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Anthropology by Mind Map: Anthropology

1. INTRODUCTION TO ANTHROPOLOGY

1.1. "Anthropology is the study of humankind, viewed from the perspective of all people and all times."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “What Is Physical Anthropology? .” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 5.)

1.2. There are four branches of anthropology. They are Physical, archaeology,cultural,and linguistic. All of these branches of anthropology study the development of humans over time.

2. EVOLUTION

2.1. "In developing his theory of evolution by means of natural selection, Darwin drew on geology, paleontology, taxonomy and systematics, demography, and what is now called evolutionary biology."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Evolution .” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 52.)

2.2. The history of evolution started with religion then became the scientific term we know know thanks to Charles Darwin. His main contribution to science was his theory on natural selection.

3. GENETICS

3.1. "The genetic code is DNA, packaged in chromosomes."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Genetics .” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 86.)

3.2. Genetics cover a broad range of topics such as DNA, the development of cells, and the genetic basis for human variation. These are all vital factors for the development of humans. This is the basis for human life and biological anthropology.

4. POPULATION GENETICS

4.1. Genetic change is caused by mutation, natural selection, genetic drift, and gene flow. Genetic change is also attributed from deviation over a frequency in time. Deviation can include migration, climate change, new diseases coming about and diet change.

4.2. "In biological terms, if two populations are reproductively isolated, members of one population cannot interbreed with members of the other." (LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Genes and Evolution: Population Genetics .” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 90.)

5. Biology in the present: LIVING PEOPLE

5.1. "The idea of race—that human variation can be classified—is a recent invention."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Biology in the present: Living People” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 126.)

5.2. Human variation is essential when it comes to understanding humans now. Many people once thought that race played a big role in human variation. However, race actually played such a small role. Human variation actually has more to do with the development of the body and organs. In order to remain in homeostasis the human body adapts to its environments though genetics.

6. BIOLOGY IN THE PRESENT: THE OTHER LIVING PRIMATES

6.1. "The study of primate behavior provides insights into our own behavior and perhaps even the origins of specific behaviors, such as cognition, parenting, social interactions, and (some argue) even conflict and warfare." (LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Biology in the Present: The other Living Primates .” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 168.)

6.2. The reason as to why anthropologist study primates is because they are similar to humans. They have similar characteristics, are diverse like humans, and are able to adapt to multiple environments like humans.

7. Primate Sociality, Social Behavior, and Culture

7.1. When looking into the lives of primates and how they behave anthropologist have found some interesting discoveries. They have discovered that primates are social to enhance their way of living such as, finding safety and having easier access to reproduce. There are various of social groups in the primate world some include multimale and multifemale social groups. Anthropologist have also discovered that primates mostly rely on their body for food and that they communicate through vocalization.

7.1.1. "...primate social behavior is influenced by evolution. Basically, natural selection favors primate behaviors that enhance survival and reproduction." (LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Primate Sociality, Social Behavior, and Culture” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 209.)

8. Fossils and their Place and Time in Nature

8.1. "The fuller and more representative the collection of fossils from specific animals and plants in any site or region, the richer will be our understanding of the various populations of these animals and plants within that site or region."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “Fossils and their Place and Time in Nature” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 242.)

8.2. Fossil provide us insight into the past. They are the remains of the past living organisms that roamed the earth. Fossils are used to record and document biological evolution. They can give us insight about past diets and environments. This is important to understanding the evolution of life. Most fossils found are bones and teeth. Scientist use radioactive decay to determine the time of the fossils.

9. PRIMATE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION: THE FIRST 50 MILLION YEARS

9.1. Primates are hypothesized to come from either radiation of an ancestor or evolved to live on trees to make it easier to catch food such as insects and food. The first primates appeared 55 mya. The first higher primates are a combination of strepsirhine and haplorhine characteristics. These type of primates are hypothesized to be the first anthropoids. The evolution of primates is complex. Apes began in Africa and through adaptation, evolution, radiation and migration there is now a vast amount of different ape groups. Including humans.

9.2. "Primates differ from other mammals thanks to a unique combination of traits, such as forward-facing eyes, a postorbital bar or fully enclosed eye orbit, a large cranial vault, a reduced snout, and a versatile dentition."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “PRIMATE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION: THE FIRST 50 MILLION YEARS” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 275.)

10. EARLY HOMININ ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION: ROOTS OF HUMANITY

10.1. The earliest fossil hominins the ,pre-australopithecines, are predicted to be dated 7-4 mya. When learning about hominin they are generally defined as being bipedal and having nonhoning chewing. They are thought to have evolved to have more success in feeding high up on trees and on the ground. The first hominids lived in forests. They are said to have gone through a rage of diet adaptations and preferring meat and grasses. They evolved to the genus Homo after they went extinct about a million years ago.

10.1.1. "This record sheds light on the earliest humanlike ancestors. In order of origin and evolution, they are the pre-australopithecines (before the genus Australopithecus), which lived 7–4 mya, and the australopithecines, which lived 4–1 mya."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “EARLY HOMININ ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION: ROOTS OF HUMANITY.” Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 343.)

11. THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF EARLY HOMO

11.1. "Ernst Haeckel (1834–1919), Germany’s preeminent anat-omist and evolutionary biologist of the late nineteenth century, came up with an entirely different origins scenario. He reasoned that the Asian great ape, the orangutan, is more anatomically similar to humans than are the African great apes. Asia, not Africa, he concluded, must have been the hominins’ ancestral homeland."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF EARLY HOMO".Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 386.)

11.1.1. The first genus Homo are Homo habilis and Homo erectus. Homo habilis fossils have been found in Africa that date around 2.5-1.8 mya. While Homo Erectus dates around 1.8 mya to 300,000yBP. Their fossils were found in Africa, Europe and Asia. Genus Homos are defined as having large brains, small facial features and depending on tools for survival. Homo erectus evolved to develop complex technology, fire and organized social groups to hunt. They became the predator in early Pleistocene time. The traits that the Homo erectus developed help set the path for Homo sapiens to follow and grow.

12. The ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, AND DISPERSAL OF MODERN PEOPLE

12.1. "In Africa, archaic H. sapiens evolved into modern H. sapiens at least by 160,000 yBP, perhaps as early as 200,000 yBP"(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “The ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, AND DISPERSAL OF MODERN PEOPLE".Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 428.)

12.1.1. When we look at the modern human anthropology defines the modern human as having distinguishable characteristics such as small faces and facial features, a vertical and high forehead, long legs and narrow noses. The early Homo sapiens evolved from the Homo erectus group. They went on to develop more advanced tools, a more diverse diet.

13. THE PAST 10,000 YEARS: AGRICULTURE, POPULATION, BIOLOGY

13.1. "Eventually, humans replaced nearly all the wild animals and wild plants in their diets with domesticated animals and domesticated plants."(LARSEN, CLARK SPENCER. “THE PAST 10,000 YEARS: AGRICULTURE, POPULATION, BIOLOGY".Our Origins:Discovering Physical Anthropology 4 Ed.by Clark Spencer Larsen , ED 4TH ed., p. 480.)

13.1.1. In the last 10,000 yrs modern humans added domesticated animals and plants to their diets. This was done to mostly to feed the growing population of humans. This type of agriculture has lead to crowding which has lead to infections diseases spreading easier. This has also made the food quality worst. This is done by focusing on carbs and not on good sources of protein. Because of poor diet it has lead to health problems in humans as well as human having to need more dentistry work done. However, it has help with taking the stress off of scavenging and hunting for food.