or attend military marches or rallies to celebrate workers' rights.

4.1.8. Mother's Day

4.1.8.1. May 10, 2020 (Date Varies)

4.1.8.1.1. https://angelikasgerman.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Alles-Liebe-zum-Muttertag.png

4.1.8.1.2. Mother's Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May. Flowers, gifts and chocolates are handed out to mothers. Up until WWII, it was common to give mothers a metal for bringing up their children.

4.1.9. Ascension Day

4.1.9.1. May 21, 2020 (Date Varies)

4.1.9.1.1. https://static.officeholidays.com/images/1280x853c/ascension_day.jpg

4.1.9.1.2. Ascension Day is celebrated 40 days after Easter when Jesus Christ ascends into heaven. Father's Day is also celebrated on Ascension Day, and they are handed out gifts after Ascension Day parades. Ascension Day is celebrated by Christians, especially Catholics. On Ascension Day, people attend special church services and four special bible texts are read. The International Charlemagne Prize is given in Aachen. The prize is presented to someone who contributed something valuable to humanity and world peace. The prize was named after Charlemagne (Charles the Great), who was the king of the Franks from 768 CE until 814 CE. Aachen was Charlemagne's capital city and exerted lot of effort to establish peace between tribes at war with one another in and around his kingdom. As part of the Father's Day celebrations, males spend the day together and enjoy outdoor activities.

4.1.10. Whit Monday

4.1.10.1. June 1, 2020 (Date Varies)

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4.1.10.1.2. Whit Monday is also known as Pentecost Monday. It is celebrated 50 days after Easter and is the last holiday of the Easter season. People attend special church services and there are full-week Pentecost celebrations. Traditionally, Germans believed evil spirits were active on this night and would steal possessions that were not locked away. This is known as the night of unrest. Today, children play the role of the evil spirits and take agriculture tools garden benches and move them to other properties. Young men also nail birch branches to the houses of the young women they would like to marry.

4.1.11. Corpus Cristi

4.1.11.1. June 11, 2020 (Date Varies)

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4.1.11.1.2. Corpus Cristi occurs 60 days after Easter. On this day, many Germans attend special church services and special attention is paid to the sacramental blessing of the bread or wafer. Corpus Cristi meaning the body of Christ in Latin. Catholics and some Protestants believe that the bread is Jesus's body. During or after the church service, parades are held outside.

4.1.12. Assumption Day

4.1.12.1. August 15, 2020

4.1.12.1.1. https://c.tadst.com/gfx/750w/assumption-of-mary-germany.jpg

4.1.12.1.2. Christians celebrate Assumption Day as the transition from Mary's body leaving life on earth to the assumption of her body into heaven. in 451 CE, the fourth ecumenical council was held in Chalcedon, now part of Istanbul, Turkey. Here, the council decided that the Assumption of Mary would be recognized as a Christian feast. This is particularly important to Catholics who believed this was the time Mary's body went to heaven. The date was fixed as August 15 around the 700 CE. Catholics will attend special masses and church bells will signal the start of the mass. Afterwards, religious parades and festival are held. People give the first ripe hazelnuts and walnuts are given to children. People will also collect herbs in meadows. These herbs are places on alters and walls in homes.

4.1.13. German Unification Day

4.1.13.1. October 3, 2020

4.1.13.1.1. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-1990-1003-400%2C_Berlin%2C_deutsche_Vereinigung%2C_vor_dem_Reichstag.jpg

4.1.13.1.2. German Unification Day celebrate the reunion of Eastern and Western Germany in 1990 after the Berlin Wall fell in 1989. After WWII, Germany was split in half, with the US, Britain and France controlling the western, capitalist half, while the Soviet Union controlled the eastern, communist half. A wall was erected between the two preventing people from entering or leaving Eastern Germany. After the wall fell on November 9, 1989, Eastern Germany and Western Germany were reunited, although official unification did not occur until October 3, 1990. Germany became a Democratic Republic and has been so ever since. Festive celebrations take place for all to enjoy. A national celebration is held each year in a different city symbolizing unity and equality with each city. These celebrations include: Speeches by politicians and other leaders, concerts, communal meals, food and culture presentations from Germany's regions, and fireworks.

4.1.14. All Saints' Day

4.1.14.1. November 1, 2020

4.1.14.1.1. https://www.cute-calendar.com/images/en/teaser/all-saints.jpg

4.1.14.1.2. All Saints' Day celebrates all the departed believers in Christ. Catholics attend special masses and light candles and pray and honor deceased family members. Graveyards are decorated with flowers, and when it begins to get dark, candles are lit for the deceased. On the closest Sunday to November 1, Protestants will also honor family members who have passed.

4.1.15. Christmas Day

4.1.15.1. December 25, 2020

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4.1.15.1.2. Christmas Day is the celebration of the birth of Jesus Christ. People spend time with friends and families, attend special church services, and sing traditional carols. Germans will decorate their houses with nutcrackers, Christmas pyramids, and cribs. On Christmas afternoon or evening a large family feast is held. German Christmas foods include: roast goose or duck stuffed with apples, chestnuts, onions or prunes, red cabbage with onions and apple, boiled potatoes, and dumplings. Instead of goose or duck some people also eat turkey, beef, venison or wild boar.

4.1.16. St. Stephens Day

4.1.16.1. December 26, 2020

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4.1.16.1.2. St. Stephen's Day, also known as Boxing Day, celebrates St. Stephen who was the first Christian Martyr. Stephen was convicted of blasphemy against God and Moses. Germans will attend special church services, spend time with friends and family, watch TV, play board games, eat seasonal treats, and enjoy time outside. December 26 celebrates the relaxation after a stressful month preparing for Christmas. This is also a day items go on sale after the holiday rush for gifts.