Changes in Neurophysiological and Cognition Due To Aging

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Changes in Neurophysiological and Cognition Due To Aging by Mind Map: Changes in Neurophysiological and Cognition Due To Aging

1. Abnormal

1.1. Poor decision-making

1.2. Inability to manage a budget

1.3. Losing Track of date or season

1.4. Difficulty having a conversation

1.5. Being unable to retrace steps

1.6. Getting lost in familiar places

1.7. Dementia: term used to describe a range of symptoms associated with cognitive impairment.

1.7.1. Alzheimer's: Most prevalent neurodegenerative disease

2. Normal

2.1. Occasional bad decisions

2.2. Missing a monthly payment

2.3. Forgetting the day, remembering it later

2.4. Sometimes forgetting a word

2.5. Forgetting why they walked into a room

2.6. Making a wrong turn

3. Tests

3.1. Cognitive

3.1.1. Premorbid Intellectual Functioning: Measure of vocabulary knowledge, word reading ability

3.1.2. Achievement/Academic Abilities: Important for children; learning disabilities; school and placement issues

3.1.3. Wechsler Adult Scales of Intelligence

3.1.4. Cognitive Screeners RBANS (Neuropsychological Status) DRS-2 (Dementia Scale) MMSE (Mental Status Examination) MoCA (Cognitive Assessment)

3.2. Emotional

3.2.1. BDI-2 (Depression Inventory)

3.2.2. BAI (Anxiety Inventory)

3.2.3. GDS (Depression Scale)

3.2.4. MMPI-2 (Personality Inventory)

4. Age Related Changes

4.1. Changes With Aging

4.1.1. Vision Pupil size decreases as we age Decreased ability to perceive light reflection

4.1.2. Learning

4.1.3. Motor Speed Tests assess for presence of, and laterality and severity of motor/speed deficits

4.1.4. Auditory Changes due to peripheral end organs and central loss of auditory processing Results in a decline in gait speed and sit-to-stand time

4.1.5. Olfaction Age related olfactory changes is due to less input going into the cerebellum One of the earliest indicators of Dementia or Parkinson's

4.1.6. Cognition Crystallized Intelligence do not diminish with normal aging Fluid intelligence decreases with aging

4.1.7. 6 Domains Language Verbal fluency and visual confrontation declines Attention Attention Span: Maximum amount of info that can be attended to at one time Directed Attention: Ability to detect target stimulus when present More Complex Memory Short Term Long Term Procedural Episodic Semantic Processing Speed Declines starting in the 30s Visuospatial/Constructional Ability Pattern recognition, color perception, face perception, spatial relationships, visual attention/scanning, visual organization, visual spatial construction Executive Functioning/Reasoning Initiation/Self Regulation/ Inhibition, Planning and Organization, Conceptualization/Deductive and Inductive Reasoning, Abstraction, Problem Solving, Verbal and Visual Reasoning

4.1.8. Sleep As an individual ages, they tend to get less sleep, affecting their ability to convert short-term memory into long-term

5. Causes

5.1. Genetics

5.2. Lifestyle

5.2.1. SDOH Economic Stability Income, Debt, Employment, Medical Bills, etc. Education Literacy, Language, Higher education, Early Childhood Education Food Hunger, Access to healthy options Health Care System Health Disparities: preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, and violence Health Equity: No one is at a disadvantage of obtaining full health potential. Health Coverage, Quality of Care, Provider availability Community and Social Context Social Integration, Stress, Support System, Community Engagement Neighborhood and Physical Environment Housing, Transportation, Parks, Safety, Walkability

5.3. Health

5.4. Cardiovascular Fitness

6. Senescence

6.1. Causes

6.1.1. Oxidative Stress Telomere Dysfunction

6.1.2. Non-telomere DNA Damage

6.1.3. Oncogene activation

6.1.4. Senescence-associated secretory phenotype

6.1.5. Epigenetic Changes

6.1.6. Apoptosis Resistance

6.1.7. Cell-Cycle Arrest