THE CONTEMPORARY FEMINIST MOVEMENT

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THE CONTEMPORARY FEMINIST MOVEMENT by Mind Map: THE CONTEMPORARY FEMINIST MOVEMENT

1. SOCIAL FEMINIST GROUPS

1.1. believed autonomy was necessary to raise issues

1.2. TASK

1.2.1. raise feminist issues in mass organisation

1.3. lack of ideological homogeneity

1.4. STRI SANGHARSH- DELHI FEMINIST GROUP - 1979

1.4.1. Minority expulsion, but anti-expulsionists won

1.5. MAHILA DAKSHATA SAMITI- 1977

1.5.1. founded by socialist women in coalition Janata party

1.5.2. the only party based women's organisation in late 70s

1.6. DELHI FEMINIST GROUPS(Samta , Stri sangharsh)

1.6.1. developed out of DU and JNU based feminists

1.6.2. not party affiliated

1.7. FIRST FEMINIST GROUPS IN BOMBAY

1.7.1. Members from far left

1.7.2. civic liberties organisations, trade org.

1.7.3. revolutionary groups

1.7.4. small affiliations to parties

1.8. National congress of socialist feminist groups- 1978, BOMBAY

1.8.1. Feminist magazine

1.8.1.1. for consciousness raising( Delhi)

1.8.1.2. bulletin for activists(Bombay)

1.8.2. three-tier heirarchy

1.8.2.1. theory generators

1.8.2.2. activists

1.8.2.3. subjects of attention

1.9. stri Shakti sangathana - Hydreabad (late 70s)

1.10. TELANGANA MOVEMENT- Renewed

1.10.1. wave of agitation1979- first Mahila sangam- Kodurupaka- 150 members

1.11. 1980 Conference- Bombay

1.11.1. debated on the role of feminist groups

1.12. FEMINIST ISSUES IN BODHGAYA, BIHAR

1.12.1. raised by Chhartra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini

1.12.1.1. influenced by JP

1.12.1.2. 1980 pamphlet- Aurat

1.13. JP's concept of TOTAL REVOLUTION

1.13.1. propagated in 1974

1.13.2. three thesis

1.13.2.1. individuals will change only if society changes

1.13.2.2. society will change only if individuals change

1.13.2.3. the relationship between men, men ; men , women and women, women need to change

1.14. Problems faced by feminists

1.14.1. women were looked as objects of sexual desire than subjects

1.14.2. question relation b/w activism and self - fulfillment

1.15. The 2 campaigns that brought the contemorary feminit movt

1.15.1. campaigns against dowry death and rape

2. HINDU CODE BILL

2.1. feminists of 30s raised issues

2.2. opposed by congress men incl. Dr. Rajendra Prasad

2.3. BN Rao committee

2.3.1. 1944 draft, no further action

2.4. BR Ambedkar committee

2.4.1. raised age of consent and marriage

2.4.2. gave women rights to

2.4.2.1. divorce

2.4.2.2. maintenance and inheritance

2.4.2.3. treated dowry as stridhan

2.5. Nehru stalled the bill until 1955 -56

2.5.1. sections-passed as 4 acts

2.5.1.1. 1.Hindu Marriage Act

2.5.1.2. 2. Hindu Succession Act

2.5.1.3. 3. Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act

2.5.1.4. 4. Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act

3. KISAN SABHA

3.1. led rallies, strikes and demonstrations

3.1.1. criticizing govt

3.1.2. demanded land reforms

3.2. 1948-50- TELANGANA MOVEMENT, Andhra Pradesh

3.2.1. under leadership of Maoist influenced CPI members

3.2.2. 2500 villages in Telangana district liberated

3.2.3. September 1948,

3.2.3.1. indian troops took over

3.2.3.2. peasant leaders arrested

3.2.3.3. fired upon demonstrators

3.2.3.4. cpi outlawed

3.2.3.5. guerilla tactics

4. SHIFT IN POLICY

4.1. Reason: Struggles within CPI

4.2. emphasis on working class agitation

4.3. 1951- called off telangana movement

5. BHOODAN MOVEMENT

5.1. Started by Vinobha Bhave

5.1.1. initially sarvodaya

5.2. vision

5.2.1. to persuade landlords to donate land to the landless

5.3. was not successful in Andhra pradesh, but succeeded in Bihar

5.4. 1955 Bihar, Jai Prakash Narayan - joined

5.5. Uttarakhand also

6. WOMEN'S ANTI- ALCOHOL AGITATION

6.1. early sixties

6.2. led by Sunderlal Bahuguna

6.3. Mira behen, Sarala behen

6.4. fasting in protest against alcoholism

6.5. Emphasis

6.5.1. focused on action against manufactures and sellers of alcohol

6.6. could not banish neither alcohol nor alcoholism from the area

7. THE SIXTIES

7.1. Sino-Soviet split

7.2. 1962

7.2.1. war between India and China

7.2.1.1. polarised the communists

7.3. 1964

7.3.1. CPI split

7.3.2. CPI-M : Communist Party of India- Marxist was formed

7.3.2.1. regarded as pro-China

7.4. 1967

7.4.1. Communists dominated coalition govts formed in West Bengal and Kerala

8. THE AGRICULTURAL TENET'S MOVEMENT

8.1. landlord's holdings- forcibly occupied

8.2. organised under kisan samitis

8.3. Began in Naxalbari village, Bihar

8.3.1. liberated zone

8.4. spread to Bengal also

8.5. Reactions

8.5.1. New movements

8.5.1.1. BIHAR

8.5.1.1.1. sharecroppers movt

8.5.1.1.2. led by AK Roy

8.5.1.1.3. liberated zones in Dhanbad district

8.5.1.1.4. set up communes

8.5.1.2. ANDHRA PRADESH

8.5.1.2.1. Second wave of Telangana movt.

8.5.1.2.2. women active participants

8.5.1.3. KERALA

8.5.1.3.1. malabar

8.5.1.3.2. Red Army Base- Maoist

8.6. Media and State called them Naxalites

8.6.1. terrorist ideology

8.6.2. reason: 1966-67, Indian Maoist movt

8.6.2.1. annihilation line

9. RADICAL LEFT

9.1. 1969- 70- Maoist came together to form CPI-ML- Communist party of India- marxist- leninist

9.2. 1972- myth of 'armed encounter'

9.3. Early seventies

9.4. movement broke into small fragments

9.5. Reason: doubt in earlier analysis of revolution process

9.6. Led to

9.6.1. bitter intrafeuds

9.6.2. development of new ideas and movements

9.6.2.1. emphasis

9.6.2.1.1. culture

9.6.2.1.2. gender

9.6.2.1.3. caste

9.6.2.1.4. tribe

10. SOCIALIST MOVEMENTS

10.1. new ideas and movements developed

10.1.1. nature of state and revolution

10.1.2. environment

10.1.3. trade unionism

10.1.4. gender

10.2. Interesting Feminist movements

10.2.1. MAHARASHTRA

10.2.1.1. Shahada movement

10.2.1.2. anti- price rise agitations

10.2.2. GUJARAT

10.2.2.1. SEWA

10.2.2.2. Nav nirman

11. SHAHADA MOVEMENT

11.1. Dhulia district , Maharashtra

11.2. tribal bhil landless labourer's movement

11.3. against extortionate prices of non-tribal landlords who treated the tribal people as sub-human

11.4. ameliorated by Ambarsingh

11.4.1. Adivasi seva mandal- 1977

11.5. formation of Gram Swarajya Samiti

11.6. MASS LINE

11.6.1. Guiding principle of action

11.6.2. criticism against Naxalites

11.7. Sharmik Sangathana

11.7.1. formed in 1972

11.7.2. 1972-73 famine and drought led to rapid growth of the movement

11.7.3. struggle against land alienation

11.7.4. managed to get famine relief work from govt

11.7.4.1. through gheraos and satyagraha

11.8. ROLE OF WOMEN

11.8.1. Most militant role

11.8.2. they led

11.8.2.1. demonstration

11.8.2.2. invented and shouted militant slogans

11.8.2.3. sang revolutionary songs

11.8.2.4. mobilised masses

11.8.2.5. persuaded men to join sharmik sangathana

11.8.3. proved to be more adamant than men

11.8.4. women's militancy developed

11.8.4.1. they raised gender based issues

11.8.4.2. questioned their oppression as a sex

11.8.5. questioned the problem of wife beating

11.8.5.1. led to anti alcohol agitation

11.8.5.1.1. late 1972

11.8.5.2. sharmik sangathana organised a women's shibir camp

11.8.6. women's Kharamkheda(battalion) led by Mira Savara and Sujata Gotoskar

11.8.6.1. women marched together and broke liquor pots in the liquor den

11.8.6.2. questioned inspector why the liquor dens were not yet closed

11.8.6.3. women grouped together and beat the men in public who beat their wives after getting drunk and forced them to apologise

11.9. Claimed by feminists

12. ANTI ALCOHOL AGITATION AND SHAHADA - DIFFERENCE

12.1. SHAHADA

12.1.1. Relied primarily on material punishment

12.1.2. focused mainly on direct attack to wife beaters

12.1.3. Anti- patriarchal sentiments were expressed

12.2. Anti Alcohol agitation

12.2.1. Relied largely on shaming the vendor and arousing his bitter feelings

12.2.1.1. through non violent satyagraha

12.2.2. saw alcohol as the chief evil

12.2.3. anti- patriarchal feelings remained dormant

12.3. general differences

12.3.1. difference in time between the movements

12.3.2. difference in attitude towards women

12.3.2.1. one was traditional caste society and one was tribal society

12.3.3. difference in methods and attitudes

12.3.4. difference in social structure

12.3.5. difference in ideology

12.3.6. social differences

13. SEWA

13.1. SELF EMPLOYED WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION

13.2. Ahmedabad, Gujarat

13.3. first attempt at women's trade union

13.4. by Gandhian socialists attached to Textile Labour Association (TLA)

13.5. formed in 1972 by Ela Bhatt

13.6. organisation of women who worked in different trades in the informal structure

13.6.1. common experiances

13.6.1.1. extremely low earnings

13.6.1.2. very poor working conditions

13.6.1.3. harassment from those in authority

13.6.1.4. lack of recognition of their work as socially useful labour

13.7. AIM

13.7.1. to improve these working conditons through

13.7.1.1. training

13.7.1.2. technical aids

13.7.1.3. collective bargaining

13.7.1.4. introduce members to values

13.8. got registered after much struggle to the Indian trade union

13.9. criticized by feminists, maintained distance from feminists

14. UNITED WOMEN'S ANTI- PRICE RISE FRONT

14.1. Cause: Rise in price in urban areas, after famine in 1972

14.2. Formed by Mrinal Gore of Socialist Party and Ahilya Ranganekar of CPI-M -1973

14.3. MOTIVE

14.3.1. To mobilize women against inflation

14.4. became a mass movement for consumer protection

14.5. PROTESTS

14.5.1. demonstrations against price rises

14.5.2. emasculation of MPs

14.5.3. warehouse raids where hoarding was prevalent

14.6. 1974, Gujarat

14.6.1. came to be known as the NAV NIRMAN Movement

14.6.1.1. All out criticism of the Indian State

14.6.1.2. protests

14.6.1.2.1. mass hunger strikes

14.6.1.2.2. mock courts, mock funerals

14.6.1.2.3. prabhat pheris

14.6.1.3. 90 to 100 people were killed during protests

14.6.1.4. Influenced by Jai Prakash Narayan's concept of TOTAL REVOLUTION

14.6.1.5. Arguments

14.6.1.5.1. fight to reform and limit state power

14.6.1.5.2. that rajniti had become corrupt and decayed

14.6.1.5.3. time for lokniti had come

15. POW

15.1. PROGRESSIVE ORGANISATION OF WOMEN, Hyderabad

15.2. First women's group of the contemporary feminist movement

15.3. comprising women from the Maoist movement

15.4. attempted a holistic analysis through its manifesto

15.5. made the idea of feminism and equality explicit

15.6. two primary structure of women's oppression

15.6.1. sexual division of labour

15.6.2. culture which rationalized the sexual division of labour

15.7. conditions for women's liberation

15.7.1. attack on economic dependence

15.7.2. spreading ideology of equality

16. FEMINIST ACTIVITIES IN MAHARASHTRA(1975)

16.1. UN declared 1975 as International Women's year

16.2. Purogami Stri Sangathana formed by Maoist women in PUNE

16.3. Stri Mukti Sangathana in BOMBAY

16.4. March 8, International Women's day

16.4.1. celebrated for the first time in India

16.5. Lal Nishan Party- special issue on party paper

16.6. August: Sadhana social magazine

16.6.1. special women's number

16.7. September: Dalits and socialist

16.7.1. organised conference of devadasis

16.8. October: United Women's Liberation Struggle- Pune

16.9. Janwedana- special women's number

16.9.1. entitled "In the Third World Women Hold Up Half the Sky

16.10. Formation of MAHILA SAMTA SAINIK DAL

16.10.1. Saw religion as a major agent of oppression on women and Dalits

16.10.2. caste system as source of inequality in India

16.10.3. Manifesto drew parallels between caste oppression and oppression of women

16.11. Declaration of Emergency - 1975

16.11.1. led to break in the development of fledging women's movt.

17. NEW WOMEN'S GROUP

17.1. Cause

17.1.1. Lifting of Emergency - 1977

17.1.2. Formation of Janata Govt. - 1978

17.2. Formed all over the country, mainly in major cities

17.3. Characteristics

17.3.1. Declared themselves to be feminists

17.3.2. insisted on being autonomous

17.3.3. rapidly built networks among eachother

17.3.4. attempts at self definition