TRANSLATION THEORIES

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TRANSLATION THEORIES by Mind Map: TRANSLATION THEORIES

1. ANTIQUITY (BEFORE 500 AD)

1.1. Greek to Latin Translations

1.2. Old Testament Bible was translated from Hebrew to Greek

1.3. LUCIUS ANDRONICUS

1.3.1. Translated Homer's Odyssey "Odyssia"

1.4. MARCUS CICERO

1.4.1. WORD-FOR-WORD

1.4.2. SENSE-FOR-SENSE

1.5. HORACE

1.5.1. "The goal of translation is producing the aesthetically pleasing and creative text in the target language."

1.6. SAINT JEROME

1.6.1. Translation the Bible into Latin

1.6.2. Advocated translation based on SENSE-FOR-SENSE

2. MIDDLE AGES (500-1500 AD)

2.1. LITERAL FUNDAMENTALISM

2.2. TOLEDO SCHOLARS

2.2.1. Played a significant role in transferring the Islamic culture and enriching the western world.

2.3. TRANSLATION AS AN ART

3. 16th - 17th CENTURY

3.1. MARTIN LUTHER

3.1.1. SYSTEMATIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF TRANSLATION

3.1.1.1. 1. Changing

3.1.1.2. 2. Addition

3.1.1.3. 3. Retrenchment

3.1.1.4. 4. Expansion

3.1.1.5. 5. Simplification

3.2. ETIENE DOLET

3.2.1. PRINCIPLES OF TRANSLATION (The translator must...)

3.2.1.1. understand the content and intention of the author

3.2.1.2. have a perfect knowledge of both the source language (SL) and the target language (TL)

3.2.1.3. employ the forms of speech

3.2.1.4. focus on the intention of the text

3.3. COWLEY

3.3.1. FREE TRANSLATION

3.3.2. "The translator has to supply "new beauties" to the translated text."

3.4. JOHN DRYDEN

3.4.1. CATEGORIES OF TRANSLATION

3.4.1.1. 1. Metaphrase

3.4.1.2. 2. Paraphrase

3.4.1.3. 3. Imitation

4. 18th CENTURY

4.1. Equilibrium between LITERACY and FREEDOM in prose translation and technical translation.

4.2. ALEXANDER WOODHOUSLEE (TYTLER)

4.2.1. 3 GENERAL RULES

4.2.1.1. 1. The translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work

4.2.1.2. 2. The style and manner of writer should be the same with the original

4.2.1.3. 3. The translation should have all the ease of the original composition

4.3. SCHLEIERMACHER

4.3.1. 2 TYPES OF TRANSLATOR

4.3.1.1. 1. DOLMETSCHER

4.3.1.1.1. translates COMMERCIAL TEXTS

4.3.1.2. 2. UBERSETZER

4.3.1.2.1. translates SCHOLARLY and ARTISTIC TEXTS

5. 19th CENTURY

5.1. The age of ACCURACY in translation and FREEDOM in style.

5.2. THEORY-ORIENTED

5.3. TRANSLITERATION

5.4. FOOTNOTE WRITING

6. 20th CENTURY

6.1. Age of TECHNOLOGY and TECHNIQUES

6.2. EUGENE NIDA

6.2.1. "Translation is reproducing in the receptor language; first in terms of MEANING and second in terms of STYLE."

6.3. VINAY AND DARBELNET

6.3.1. STRATEGIES OF TRANSLATION

6.3.1.1. 1. DIRECT TRANSLATION

6.3.1.1.1. Borrowing

6.3.1.1.2. Calque

6.3.1.1.3. Literal Translation

6.3.1.2. 2. OBLIQUE TRANSLATION

6.3.1.2.1. Transposition

6.3.1.2.2. Modulation

6.3.1.2.3. Equivalence

6.3.1.2.4. Adaptation

6.4. C.J. CATFORD

6.4.1. CLASSIFICATION OF TRANSLATION

6.4.1.1. 1. FULL vs. PARTIAL

6.4.1.2. 2. TOTAL vs. RESTRICTED

6.4.2. TRANSLATION SHIFT

6.4.2.1. 1. LEVEL SHIFT

6.4.2.1.1. grammar to lexis

6.4.2.2. 2. CATEGORY SHIFT

6.4.2.2.1. a. Structural (grammar)

6.4.2.2.2. b. Class (parts of speech)

6.4.2.2.3. c. Unit (sentence, clause)

6.4.2.2.4. d. Intra-system (singular/plural, articles)

6.5. PETER NEWMARK

6.5.1. OVERTRANSLATION

6.5.2. UNDERTRANSLATION

6.6. TYPES OF TRANSLATION

6.6.1. SEMANTIC

6.6.2. COMMUNICATIVE

6.7. MONA BAKER

6.7.1. THEMATIC STRUCTURE

6.7.2. INFORMATION STRUCTURE

6.7.3. COHESION

6.7.4. MAJOR PRAGMATIC CONCEPTS

6.7.4.1. COHERENCE

6.7.4.2. PRESUPPOSITION

6.7.4.3. IMPLICATURE

6.8. JULIAN HOUSE

6.8.1. MODEL OF TRANSLATION QUALITY ASSESSMENT