Change Management Perspective

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Change Management Perspective by Mind Map: Change Management Perspective

1. What can I do to make sure my change project succeeds? (70% - 80% fail) King and Peterson 2007).

1.1. Why do projects fail and how can I make mine succeed? (download IBM paper here)

1.1.1. What are the biggest challenges I am going to face? 60% of project managers said that changing mindset was the biggest challenge they faced followed by 49% who thought cultural change was most difficult

1.1.2. What can give my project the best chance of success? Am I acting on real insights and being realistic about the challenges that I am facing? Have I got well understood and proven methods of delivering the change? Have we got the skills and time to engage with the stakeholders? Do we fully understand what the return of our investment will be in time and money?

1.2. What type of change will work for my organisation?

1.2.1. What organisational factors do I need to think about in planning change? How much must stay the same? How diverse is the culture across the departments and locations? Are the management and the individuals affected capable of making the change needed? Have we got the finances, time and people to make this change in the way intended? Do the people who will need to be involved in the change recognise the need for it? Do the people who need to bring the change about like sponsors, have the power and influence to make it happen?

1.2.2. What type of change am I involved with? Does the type of change we need require cultural change? Is the delivery of the change slow enough to get the cultural shift its going to need? Does the change require rapid cultural change and how are we going to do that? Is the change rapid but you can work within the existing culture to get it done?

1.2.3. What type of change project is most likely to work Could we achieve this from the top or does it need to come from the stakeholders themselves? Have we got time for collaboration with stakeholders or do we just need to get it done through coercion if necessary? What type of interventions are needed such as technical, political or cultural interventions or interpersonal ones Who will need to do what - is it lead by the senior team, from outside the business or active change

2. How do I get stakeholders to embrace change?

2.1. Why do stakeholders resist change even when it makes sense for them?

2.1.1. Are the stakeholders as ready for change as the people leading it? How are different stakeholders experiencing the change? Are they shock and need to time to absorb what is happening? Are they angry and blaming themselves for the change? Are they feeling that they can find some way around the change? Are stakeholders feeling depressed because they can't do anything about the change? Have the stakeholders started to accept that change is happening and started to find solutions even embrace it? Why do we think stakeholders are resisting? Did we know about the change before the stakeholders so have had more time to adjust? Are they stuck between the stages and need help to get beyond them? Do different people take different times to adjust to the changes we are proposing? Am I taking this anger and blame too personally when maybe its just a sign people need time to adjust? Have I remembered that we all have to adjust even to positive change?

2.1.2. Why do stake holders find it so difficult to change? Why are stakeholders not adopting the changes? Have we been clear about what is and isn't changing? Have we communicated enough about what the changes are? Have we trivialised what stakeholders are worried about? Have we done a good enough job of explaining why the changes are needed? Have we listened enough to what stakeholders have been telling us about what worries them? Have we given the old ways of doing things enough respect? How do we help stakeholders adjust to the new ways of doing things? Does the journey reflect the way the stakeholders think of themselves? Are the stakeholders confident that we can overcome the problems they are having? Is there any support for the stakeholders from others who have already gone through the journey? Are we listening to them enough rather than telling them - may be they have a point? How can we help the stakeholders adopt the change? Do the stakeholders see the purpose of the change for them and their future? Do the stakeholders feel inspired by the change? Can they see their part in a credible plan for the future? Are we as leaders of the change walking the walk as well as talking the talk? Have we communicated early success to the stakeholders?

2.2. How can we motivate stakeholders to accept the change?

2.2.1. What should our approach to motivating stakeholders be? Do we believe that we need to overcome stakeholder resistance by rewarding them enough for making the change and punishing them when they don't? Do we believe that stakeholders can buy into and collaborate if we share the vision we have of change? Do we walk the walk when we say that we want to collaborate with stakeholders, or do we always have control and reward available if they don't do what we want?

2.2.2. How does what we are doing impact the needs of stakeholders as people? Does what we plan to change impact on the stakeholders feeling of safety - if not Does what we plan to change impact on the stakeholders feeling of belonging and acceptance - if not Does what we plan to change impact on how the stakeholder feels about herself - if not Does what we plan to change impact on whether the stakeholder can be the best they can be?

2.2.3. Will stakeholders believe that the change will benefit them? How confident is the stakeholder that they can change in the way that we want them to ? How clear is the stakeholder what they will get if they change in the way that we want them to? How do people value the outcomes from changing in the way we want them to?

2.2.4. What sort of benefits will stakeholders value most? How could the planned change make a positive difference to the way the stakeholders feel about what they do? How will the changes planned give stakeholders a greater sense of achievement in their job How will the changes enable stakeholders to get more recognition for the contribution they are making? How will the change enable the stakeholders to feel they are doing a better job? How will the changes enable the stakeholder to take more responsibility and have more control over what they do? How will the changes give stakeholders more chances to develop their career? How will the changes help the stakeholder grow as a person? What expectations do we need to give stakeholders to keep them on board? What expectations will stakeholders have about the impact of change on their jobs or salary? What expectations will stakeholders have about the impact of the change on their status or the way they are supervised? What expectations will stakeholders have about the impact of the change on company policies or their working conditions?

2.3. How can we engage with stakeholders as people

2.3.1. Do we understand what the change really means for stakeholders as full human people? Are we approach stakeholders as whole people even when they are being negative and resistance Are we trying to understand the world from their frame of reference rather than from ours? Are we being completely honest and straight forward about the change even if this isn't what the stakeholder wants to hear?

2.3.2. Is the stakeholders individual personalty going to determine how they react to change Are we in tune with the way important stakeholders (highly influential and impacted by the change) see the world when we are engaging them? Are important stakeholders more likely to think about the changes impact on them or how they can impact the change Will important stakeholders want all the facts or be inspired by the possibilities of the benefits of the change Will important stakeholders approach the change from a purely objective perspective, or will they want to know if the change fits with their values Are they going to see a very clear plan or are they happy to work with a few loose ends How anxious are different people feeling about the change and how can we help them? Are stakeholders feeling anxious by whether they can cope with the proposed change like new technology which they may not want to declare? Are we recognising that it is natural for people to feel a fight or flight response to any change? Will their anxiety about what will happen if the change doesn't happen motivate them to embrace the change?

3. How do I get change to happen within an organisation?

3.1. What is the best way to understand this organisation?

3.1.1. Is there a clear hierarchy and lines of authority you need to work through? How are you going to use the top down hierarchies to get the change that you want How much change and adaptability can you realistically expect without cultural change in this organisation?

3.1.2. Is this organisation in a constant battle for survival in a fast changing environment with no clear hierarchies or lines of authority? What are the complexities in this environment that could help or hinder the change you need How much change can this organisation cope with and has it reached its limits

3.1.3. Do powerful groups or individuals in this organisation determine who gets what when and how? How are you going to leverage the interests and alliances to get the change How are you going to deal with powerful interest groups that are resisting change

3.1.4. Does the organisation and or departments within it have a strong sense of shared meaning? How are you going to identify and use the power and support relationships in the organisations to make change happen How are you going to surface and understand the values and norms in the organisation so that you can change them?

3.1.5. Does the organisation emphasis creativity and ingenuity of its people How are you going to avoid the business "adjusting" to the change but staying the same?

3.1.6. Has the business got a powerful vision of the future which everyone buys into How are you going to align the change with the vision of the organisation? How are you going to help people to re-envision the organisation and break out of group think?

3.2. What do we need to do to get and embed change in this organisation?

3.2.1. How are we going to move the organisation from where it is now to where it needs to be? How will you get stakeholders on board with the change that you are planning? How will you make stakeholders recognise that THEY need this change to happen? How will you make stakeholders feel safe about the changes that THEY need bring about? How will you manage the change people make to ensure it is the one that you had planned? What will you do to provide positive examples of the change you are planning for the stakeholders? How will you work with stakeholders to find out how the change you are planning could work for them? What will you do to embed this change into the organisation? How will you help stakeholders make sense of this change for them as people?

3.2.2. How are you going to win over the hearts, minds AND FEELINGS of the stakeholders in your change project What do you need to create a sense of urgency in the stakeholders of the change? Who can help you to drive this sense of urgency in the organisation and have skin in the game? How can you inspire other people to want the change you are planning ? How do you get this across to them and keep inspiring them? How will you leverage this excitement from the people who need to make the change work? How can you make sure the change you are making delivers wins soon and frequently and keep proving its working? How will you keep the momentum going in the change - keep inspiring, collaborating and proving its working? How will you design processes that embed these changes into the organisation and become the way we do things around here?

3.2.3. Why do outcomes seem to be unpredictable in the changes we are trying to make? - there is a further article on Senge. How are we going to identify the factors that tend to create negative outcomes from the change we are planning? How are we going to identify those factors which will tend to generate positive outcomes for the change we are planning? How can we scan what is going on in the business to identify instances which if nurtured could be beneficial for the change? How can we encourage people to stay with the change even when things are not working out as planned?

3.3. Here are some further notes from the Change Managers Handbook

3.3.1. The factors that will determine what approach is likely to be most successful are How widely they affect the organisation How deep the change is What the change is about - structure, technology Nature - emergent or tight management Impact on culture Time available Organisational Structure may also impact on change A hierarchical structure is effective in an unchanging environment and is good for BAU but not so good for change A loser more autonomous structure with devolved power to units may produce too much change As most businesses need to keep the ship afloat (BAU) but also constantly manage change - Kotter proposes a separate strategic operating system

3.3.2. Where this change is transformational rather than limited and isn't over a tight time frame it has time to emerge with Senges model of nurturing small roots

3.3.3. Where the structure of an organisation needs to be changed a carefully managed and guided approach along Kotters lines may be a better fit

3.3.4. Forming a new team - local - Kotter would be excessive but could be a pilot that might be nurtured - Senge

4. How will this change initiative be managed?

4.1. Have you got the time and influence you need to manage the change project as a Change Manager yourself

4.1.1. If you are taking on change alongside your day job how will BAU impact the time you can spend on this and what happens when it does?

4.1.2. If Change Manager is a separate role who do you report to - Project Manager, Sponsor, Program Manager?

4.2. Has the change has got the right level of support in the organisation to make it work?

4.2.1. Is the idea aligned with the organisations strategy and other ongoing projects/programs?

4.2.2. How bought in are the line managers that this change is important for them?

4.2.3. What is so urgent about this change and why does it have to happen now?

4.2.4. Are those sponsoring and leading change are prepared to walk the walk as well as talk the talk?

4.2.5. Do those sponsoring and leading the change have the communication skills needed?

4.2.6. Have those sponsoring and leading the change got the ability to provide discretionary finance and resources if things don't go to plan?

4.2.7. How is the organisations structures likely to support the changes that are planned?

4.2.8. Do those sponsoring or leading the change have skin in the game?

4.3. If you as change manager can't build relationships with all the stakeholders involved (time, position, culture) who will you need to help you?

4.3.1. Are they respected for their expertise, knowledge or do they just need to be well liked?

4.3.2. Have these change agents got strong informal networks with the people we need to influence?

4.3.3. Are these change agents good connectors with people outside their networks?

4.3.4. Are these change agents respected by employees as well as senior management?

4.3.5. Can these change agents act as a channel of communication between all stakeholders in the change?

4.3.6. Will these change agents be able to understand and communicate the idea effectively across different groups?

4.3.7. Do these change agents know where to go to get the resources that are needed?

4.3.8. Can these change agents help others - sponsors, line managers, targets of change fulfil their roles?

4.3.9. How will these people need to connect with the line managers who can impact the success of the change? Can change agents build mutual trust with the line manager through being authentic? Can change agents overcome the political issues of getting line managers to work together across departments? Do change agents have the influence to be able to offer help and guidance to line managers without making them feel a loss of control? Will these change agents be able to overcome the political obsticals and get the line managers to work together

4.4. How will you need the line managers in the business to support you in bringing about change?

4.4.1. How will you help line managers to communicate the change to their staff?

4.4.2. How will you support line managers in facilitating the change that you are planning

4.4.3. Can you identify some line managers who are fully bought in and can act as role models for the change - first adopters?

4.5. Have we identified and become aligned with the different types of teams in the organisation we need to access for the change to work?

4.5.1. Management teams - lead and operate organisation

4.5.2. Work Teams - within a function

4.5.3. Project teams- assembled for a specific project

4.5.4. Change teams - run a particular change initiative

4.5.5. Matrix teams - cut across functions

4.5.6. Parallel teams - work across structures such as quality circles

4.5.7. Network Teams - based on communities of interest

4.5.8. Virtual teams

5. Does the change you need to make involve cultural change in the organisation

5.1. Do you know what this culture is and how it is affecting the groups of people you need to work with?

5.1.1. Has the group been together long enough to have developed a shared history

5.1.2. Are there people in the group who can interpret the meaning behind what the group does

5.1.3. Is there someone who can tell you the stories that make up the groups shared memories

5.1.4. What doe want you know about how the group has coped with critical incidents that have threatened it.

5.2. How do you bring these cultures together and help them gain new insights?

5.2.1. What are the characteristics of these cultures? Where does this cultural difference cause a dilemma because both approach the issue from two directions both of which are logical (for them) How do people from each group explain what they should do in this situation and they want to do? If you looked at a number of these situations what would that tell you about the assumptions they are making? When cultures come together these cultures need to be seen as two parts of a graph to locate a creative solutions

5.2.2. If you saw these different characteristics as two axis of a grid where would you plot the dilemma between them?

5.3. How can you uncover and change the cultures that you have to work with

5.3.1. Old stuff How the Leaders of the organisation actually behave (not just what they say) Symbols reinforce the culture especially how leaders use time and allocate resources, the way we do things around here and story telling about defining moments It is possible to categorise the type of organisational culture by looking at what they do Taylor categorised the culture of an organisation by what they focused on Systems also reinforce culutre such as how people are rewarded and promoted along with the processes used etc

5.3.2. Have Do Be What does the organisation Have to happen for the change program to be a success? What does the group you are working with believe they need to DO to make this happen based on what they have learnt? What does that say about what the group believes its members need to BE to do this? How do we change people believe about what they need to BE?

5.3.3. How do you make cultural change doable The leaders of organisations are constantly encouraging and discouraging the behaviours through everything they say and do The most important aspect is to keep your promises which is much easier to do if you look at one or two small changes at a time Culture implementation plan You can't focus on all these at the same time - some will be more in focus than others Lava Lamps Cultural archetypes - what happens to make one of these really matter

5.3.4. How you change the culture - its the messages you get about what is expected to fit in Behaviours walking the talk about what you believe in Symbols - teh way that cash and time is allocated Systems - like performance management

5.3.5. If you are too far out of the norm you get rejected or reject yourself How do you create a climate of change through consistently sending the message of what you want change

6. Emergent Change

6.1. Roots of emergent change

6.2. Big Idea - Organisations are complex and often paradoxical systems made up of people and their interactions through which change bubbles up and may not even in principle be predictable

6.2.1. Chaos theory - small local differences can have a disproportionate affect - which corresponds to Senge's model and systems thinking In very complex situations, the success and outcome of a change plan may not be even in principle predictable

6.2.2. Complex adaptive systems - Holland 2006 - change bubbles up over time to which people contribute knowingly or unknowingly Organisations consist of many agents Organisations are complex Formed by the interactions between these agents - rules and social/cultural conventions Organisations adapt behaviours driven by rules self organise and mutate over time

6.2.3. Complex response process Stacey 2001 Interactions between people create organisational life How people relate to each other Their awareness of the impacts of these interrelationships How people define whether these are acceptable or unacceptable

6.3. Leaders find this difficult to manage because they seek to control rather than innovate - see seeing what others don't

6.3.1. Volatility - counter

6.3.2. Uncertainty - reduce uncertainty through understanding

6.3.3. Complexity - clarify complexity and make sense of it

6.3.4. Ambiguity - respond quickly and in a balanced way to ambiguity

6.4. An emergent approach is necessary when the desired destination is clear but precis route is uncertain- requires a cultural journey

6.4.1. Developmental and Deliberate

6.5. An emergent approach is less helpful where the situation is complex but not uncertain or ambiguous and rapid change is required

6.5.1. Describing and defining the future Decide on the big picture change Look at the organisation now and what the consequences of the change not being made and list them Step into the new world and describe all the changes seen and list them Compare the two lists in numerical and measurement terms

6.5.2. Defining and moving to a future state Force field approach - Lewin what are the forces that will drive and resist change to the status quo Kotters dual operating system