Cultural Anthropology Chapter 6

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Cultural Anthropology Chapter 6 by Mind Map: Cultural Anthropology Chapter 6

1. Adaptation of hand functioning

1.1. Opposable-Thumb of a primate capable of moving toward and touching the other digits on the same hand.

1.2. Power Grip- Forcible activities of the fingers and thumb that act against the palm to transmit a force to an object.

1.3. Precision Grip-The way of grabbing hold of an item between the opposed tactile pads of the tips of the fingers and the thumb.

2. Transition to cultural variation

2.1. Arboreal Adaptation- Animal which lives in the trees. These animals have adaptations which enable them to live and move about in trees animal has long limbs, prehensile tail, and claws.

2.2. Brachiators-Animal behavior, specialized form of arboreal locomotion in which movement is accomplished by swinging from one hold to another by the arms.

2.3. Prehensile Tail-The tail of an animal that has adapted to grasp or hold objects.

2.4. Dietary Plasticity-Flexibility in adapting to a given environment.

2.5. Diurnal-Active during the day and at rest at night

2.6. Nocturnal-Active at night and at rest during the day.

3. Dental specializations and functions

3.1. Dental Formula-Pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.

3.2. Loph-A ridge of enamel that connects the cusps of a molar or teeth near the cheek.

3.3. Bilophodont-Having two transverse ridges or crests the molar teeth of the tapirs are bilophodont.

3.4. Y-5-Has five cusps with grooves running between them, forming a Y shape. This is characteristic of hominoids

3.5. Tooth Comb- Dental structure found in some mammals, a group of front teeth arranged in a manner that appears similar to grooming hair comb.

3.6. Canine–premolar honing complex-Dental formation which the upper canines are sharpened against the lower third premolars when the jaws are opened and closed

3.7. Diastema-A gap or space between the teeth

3.8. Sectorial (premolar)- premolar that helps to cut down.

4. Context of ancestry

4.1. Phylogeny-history of the evolution of a species or group, especially in reference to lines of descent and relationships among broad groups of organisms.

4.2. Derived Characteristics-Trait that arose in the most common ancestor of a particular lineage and was passed along to its descendants.

4.3. Primitive Characteristics- Inherited from distant ancestors.

4.4. Clade-Group of organisms believed to have evolved from a common ancestor,

4.5. Preadaptation- Adaptation which serves a different purpose from the one for which it evolved.

4.6. Parental Investment-Investment in offspring by the parent that increases the offspring's chances of surviving

4.7. Grade- Form of social organization within a series of such categories, through which individuals pass over the course of their lives.

4.8. Hominin-Very closely related to ancestors

5. Quote- "In addition, DNA comparisons reveal that chimpanzees and humans are more closely related than either is to gorillas."(Larsen) Works cite- Our Origins: Discovering Physical Anthropology, by Clark Spencer Larsen, 4th ed., W.W. Norton & Company, 2017, p.186 .