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Performance Appraisal by Mind Map: Performance Appraisal

1. Performance Appraisal Program

1.1. Performance Appraisal

1.1.1. process to measure the performance of employee

1.2. Performance Management

1.2.1. process to create supportive environment to ensure employee performs at their best

1.3. Appraisal Program

1.4. Purposes for Developmental Appraisal

2. Reasons Appraisal Programs Sometimes Failed

2.1. Lack of top-management information and support

2.2. Unclear performance standards

2.3. Rater bias

2.4. Too many forms to complete

2.5. Use of the appraisal program for conflicting purposes

3. Managerial Issues Concerning Appraisal

4. Developing an Effective Appraisal Program

4.1. Performance Standards

4.2. Calibration

5. Performance Standards Characteristics

5.1. Strategic Relevance

5.2. Criterion Deficiency

5.3. Criterion Contamination

5.4. Reliability

6. Legal Guidelines for Appraisal

6.1. Performance rating must be job related

6.2. Employee must be given a written copy of their job before appraisal

6.3. Managers who handle the appraisal must be able to observe the behavior they are rating

6.4. Appraisals should be discussed openly with employees

7. Sources of Perfomance Appraisal

7.1. Manager and/or Supervisor

7.2. Self-Appraisal

7.3. Subordinate Appraisal

7.4. Peer-Appraisal

7.5. Team Appraisal

7.6. Customer Appraisal

8. Pros of 360-Degree Appraisal

8.1. System is more comprehensive from multiple perspectives

8.2. Quality of information is better

8.3. Lessen prejudice/bias since feedback comes from more people or individual

8.4. Feedback from peers and others may increase employee self-development

9. Cons of 360-Degree Appraisal

9.1. System is more complex in combining all responses

9.2. Feedback can be intimidating and lead to resentment

9.3. May be conflicting opinions

9.4. System requires training to work effectively

10. 360-Degree Performance Appraisal System Integrity Safeguards

10.1. Assure anonymity

10.2. Make respondents accountable

10.3. Prevent 'gaming' of the system

10.4. Use statistical procedures

10.5. Identity and quantify biases

11. Training Performance Appraisers

11.1. Common rater-related errors

11.1.1. Error of central tendency

11.1.2. Leniency of strictness errors

11.1.3. Similar-to-me errors

11.1.4. Recency errors

11.1.5. Contrast and halo errors

11.2. Rater Errors : Training and Feedback

11.2.1. Rating Error Training

11.2.2. Feedback Skills Training

12. Supervisor's Checklist for the Performance Appraisal

12.1. Scheduling

12.2. Preparing for the Review

12.3. Conducting the review

13. Performance Appraisal Method

13.1. Trait Methods

13.1.1. Graphic Rating Scale

13.1.2. Mixed Standard Scale

13.1.3. Forced Choice

13.1.4. Essay

13.2. Behavioral Methods

13.2.1. Critical Incident

13.2.2. Behavioral Checklist

13.2.3. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

13.2.4. Behavior Observation Scale (BOS)

14. Creating an Effective MBO Program

14.1. Managers and employees must be willing to work their goals and objective together

14.2. Expected results must be under the employer's control and free from criterion contamination

14.3. Goals and objective must be consistent

15. The Balanced Scorecard

15.1. The appraisal focuses on four related categories

15.2. Ensuring the methods success

16. Appraisal Interviews

16.1. Tell and Sell - persuasion

16.2. Tell and Listen - nondirective

16.3. Problem Solving

17. Appraisal Interview Guidelines

17.1. Invite Participation

17.2. Change Behavior

17.3. Minimize Cristism

17.4. Establish Goals

17.5. Ask for a Self-Assessment

17.6. Problem Solving Focus

17.7. Express Appreciation

17.8. Be Supportive

17.9. Follow up day by day

18. Factors that Influence Performance

18.1. Motivation

18.2. Environment

18.3. Ability

19. Managing Ineffective Performance

19.1. Possible Courses of Action

19.2. Cautions