Theoretical Perspectives

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Theoretical Perspectives by Mind Map: Theoretical Perspectives

1. Behaviorist Perspective (Nurture)

1.1. About Behaviorist Perspective

1.1.1. Child is a "Blank Slate"

1.1.1.1. Learning occurs by associations between stimulus response and events after an initial event.

1.1.2. Behaviorist believe language is developed based on the stimuli, response, and reinforcements that occur in the environment.

1.1.3. Language taught by reinforcement

1.1.4. Spoken phrases show reinforcements

1.1.4.1. Reinforcement = attention, repetition and approval

1.1.4.1.1. Operant Conditioning- recognizes child as active learner.

1.1.4.1.2. Explains ImitativeSpeech

1.1.5. Language Knowledge Focus: Semantic (word labels that specify concepts), Syntactic (grammar), and Morphemic (word structure).

1.1.6. Does NOT explain novel utterance (child invented words or words not spoken by others around them.)

1.2. Theorist- B. Skinner

1.3. In the Classroom

1.3.1. Teacher focus on stimuli and reinforcement for experiences with language.

1.3.2. Teacher should encourage verbal communication imitation and repetition.

1.3.3. Teacher should provide positive reinforcement through attention and approval.

1.3.4. Teaching finger plays and action songs= repetition, imitation and positive reinforcement.

1.3.5. Teachers should be enthusiastic and praise for all language effort.

1.4. Curriculum Ideas

1.4.1. Fun, action songs

1.4.1.1. Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes

1.4.1.2. Seasonal counting songs ( 5 little pumpkins, 5 Little ducks)

1.4.1.3. Days of the Week (Adams Family Theme song tune)

1.4.1.4. Months of the Year (10 little Indian tune)

1.4.2. Finger puppets

1.4.2.1. Incorporated in with previous songs

1.4.2.2. Tell fairytales or folktales with finger puppets.

2. Interactionist Perspective (Nurture)

2.1. Theorists- Vygotsky, Bruner, Halliday, Bloom and Tinker, and Cambourne

2.2. About Behaviorist Perspective

2.2.1. Nurture: Role of sociocultural interaction in children's language development.

2.2.2. Language Knowledge Focus: Pragmatic (When to talk, how to talk and what to talk about)

2.2.3. contends that children learn through attempts to communicate with world around them.(Otto,2010)

2.2.4. Language is learned out of the need to function in that society.

2.2.5. Speech has social origins- It develops during situation where people are interacting with each other to communicate.

2.2.6. Focuses on language process not product

2.2.7. Builds on three prior perspectives of language development.

2.2.7.1. Acknowledges Behaviorism-environment response.

2.2.7.2. Acknowledges Nativism- Capacity for processing linguistic information.

2.2.7.3. Acknowledges Cognitive Development- Language development influenced by nature and sequence of cognitive development.

2.2.8. 9mths-2 years expand significantly due to effort to acquire language.

2.2.8.1. Intentionality Model

2.2.8.1.1. 1) Active engagement with others and objects motivates children to develop language.

2.2.8.1.2. 2) Effort of learner in making sense of "Linguistic emotional and physical actions" (Otto, 2010)

2.2.9. Challenge’s Language development is "Natural" and conscious effort not required.

2.2.10. Intuitionally learn and continues beyond toddler years.

2.2.11. Children acquire an awareness of specific communication (indicating, requesting, and labeling) before talking.

2.2.12. Language Acquisition Support System (LASS)

2.2.12.1. The way the environment supports a child's language exploration.

2.2.12.2. Environmental support found in interaction patterns in conversation. EX: listening, responding to what is said,repeating for clarification and asking questions.

2.2.13. Views nature and nurture are "Inseparably intertwined"

2.3. Role Of Adults

2.3.1. Crucial in supporting children's development.

2.3.2. Child is a novice communicator-Adult plays the role as expert and creates effective communication.

2.3.2.1. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

2.3.2.1.1. What a child can do on their own and what they can do with the help from a more advance child or adult.

2.3.2.1.2. Developmental level- what a child can do on their own.

2.4. Role of Environment in facilitating oral language (Cambourne, 1988 and 1995)

2.4.1. 8 Conditions that Support Oral Language

2.4.1.1. 1) Immersion- Surrounded by language beginning at birth.

2.4.1.2. 2) Demonstration- Immersed in home language, see specific communication.

2.4.1.3. 3) Engagement- Encourage to pay attention and become involved in communication.

2.4.1.4. 4) Expectations- Parents, family, and others communicate with child and expect child to learn to speak.

2.4.1.5. 5) Responsibility- Children learn how to respond to demonstrations. Then they decide what message they want to send and start to communicate that message.

2.4.1.6. 6) Approximations- When the child will begin to speak. They are approximations of how "their" adults speak. Expected by adults to become clearer speakers.

2.4.1.7. 7) Employment- Need to have opportunities to try out developing language with people and alone. Encouraging conversation help children to develop language.

2.4.1.8. 8) Response- When they express verbally. They need feed back from a significant person in their environment. .

2.5. In the Classroom

2.5.1. Teacher should focus on providing social interactions with oral and written language.

2.5.2. Many "talking" opportunities provided from infancy onward so child begins to understand the way language functions.

2.5.2.1. Creates positive emotional context and provides motivation to continue attempts to communicate.

2.6. Curriculum Ideas

2.6.1. Story time

2.6.2. Discovery stations as a small group and individuals

2.6.3. Book corner with picture and simple text stories

2.6.4. Class discussion time

3. Nativist Prospective (Nature)

3.1. Theorist- Noam Chomsky

3.2. About Nativist Prospective

3.2.1. Nature Base- Inborn or innate capabilities instinct.

3.2.2. Language Knowledge focus on Syntactic (word order)

3.2.3. "All people inherently have the capacity to acquire language due to cognitive structures that process language differently from other stimuli" (Otto, 2010, p. 28)

3.2.4. Grammatical aspects of language and rule system for use of language.

3.2.4.1. Universal grammar- "System of principals conditions and rules that are elements or properties of all human language" (Otto, 2010, p. 28)

3.2.5. Language Acquisition Device (LAD) discovery process aided by inborn mechanism for a specific language

3.3. In the Classroom

3.3.1. Teacher should encourage extensive opportunities for exploration of language.

3.3.2. Engage in hypothesis testing of developing knowledge of language.

3.3.2.1. Explore both oral and written form of language = LAD activated

3.3.2.1.1. Results in language structure (Syntactic and morphemic)

3.3.3. classroom should contain wide range of children literature.

3.3.3.1. Teacher should read to children

3.3.3.1.1. Develop and test how language communicates

3.3.4. Children should have opportunities to draw and write.

3.3.4.1. teachers should encourage children to communicate and create meaning based on their ideas of how language works. (Otto, 2010)

3.4. Curriculum Ideas

3.4.1. Read many children's stories

3.4.2. Encourage children to retell the stories

3.4.3. Encourage children to draw pictures of story characters.

3.4.3.1. These activities allow students to use prior knowledge and new knowledge to communicate the meaning of the stories.

4. Cognitive Developmentalist (Nature)

4.1. Theorist- Jean Piaget

4.2. About Cognitive Developmentalist

4.2.1. Nature Based- Language is acquired through maturation and cognitive competencies development.

4.2.2. Language Knowledge Focus: Semantic (labels of specific concepts) and Morphemic (word structure knowledge)

4.2.3. Assumes that cognitive development is a prerequisite and foundation for language learning (Otto, 2010)

4.2.4. Learn language through same mechanisms as for their learning. Thus, no unique language mechanism.

4.2.5. Specific cognitive growth = language growth

4.2.6. Stages of Development

4.2.6.1. Stage 1:Sensorimotor-pre-linguistic (0-23mths).

4.2.6.1.1. Children understand environment comes from direct sensory experience and motor activities.

4.2.6.1.2. Precursor to language is object permanence.

4.2.6.1.3. After object permanence, children start to use symbols and/or words for objects and actions.

4.2.6.1.4. at about 1 year old schemata starts. (the relation between actions and objects) Organized abstract cognitive structures or "signs" begin.

4.2.6.2. Stage 2: Preoperational (24 months - 7 years)

4.2.6.2.1. Begin to represent world with words, images and drawings.

4.2.6.2.2. Schemata and manipulation of symbols= understanding of semantic, syntactic and morphemic knowledge acquired.

4.3. In the Classroom

4.3.1. Teacher should pay close attention to stage of cognitive development and plan appropriate activities to teach object permanence and symbolic representation.

4.3.2. Sensorimotor activitiesare a must

4.3.3. Opportunities to engage in symbol making and manipulation = encouragement to represent their world using oral and written symbols by speaking, drawing, and writing.

4.4. Curriculum Ideas

4.4.1. Object Permanence

4.4.1.1. Hide and Seek

4.4.1.2. Peek-A-Boo

4.4.2. Exploring picture books to encourage using symbols.