Issues in Canadian Geography

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Issues in Canadian Geography by Mind Map: Issues in Canadian Geography

1. Mapping

1.1. Maps: An accurate, scaled-down representation of an area

1.1.1. BOLTS Border Orientation Legend Title Scale Compass Rose

1.2. Hemispheres

1.2.1. North and South, sometimes East and West

1.3. Latitude and Longitude

1.3.1. Latitude Horizontal Equator Temperate Zone Just right temperature

1.3.2. Longitude Vertical Time Zones 24 time zones 15 degrees apart Greenwich Meridian Meridian +1 hour for every time zone to the East Meridian -1 hour for every time zone to the West

1.4. Map Types

1.4.1. Political Map Governmental boundaries between countries Locations of important places Most common map used only for displaying info about what and where things are Usually includes significant bodies of water

1.4.2. Thematic Map Shows how a theme is related to a geographical area on map Ex. Landform regions, vegetation regions, climate regions, etc. Colour coded

1.4.3. Topographic Map Detailed representation of physical features in an area Includes mountains, bodies of water, forests, etc.

1.4.4. Contour Map Designed to show land shapes by using lines Line spacing is determined by the slope of that area

1.4.5. Annotated Map A map with short blurbs of info written on it Similar to a thematic map, but with explanations

1.5. Overview of Canada

1.5.1. Total area = 9.85 million km2

1.5.2. 52,455 islands

1.5.3. Bay of Fundy has the highest tide of 16.1 m

1.5.4. Highest Mountain: Mt. Logan, Yukon (5,959 m)

1.5.5. Highest Waterfall: Della Falls, BC (440 m)

1.5.6. Deepest Lake: Great Slave Lake, NWT (614 m)

1.5.7. Longest River: Mackenzie River (4,241 km)

2. Physical Geography

2.1. Plate Tectonics

2.1.1. Theory that Earth's outer shell is divided into multiple plates and floats over the mantle Developed from the 1950s-1970s

2.1.2. Modern version of Continental Drift Discovered by Alfred Wegener Land was once called Pangea Dinosaurs Continents floated, the land drifted apart Proof of Continental Drift Mountain Ranges Coal Fields, Salt Deposits, Reefs Fossil and Rock Evidence Plant Evidence Glaciers

2.1.3. Discovery of Plate Tectonics New technology in WWII like sonar Sonar was used to map the seafloor, and deep sea trenches and abyssal plains were found

2.1.4. Different Types Divergent Two plates move apart from each other Magma rises into the gap and hardens to make new land Common earthquakes Convergent Two plates move towards each other Impact can cause mountains, sea trenches, or volcano Subduction Transform Two plates slide against each other Earthquakes Destruction No new land

2.1.5. San Andreas Fault In California Transform plate boundary Causes earthquakes when it moves

2.2. Rock Cycle

2.2.1. Types of Rock Igneous Made from cooled magma/ molten rock Crystal structure Intrusive - made under crust Extrusive - made on surface E.g. Granite, basalt Found in: Sedimentary Formed when sediments get compressed into solids from massive weight Buildup over time Visible layers Contains fossils E.g. Shale, limestone, sandstone Found in: Metamorphic Changed versions of the other rock forms Made from heat and pressure E.g. Limestone -> Marble, Sandstone -> Quartz, Granite -> Gneiss Found in:

2.3. Landform Regions

2.3.1. Canadian Shield Rocky with many hills Some of Canada’s oldest rock 3 billion years old Resources: Lead Gold Nickel Copper

2.3.2. Interior Plains Glacial erosion Formed lakes No mountains Little trees Fertile soil Resources: Fossil Oil Natural Gas

2.3.3. Great Lakes - St. Lawrence Lowlands Made from glaciers Two parts are separated by Canadian Shield 50% of population Resources: Fruit Wine Agriculture Maple Syrup Dairy Farming

2.3.4. Hudson Bay - Arctic Lowlands Erosion of Canadian Shield Large rock Resources: Oil Gas

2.3.5. Appalachian Mountains Oldest highland region Made when North America collided with Europe and Africa Fertile land Resources: Agriculture Minerals

2.3.6. Western Cordillera Formed when the Pacific and North American plates collided High sharp mountains Resources: Forestry Fishing Agriculture Hydroelectricity

2.3.7. Innuitian Mountains Developed 150 years ago due to upward movement of the North American plate Young mountain and little erosion cause sharp peaks Resources: Coal Iron Zinc

2.4. Climate and Precipitation

2.4.1. Weather VS Climate Weather Day-to-day characteristics Temporary Observed daily Climate Long-term weather patterns Averages Expected temperatures 2 Types Factors that Affect Climate Climate Graphs

2.4.2. Precipitation Continental or Maritime Classification Temperature Total Precipitation Seasonal Distribution Forms of Precipitation Rain Freezing Rain Sleet Snow Hail Types of Precipitation Convectional Frontal Relief

2.5. Climate Regions of Canada

2.5.1. Arctic Nunavut, NWT, North Quebec Little precipitation Very frigid Long cold winter, short cool summer

2.5.2. Atlantic Maritime New Brunswick, PEI, Nova Scotia, N&L Maritime Climate Atlantic Ocean moderates temperature

2.5.3. Boreal Some BC, some Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, some N&L Continental climate Rain in the summer from convectional precipitation

2.5.4. Cordilleran Yukon, some BC, some Alberta Varying climate Dry

2.5.5. Pacific Maritime Coast of BC Mild weather Relief precipitation on the coast during winter

2.5.6. Prairie Bottom Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba Continental climate Dry because of rainshadow from Western Cordillera Rain in the summer

2.5.7. South Eastern Bottom of Ontario, Quebec, some New Brunswick Continental and maritime climate Large temperature range Wind bring storms from Gulf of Mexico

2.5.8. Taiga NWT, Nunavut, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, N&L Cold winters that last long Cold short summers Convectional precipitation in the summer Frontal precipitation in the winter

2.6. Glaciation

2.6.1. Covers 10% of all land on Earth

2.6.2. 70% of world's freshwater

2.6.3. Found in Arctic, Baffin Island, Bylot Islands, Western and Northern Cordillera

2.6.4. Effect on Climate Change Melting ice rises sea level Reduces fresh water Changes ocean currents Increases ocean acidity Less salty ocean

2.6.5. Formation Snow piles up a lot then melts Compresses Transports materials Rocks, minerals Carves valleys

2.6.6. Vocabulary Till - Assorted glacier sediment Moraines - Things made of till Erratics - Boulders disturbed then moved by glaciers Eskers - Long ridges of sand deposited by glacial meltwater streams Drumlin - Rounded hill of till Striations - Grooves scratched onto a surface

2.6.7. 2 Types Alpine High-up in mountains Driven by gravity Formed by accumulation of snow Continental Covers large land Found in extreme polar regions Flat Very thick

2.6.8. Pros and Cons Pros When melted, it provides freshwater Feeds rivers Hydroelectricity Tourism Good soil Cons Causes flooding Global Warming Sediment depositions Kind of dangerous Change currents

2.7. Soil

2.7.1. Mix of broken rock, organic matter, minerals gases, liquids, and life

2.7.2. Takes a long time to make

2.7.3. Contains plant nutrients and water

2.7.4. Contains bacteria and fungi Break down organic matter

2.7.5. Insects and animals mix soil

2.7.6. Anchor plant roots

2.7.7. Componenents Minerals Bacteria/Organic matter Air Water

2.7.8. Formation Weathering of rocks Mix together to form soil

2.7.9. Horizons (Layers) Soil Profile (Order) Organic Matter Surface Soil Subsoil Parent Rock Bedrock

2.7.10. Uses Grow plants and food Make buildings Materials The building itself Cosmetics Decoration Paint

2.8. Vegetation Regions

2.8.1. Tundra Second largest vegetation region Mostly permafrost Shrubs, mosses, lichen Located in parts of: Nunavut NWT Yukon Ontario Manitoba Quebec N&L

2.8.2. West Coast Forest Lush forests and temperate rainforest Mild and wet climate Located in parts of: BC

2.8.3. Cordilleran Vegetation Rainfall on windward side of mountain, leeward side is dry Grasslands and semi-deserts Coniferous trees grow up in higher mountains Located in parts of: Yukon NWT BC Alberta

2.8.4. Boreal and Taiga Forest Largest vegetation region Lots of coniferous trees Acidic soil due to acid from coniferous tree needles Lots of bogs and wetlands Located in parts of: Yukon NWT Nunavut BC Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba N&L

2.8.5. Grassland Very dry Poor growing conditions for trees Lots of grass Located in parts of: Alberta Saskatchewan Manitoba

2.8.6. Mixed Forest Forests with both coniferous and deciduous trees Transition zone from Boreal to Deciduous forests Humus creates rich, fertile topsoil suitable for farming Located in parts of: Ontario Quebec New Brunswick PEI Nova Scotia

2.8.7. Deciduous Forest Extensively cleared for farming Hot summers and mild winters, year-round precipitation Fertile soil for farming

2.8.8. Trees Coniferous Needle-leaved trees Usually have seeds in the cones ‘Harden’ to avoid freezing/dying in the winter Does not shed leaves in the winter Deciduous Broad-leaved trees Seeds in nuts/fruits Sheds leaves in winter to avoid catching too much snow and breaking

3. Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

3.1. Resources and Industries

3.1.1. Resource A physical material people need and value 3 Types Natural Resource Renewable Resource Non-renewable Resource

3.1.2. Industry Economic activity, processing of raw materials and manufacturing in factories Types Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary

3.2. Alternative Energies

3.2.1. Renewable energies

3.2.2. Come from natural processes

3.2.3. Replenish at a stable rate

3.2.4. Why should they be used? Less greenhouse gases Sustainable Climate change lowered They get cheaper as technology improves

3.2.5. Pros and Cons Pros Fight climate change Less pollution Reliable and sustainable Cons Doesn’t generate as much power Can be disruptive to wildlife May only have windows of power generation

3.2.6. Energy Sources Wind Wind turbines Tidal Rise and fall of ocean currents Predictable and reliable Expensive Geothermal Heat from below the earth’s surface Solar Energy from radiated heat and light Available only in the day Rooftop panels Biomass Organic material from plants and animals Crops, waste wood, trees

3.3. Climate Change and Sustainability

3.3.1. Sustainability - The ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level; avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance

3.3.2. 7 cycles of glacial advance and retreat over Earth’s lifespan

3.3.3. Current warming trend is 95% the result of human acitivities since mid 20th century

3.3.4. CO2 CO2 and other greenhouse gases have CO2 levels increasing 250% faster since last ice age

3.3.5. Proof Global Temperature Rise Risen 1.14 degrees since late 19th century Caused by increased greenhouse gases Occurred in the past 40 years Warming Ocean 90% of extra energy stored in the ocean Ocean absorbs heat Top 100m increased 0.33 degrees past 50 years Shrinking Ice Sheets Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets lost billions of tons of ice per year Melting Glacial Retreat Glaciers are retreating Alps, Himalayas, Andes, Rockies, Alaska, Africa Decreased Snow Cover Snow is melting Less snow covering the north Melts earlier Sea Level Rise Sea levels risen 20 cm in last 100 years Rate accelerates per year Melted ice and snow Ocean Acidification Acidity increases as ocean absorbs more C02 Ocean has absorbed 20-40% of all emissions

3.3.6. Human Causes CO2 Burning fossil fuels Transportation Methane Petroleum and agriculture industries Waste decomposition in landfills Nitrous Oxide Organic and commercial fertilizers Energy production Chlorofluorocarbons Home appliances Ozone layer depletion Sulfur Hexachloride Dielectric liquids for medicinal purposes Insulators Deforestation Less trees, less oxygen Releases CO2 Agriculture Fertilizers and pesticides Harms human bodies if ingested Industrialization Factories emit pollution

3.4. Pesticides and Organic Foods

3.4.1. Pest - Anything that causes trouble Destroys plants Spreads diseases

3.4.2. Pesticide - Substance used to kill, repel, or control pests PMRA is in charge of pesticide regulation 15 year cycle of check ups on pesticides Promotes sustainability Registered pesticides have a PCP number on the label Types Herbicide Fungicide Insecticide Pros and Cons Pros Cons Human Health Concerns Cancer Birth Defects Immunotoxicity Neurological Defects Interferes with bodily functions Children are vulnerable

3.4.3. Organic Foods Refers to the way the food is grown and processed Grown using environmentally and animal friendly methods Heavily regulated Prohibit the use of toxic substances Prohibit the use of artificial sweeteners Thicker skins to reduce pesticide absorption Why? Less pesticides Fresh Healthier food Non-GMOs The Difference Crops Livestock Pros and Cons Pros Cons

3.5. Deforestation

3.5.1. Trees, that produce oxygen and absorb carbon, are being cut down to make space for agriculture, development, timber and manufacturing

3.5.2. Why? Agriculture Space for land Plant crops make money They burn trees and burn all the nutrients Logging Harvest the timber for products Selective logging Less of a cause for deforestation Fuels Firewood and charcoal Not a main cause Manufacturing Building furniture, paper, etc. 40% of wood use Mining and Oil Extraction Remove trees to make mines Dams Floods land to make dams Displaces people and animals

3.5.3. Why it matters Global Warming Trees release CO2 when cut down Trees absorb CO2 and release oxygen Loss of Habitat Lots of life forms live in the forest Flooding and Erosion Forests prevent flooding Ground is stabilized by trees

3.5.4. Solutions Be sustainable Support NGO

3.5.5. Regulation Land use planning Zoning Wildlife protection Respect Aboriginal iInterests Allow forests to regrow Government keeps an eye on and regulates companies

3.5.6. 4 Levels of Sustainable Forest Management Government Enforce sustainability Land Owners and Managers Adhere to the law Corporations and Investors Buy sustainable Consumers Buy sustainable

3.6. Food Insecurity in the North

3.6.1. Food Security - Everyone has access to enough healthy food to be well

3.6.2. Why are food prices so high? Transportation No roads Planes required Transportation costs Food needs to last longer

3.6.3. Effect on People Poor health Physical Mental

3.6.4. Help NNCP Subsidies Support Grants Nutrition education

3.7. Oil Sands

3.7.1. A naturally occurring mix of sand clay, minerals, water, and bitumen Bitumen - Oil like substance, Sticky, tar like, viscous. Found around individual sand particles

3.7.2. Alberta Oil Sands 96% of Canada’s oil sands 10% of the world's oil preserves Third largest in the world Less than 10% can actually be extracted with today’s tech

3.7.3. How do they occur? Organic matter dies and is covered by sediment Heat and pressure turn it into petroleum Ocean organisms fall to the bottom of the sea and decompose

3.7.4. Extraction Mine In situ Open Pit Upgrade Bitumen is very thick Upgraded and diluted so it is usable 2 Types: Refine Separate, convert, then treat

3.7.5. Pros and Cons Pros Good for economy Reliable source of power Trade Jobs Can recover land when done Cons Emits greenhouse gases Toxic waste Massive water consumption Uses a lot of land

3.8. Mining

3.8.1. The extraction of minerals, metals, and other geographical materials from the earth

3.8.2. Materials Ore Rocks that contain mineral(s) Metals Copper Gold Non-metals From sedimentary rocks

3.8.3. 3 Methods Strip Mining Surface level Clear land Remove material Open Pit Walls are dug at an angle to prevent avalanches Common mining method Underground Mining Deep underground Dangerous

3.8.4. Mining in the Congo Child labour Extremely low wage ($2-3/day) Deaths - collapses and landslides Company needs money so they will continue

3.8.5. Effects Disrupts ecosystems and rivers Affects Indigenous people Mining resources found on their land

3.9. Trade

3.9.1. Trade - Process of buying goods and services

3.9.2. Imports - Product that is brought into a country from another country

3.9.3. Export - Product that is sold and brought to other countries

3.9.4. Trade Surplus - Situation where country has imported less than they exported

3.9.5. Trade Deficit - Situation were country has exported more than imported

3.9.6. Tariff - Tax imposed on exported goods to protect Canadian economy

3.9.7. Pros and Cons Pros Benefits importing countries Brings countries together for discussion More money for importing country yes Cons Doesn’t really benefit exporting countries

3.9.8. Free Trade Trade without tariffs Pact between two countries to lift barriers Little to no tariffs, quotas, or subsidies to limit trade Pros and Cons Pros Cons NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) → USMCA (United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement) Treaty between North America that enables free trade Auto manufacturing boost Strong labour laws Access for dairy farmers $600m dedicated to environmental concerns Canada currently has 14 free trade agreements across the world, in varying stages Consumer Benefits Cheaper products Problems for Factory Workers Less money for them Lower wages Their products get bought less No tariffs = companies start up in the country that gives the most benefit

3.9.9. Fair Trade Certification that checks if the methods of production are fair

3.9.10. Canada’s Major Imports High tech, motor parts, warm climate products, low cost goods

3.9.11. Canada’s Major Exports Natural resource products, motor vehicle parts, specialized goods

3.9.12. Importance of Trading in Canada Import To obtain goods that are unavailable in Canada Export Keep economy healthy - Create jobs To pay for things we import Lower cost of Canadian goods

3.9.13. Multinational companies can make a lot of money everywhere

3.10. Issue of the Day

3.10.1. Fracking 'Hydraulic fracturing'; process where water, sand and chemicals are injected underground at high pressures to crack open layers of rock and release the oil and/or gases trapped inside, letting the gas escape by flowing out the head of the well Haliburton first used fracking back in 1949 to increase the flow of gas from wells in Kansas By the mid-2000s U.S. companies figured out how to combine fracking with other mining methods to extract oil and gas at reasonable prices 6 Steps 1. A 'wellbore' or hole is dug to the layer of shale 2. Upon reaching the shale, the drill will drill horizontally for about a mile or so 3. A “perforating gun” loaded with explosive charges is lowered to the bottom of the well, and it punctures tiny holes in the outer casing of the layer that is in the shale 4. Mixture of water, sand and chemicals is pumped into the well at extremely high pressures and it goes through the tiny holes in the casing, cracking open the shale rock 5. Flowback when the chemicals and water flow out of the well and are taken for disposal or treatment 6. Natural gas flows from the shale, where it's eventually shipped to consumers via pipeline Pros and Cons Pros Cons

3.10.2. Ocean Acidification A chemical process where the acidity of the ocean rises/pH level decreases due to more CO2 Why does it matter? Negatively affects organisms Disrupts food webs Human consequences Solutions Burn less fossil fuels Use less energy Reduce carbon footprint Use cleaner methods of energy Restore marine ecosystems

3.10.3. Arctic Relocation 1953-1955: The Canadian government moved many Inuit families from their homes to Nunavut They promised a bountiful land Told that living conditions would be improved, plentiful wildlife They would be able to live more traditionally Land was actually barren Why is it bad? Meant to move the Inuit out of an area that was seen as overpopulated and over-hunted Meant to establish Canadian sovereignty over the North as the Americans were closing in No consultations with the Inuit beforehand Effects of Relocation Families are traumatized Families are separated Gap in cultural knowledge Some of the Inuit went on to become leaders Government Apology Apologized for:

3.10.4. The Secret Life of Water Water security Drinking water advisories Water on indigenous reserves is low quality Boil water advisory for 30 years Contaminated with: Water is a human need but Canada has had 136 drinking water advisories; 95 in first nations reserves Government Actions Building wells and treatment plants Lack of infrastructure to bring this water to homes Water Scarcity Water is being pumped at an alarmingly quick rate Companies like Nestle are able to pump water endlessly while First Nations can’t even get enough water to live

3.10.5. Fisheries and Collapse of the Cod Fish and seafood is one of largest food sectors exported by Canada Billions of dollars Lots of jobs Valuable species Sustainable Fishing Harvesting and farming fish in a way that meets our needs yet maintains our future goals Economic prosperity is also important Invest in conservation methods Balance harvest with capacity Provide stable jobs Current Model Story of Cod 1497 - English explorers discovered lots of Cod off the coast of Newfoundland Everyone started fishing Fishing tech improved More countries came to fish cod Hundreds and thousands of tonnes of cod per year fished in the 60s-80s Canada kicked out the foreign companies Cod being overfished Government started regulating cod fishing in 1992 Cod collapsed Communities gone

3.10.6. Arctic Drilling Drilling areas North of the Arctic Circle for oil and gas Arctic could contain some of the world’s largest untapped oil/gas reserves 13% of earth's undiscovered oil No developments made in the Canadian Arctic Government is studying science-based review of moratorium on issuing new licenses in the Arctic Ocean Risks Species Oil Spills Global Warming Use of Resources Waste

3.10.7. Waste Disposal Countries that produce the most waste: Canada Bulgaria U.S. Estonia Finland Types of Waste Food Waste Agricultural Waste Construction and Demolition Waste E-Waste Hazardous Waste Industrial Waste Medical Waste Total Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Where does the waste go? Collected and taken to transfer locations Sorted and transferred to processing/disposal facilities Shipped away, put in landfill sites, buried or burned How do landfills work? Landfill operators have to propose new landfills months before they come online to ensure the province doesn’t run out of space Pros and Cons Pros Cons

4. Human Geography

4.1. Urbanization

4.1.1. Process through which cities grow, inviting higher percentages of the population to settle there

4.1.2. Cities Urban Average city Large population (1000+) Population density is 400 people/km2 or more Lots more high rise buildings Apartments to fit more people in a space Business districts Faster paced and busy Attracts young people Rural Small towns outside urban cities Little population (1000 and less) and little infrastructure Population density is 150 people/km2 and less Estate lots, agricultural, undeveloped, non-developable lands Remote Agriculture Wilderness Megacity Population of 10 million+ 34 megacities in the world

4.1.3. Industrial Revolution Development period in the latter half of the 18th century Transformed cities in Europe and America Introduction of new technology Mass production

4.1.4. Push and Pull Factors Push No jobs No amenities No food No water No education No mechanization No community Pull Good economy Lots of job opportunities Accessible amenities and services Education available at varying levels Strong community Fun things to do

4.1.5. Urban Growth Caused by natural increase -> births - deaths = positive number If the number is negative, then the population is naturally decreasing Also caused by migration People moving in and out of somewhere

4.1.6. Negative Effects Higher population - more resources, if government can't keep up then population will suffer Concentrated consumption, eventually leads to massive pollution Air pollution from cars Litter Resource extraction creates toxic byproducts Mismanaged waste leads to possible leakage Threatens ecosystems and wildlife Loss of habitat Loss of food sources

4.1.7. Population Settlement Patterns Scattered Random placement Equal distribution of resources Linear Settlements line up Follow natural shorelines and railways Clustered Groups of people clumped together in an area Around where sources are concentrated

4.2. Population Density

4.2.1. Mathematical measure of the number of people living in each square kilometer of land

4.2.2. Measure of how crowded an area is

4.2.3. Population Density = Population/Area

4.2.4. Compelling Geographical Elements Fertile Soil Easier to grow food, cheaper to get People first located to fertile lands to grow food and earn money Borders Less cost and distance when travelling Lots of people live in Southern Canada for this reason - closer to U.S. = less travel and trade costs Southern Canada closer to the equator than Northern Canada - warmer climate

4.3. Urban Sprawl

4.3.1. Characteristics Unplanned low-density development Less people per sq km - not an efficient use of space Large lots Lots of parking lots Automobile Dependent Spread out development Lots of space between residences, amenities, and workplaces Segregation between residential and commercial areas Growth Outward from Existing Urban Centers Rapid expansion away from urban cores Less customers for urban companies Dilutes market Businesses begin in suburbs Leapfrogging Patterns of Development Developers skip land and build residences some distance away from existing urban areas Less costly land away from urban hotspots Common Strip Development Ribbon development with properties lining roads Extends outwards from urban areas Homes often arranged along highways

4.3.2. Pros and Cons Pros Local economic growth Larger, more affordable housing Slower life Less commercial competition Cons More pollution More traffic incidents Less room for agriculture Automobile dependency Loss of natural space

4.3.3. GTA Most populous metropolitan region in Canada 25 urban, suburban and rural municipalities Home to a number of First Nation communities Europeans arrived in the 17th century Urban Sprawl in Mississauga Increased level of greenhouse gas emissions Increased obesity rates Quiet city, now turned very urban and building upwards More heat and energy required to heat and cool residences

4.3.4. Greenbelt 2 million acres of protected land Created in 2005 Regulates which land can be developed on Preserve natural areas Filter and replenish groundwater that feeds into many natural river and lake systems Creates jobs

4.4. Struggling Small Towns

4.4.1. Struggles Food Supply Farmers are struggling to keep up with the demand for food as there are more consumers Quantity > Quality so quality goes down Less Job Opportunities Slow job growth More production jobs As production gets easier, less jobs available Access to Healthcare Accessing healthcare is more difficult Less use of specialized services Less preventative screening Less Wages Less high paying, high skill jobs found in small towns Poor Connectivity Dial-up Internet still used in a lot of places Physical barriers like mountains Lifestyle Higher birth rate Smoking rates higher in small towns Small community - everyone knows everyone Less street lights - less light pollution, can see stars with the naked eye at night

4.4.2. Ghost Town A town built after an abundant resource is found but abandoned when it depletes - resource depletion Boomtowns - People settled there quickly and quickly built mines and refineries to mine and refine resources After the resources were depleted people moved Some towns depended on the highways for their livelihood, and closure of the road could mean death of the settlement

4.5. Demography

4.5.1. The study of human populations and their attributes

4.5.2. Process through which populations change

4.5.3. Useful To governments To private businesses To analyze and predict trends

4.5.4. Beginning Studies started when people started looking at mortality Studied baptism and burial records Studies in the 19th century showed decline in number of births Led to the idea of “differential fertility” Suggests that different groups within a population have different numbers of children due to: Religion Cultural Attitude Poverty Employment

4.6. Aging Population

4.6.1. Baby Boom After WW2 ended everyone was happy and had babies More marriages Safer childbirth Improving economy Effects: Stress for the government Large increase in seniors More people retiring

4.6.2. Dependency Load - People too old or too young to support themselves (younger than 15 and older than 65)

4.6.3. Effect on Canada: Housing Older people need smaller homes and less stairs People Available to Work Job Opportunities for Young Canadians Products Bought Different services and goods becoming more popular Pension Plans Healthcare and pension plans are very stressed Healthcare

4.7. Canadian Immigration

4.7.1. Main source of Canada's population growth

4.7.2. 3 Categories Economic Class Skilled in a trade or work For labour shortages Majority of immigrants Points system Family Class Enter through someone already living in Canada permanently Sponsor must be financially stable and agree to support them for 3 years Spouses, immediate family, adoptees Refugees Enter to escape a bad situation in their own country Judged by Immigration and Refugee Board Entitled to benefits CBSA will judge you and come after you if you’re illegal

4.7.3. Pros and Cons Pros More skilled workers Replace retired people Increases our population Diversity Cons More competition for jobs Hard to adapt Poor areas of city Costs money

5. Liveable Cities

5.1. Factors to Consider in a Liveable City

5.1.1. Stability

5.1.2. Healthcare

5.1.3. Culture and Environment

5.1.4. Education

5.1.5. Infrastructure

5.2. Ranked according to the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Global Liveability Report

5.2.1. Cities given a score between 1 and 100 Category scores are averaged for final scores

5.3. Mercer's Quality of Living

5.3.1. 1. Political and Social Environment

5.3.2. 2. Economic Environment

5.3.3. 3. Socio-cultural Environment

5.3.4. 4. Medical and Health Considerations

5.3.5. 5. Schools and Education

5.3.6. 6. Public Services and Transportation

5.3.7. 7. Recreation

5.3.8. 8. Consumer Goods

5.3.9. 9. Housing

5.3.10. 10. Natural Environment

5.4. Urban Land Use

5.4.1. Residential - 40%

5.4.2. Commercial - 5%

5.4.3. Industrial - 6%

5.4.4. Recreation/Open Space - 7%

5.4.5. Transportation - 32%

5.4.6. Institutional - 10%

5.4.7. Factors affecting urban land use Land Value High value in accessible parts of the city High value near major highways and transportation routes Zoning Laws controlling where and where not things can be built Greenbelt Technology Changes as technology advances Climate Buildings designed to withstand weather conditions

5.4.8. Sustainable Cities Good regulations Eco-friendly Addresses social, economic, and political issues within a city How to be sustainable Good public transportation Walkable and bikeable Green developments Water conservation Accessible public resources Liveability Stability Healthcare Culture and Environment Education Infrastructure Affordable