DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

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DIGESTIVE SYSTEM by Mind Map: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

1. It is divided into Alimentary canal DIGESTIVE glands

2. Digestion is a process of breakdown of naturally occurring foodstuff into diffusable form

3. Mouth

3.1. It is a oral cavity where food is mixed and chewed with saliva

3.2. Lips

3.2.1. They are used in closing,sucking,speaking ,preciving certain sensation

3.3. Tongue

3.3.1. It helps in the chewing and mixing food with saliva , swallowing, tasting, cleaning the mouth , speaking

4. Teeth

4.1. They help in breakdown of food into smaller pieces, they also help in speaking, and also gives facial beauty

4.2. INCISORS

4.2.1. They r the front 4 teeth Their shape is like chisel Used for biting and cutting

4.3. CANINES

4.3.1. One on either side They r conical in shape Used for holding and tearing

4.4. PREMOLAR

4.4.1. 2 on each side They r like 2 hill like projection They r also know as bi-cuspid They help in grinding and crushing

4.5. Molar

4.5.1. Last 3 teeth on each side The last molar teeth is also known as wisdom teeth The wisdom teeth comes at 17-20 years

4.6. Theri r also 2 types of teeth based upon the shape

4.6.1. Heterodont

4.6.1.1. Teeth with different shape

4.6.2. Homodont

4.6.2.1. Teeth with similar shape

4.7. Teeth r also of 2 types based upon their appearance

4.7.1. Temporary or deciduous

4.7.2. Permanent

5. Structure of tooth

5.1. Crown

5.1.1. It is part exposed to us

5.2. Root

5.2.1. The below part of the gum

5.3. Neck

5.3.1. It is a slight construction between root and the crown

5.4. Enamel

5.4.1. Ivory material,It covers the crown, it is the hardest part in body

5.5. Dentine

5.5.1. It is harder than bone,it is Minute canal where staffs of cytoplasm runs

5.6. Cement

5.6.1. Bone like structure covering and fixings the root

5.7. Pulp

5.7.1. Soft connective tissue ,it consists of the blood vessels and lymph nodes,nerve fibres

6. SALIVARY GLAND S

6.1. They r of 3 main types

6.1.1. Parotid gland

6.1.1.1. Located near the ear

6.1.2. Submandibular

6.1.2.1. Located in lower jaw on each side

6.1.3. Sublingual

6.1.3.1. Below the tonge

6.1.4. Saliva

6.1.4.1. It is a slight acidic(pH--:6.8)

6.1.4.2. It also secrets SALIVARY amylase or PTYALIN

6.1.4.3. FUNCTIONS

6.1.4.3.1. It helps in speaking, swallowing, lubrication of food , Solvent, Helps in cleaning the mouth

6.1.4.3.2. Starch × PTYALIN=maltose

7. SWALLOWING AND PEROSTALIS

7.1. Tongue presses upward and back to move the bolus into the throat .

8. OESOPHAGUS

8.1. It is the passages between mouth and the stomach

8.2. Peristalsis is the wave of constrictions caused by the circular muscles of gut

9. STOMACH

9.1. The opening of the stomach is called pylorus

9.1.1. Is it used to prevent the flow of food till it is throughly mixed

9.1.2. The last gate is called spichter

9.2. Gastric juices

9.2.1. They r secreted by stomach They r colourless Highly acidic It also has enzyme called pepsin

9.2.2. Pepsinogen(inactive)+HCL= PEPSIN Proteins+pepsin=peptides Prorennin(inactive)+HCL=Rennin Casien+Rennin=paracasein

10. Small intestine

10.1. Duodenum

10.1.1. Means "12"

10.2. Jejunum

10.2.1. Empty

10.2.1.1. 2 m long

10.3. Illium

10.3.1. Twist/roll

10.3.1.1. 4m long

10.3.1.1.1. It is mainly made up of no. Of viili They help us in enormous increase in surface area which does absorption Inside the viilus their r many artery ,vein, capillaries, lymph nodes (lacteal)

10.4. It severs as both absorption and digestion It recieves both bile and pancreatic juices

10.5. Bile

10.5.1. Yellowish green ,watery,produced in the liver, transported through hepatic which is joined to cystic duct It is stored in Ball bladder. The colour is due to pigment called biliverdin and bilirubin. It contains Na2Co3 The bile duct through a emulsification for greater surface area for enzymes

10.5.1.1. ACIDIC CHYME +BILE=ALKALINE CHYME FAT+BILE=EMUSIFIED FAT

10.6. Pancreatic juices

10.6.1. The pancreatic juices r of 3 types

10.6.1.1. AMYLOPSIN

10.6.1.1.1. Digest leftover starch into maltose--

10.6.1.2. TRYSIN

10.6.1.2.1. Acts on proteins

10.6.1.3. STEAPSIN

10.6.1.3.1. Acts on fat molecules

10.6.1.4. Trypsinogen(inactive)+enterokinase=active trypsin Proteins and peptides+trypsin=small peptides and amino acid Leftover starch+AMYLOPSIN=maltose Emulsified fat +STEAPSIN=fattyacids and glycerol

10.6.1.5. Peptides+erepsin=amino acid Maltose+maltase=glucose Sucrose+sucrace=glucose+fructose Lactose+lactase=glucose+galactose Emulsified fat+lipase=fatty acid

11. The large intestine

11.1. Caecum

11.1.1. Small , blind pouch . Blind pouch from it there is a projection called vermiform appendix (now it is a bestial organ, funtionless)

11.2. Colon

11.2.1. It's board than illium, it is kind of a meter long than illium

11.2.2. It has 3 parts Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon

11.3. Rectum

11.3.1. It is 15cm long which opens in anus