Semantics

FORMAL SEMANTICS

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Semantics by Mind Map: Semantics

1. At its core, is the study of the changing associations between concrete, changeable forms and abstract, unchanging concepts.

2. Two or more different

3. of words and meaning

4. clever and witty use

5. date (= a thing we can eat) and date (=a point in time)

6. form and related meanings,

7. more unrelated meanings,

7.1. homonyms

8. Prototype

8.1. helps explain

8.2. the meaning

8.3. of certain words

9. not in terms

10. of component features

11. but in terms of resemblance

12. to the clearest example

13. Homophones and homonyms

13.1. one form (written or spoken)

14. (written) forms

15. have the same pronunciation,

15.1. homophones.

16. has two or

17. Polysemy

17.1. two or more words

17.1.1. with the same form

18. Word play

19. Metonymy

19.1. close connection in everyday experience.

19.1.1. container–contents relation (bottle/water, can/juice)

19.1.2. whole–part relation (car/wheels, house/roof)

19.1.3. representative–symbol relationship (king/crown, the President/the White House)

20. sparrow is a prototype of the word bird

21. FORMAL SEMANTICS

21.1. Is about the meaning of syntactically complex expressions. >Literally means "using formal methods for the study of meaning." [Nowadays there is also formal lexical semantics and discourse semantics, but the identification "formal semantics - formal sentence semantics.

22. DIACHRONIC SEMANTICS:

23. 1. PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY-the meaning of an expression is uniquely determined by the meanings of its parts and their mode of combination.

24. 2. SUBSTITUTION PRINCIPLE-synonymous parts may be substituted for each other without changing the meaning of the complex expression in which they occur.

25. SEMANTIC CHANGE Also known as SEMANTIC SHIFT or SEMANTIC PROGRESSION describes the evolution of word usage -usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.