Consequences of the First World War

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1. Political Consequences

1.1. Treaty of Versailles (1919)

1.1.1. Germany 10% of land removed and redistributed France = Alsace-Lorraine Poland = West Prussia, Posen, Silesia Belgium = Eupen, Malmedy, Moresnet Denmark = Northern Schleswig Czechoslovakia = Hultschin League of Nations = Danzig & Saarland Lost all colonies Reparations 132 billion gold marks, never fully paid Military Army = 100K men No aerial, tanks, or artillery Navy = 6 battleships, 12 destroyers, 12 torpedoes, no submarines Rhineland = demilitarized

1.2. Treaty of St. Germain (1919)

1.2.1. Austria Lost land Czechoslovakia = Bohemia & Moravia Yugoslavia = Bosnia-Herzegovina & Croatia Poland = Galicia Italy = Tyrol Bankrupty (no reparations could be made) Military Army = 30K No air force/navy

1.3. Treaty of Trianon (1920)

1.3.1. Hungary Lost 2/3 of territory & 64% of pre-existing population Romania = Transylvania Czechoslovakia = Slovakia & Ruthenia Yugoslavia = Slovenia & Croatia Reparations 200 million gold crowns Military Army = 35K No air force/tanks/submarines

1.4. Treaty of Neuilly (1919)

1.4.1. Bulgaria Land lost - Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia Lost access to Mediterranean Reparations 100 million pounds Military Army = 20K No air force Navy = 4 torpedoes, 6 boats, no submarines

1.5. Treaty of Sevres (1920)

1.5.1. Turkey Land lost Italy = SW Anatolia Kurdish & Armenia = W Anatolia Greece = Smyrna & E Thrace Control of Britain + France for ME lands Military Army = 50K men No air force, tanks, submarines

1.6. Redrawing Boundaries

1.6.1. Disintegration of Empires/Newfound Independence of Countries Austro-Hungarian Empire Hungary Austria Czechslovakia Poland German Empire Poland Russian Empire Poland

1.6.2. Principle of "Self-Determination" among cartographers to appease ethnic groups

1.7. Government Reformations

1.7.1. Russia Feb. 1917 - Revolution: autocratic government with Tsar -> Provisional government Failed to support Central Powers and food shortages all at once Oct. 1917 - Bolsheviks Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Civil war broke out as it was the Bolsheviks vs. Anti-Communists (the Whites) Soviet Union - world's first communist state

1.7.2. Germany 1918 - Republic Reichstag parties + army approval Revolts

1.7.3. Italy Industrialists vs. Workers vs. Landowners vs. Peasants Blackshirts - Benito Mussolini

1.7.4. Central & Eastern Europe Austria Unstable republic -> Single-party, conservative Hungary Constitutional monarchy/Conservative dictator Czechoslovakia Stable multiparty republic Romania, Bulgaria & Yugoslavia Constitutional monarchies Poland Conservative military dictatorship

1.8. Troop Occupations

1.8.1. Germany Ruhr Crisis Due to Germany's inability to pay an annual payment to the Allied Powers as a result of war costs, French and Belgian troops occupied part of the country.

2. Economic Consequences

2.1. Germany

2.1.1. Treaty of Versailles Lost many industrialized areas like the Upper Silesia Lost many of its merchant ships and consequently lost out on its international trade

2.1.2. Allied reparations to pay off cost of war Germany faced bankruptcy until 1921 Couldn't pay annually

2.1.3. Hyperinflation Currency lost value as prices increased Led to hunger and starvation

2.2. France

2.2.1. Immense property damage Thousands of factories, railroads, farmlands, etc. damaged throughout the scope of the war

2.2.2. Decreased demand for French products Loss of oversea markets

2.2.3. Loss of old repayments The new Bolshevik government, the Soviet Union, refused to pay any of the debts their country had under the old government.

2.2.4. Large sums borrowed from the United States and Britain German payments were their hope to be able to rebuild their country and pay off their debts, but seeing as German payments were limited, France had slow economic development. Led to high tax rates on the people to pay off their national debts

2.3. Britain

2.3.1. Enormous debts to the USA due to massive borrowings

2.3.2. Less demand for British goods USA took more control over their overseas markets during the war as Britain focused on war production Many overseas colonies, like India, became more sufficient in production for their own economies

2.4. United States

2.4.1. Increased demand for construction of factories, homes, and infrastructure

2.4.2. Became prosperous throughout and after the war Expanding economies and businesses 44 month economic boom

2.4.3. Great Depression in late 1920s to early 1930s Drop in prosperity due to excessive sums and agricultural market collapse GDP decline & unemployment surged

2.5. Central & Eastern Europe

2.5.1. Poland After declaring independence, Poland suffered individual economic issues as the country had been economically integrated into three separate empires previously.

2.5.2. Hungary After being the grain sector for the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Hungary had little industry, producing more than it could consume.

2.5.3. Austria Clouded with factories, a big government, and a little amount of food that it could not manage the millions of people within their borders

2.5.4. Czechoslovakia Enjoyed prosperity due to obtaining 80% of Austria-Hungary's industry

2.6. Russia/Soviet Union

2.6.1. War Communism in Bolshevik areas Currency abolished, total government control over property, peasants supplied forces, and all production focused on war Millions starved Soldiers rebelled Unemployment as people stopped working

2.6.2. New Economic Policy Taxes paid in grain by peasants and remaining could be used as profit Possible private smaller businesses Consumer goods by government industries to grow more grain and buy goods Excess grain exported for modern machinery to build industries

3. Social Consequences

3.1. Enfranchisement

3.1.1. Decline of upper class stratification structures due to fatalities of upperclassmen led to the demand for universal suffrage. Greater social and political representation for worker classes

3.1.2. Universal adult male suffrage was also gained in the UK after several previous restrictions prevented the lot of British males from voting.

3.1.3. Women's Suffrage Movements Women gained the right to vote in the following countries after WWI Russia Austria, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Canada & Britain - 1918 Germany - 1919 USA - 1920 France did not allow suffrage for women until 1944.

3.2. Mismatched demographics due to war casualties

3.2.1. 10 million+ men killed

3.2.2. Many endured severe injuries, ending up disabled/unable to resume daily life activities

3.2.3. Civilians Many killed during battle that came to civilian homes Spanish influenza epidemic

3.2.4. France 15 women for every man aged 18-30

3.3. Medical discoveries

3.3.1. Modern surgery

3.3.2. Blood banks

3.3.3. Mental/emotional illnesses/stresses Shell shock Trauma

3.4. Employment

3.4.1. Larger portions of populations across Europe included employed women. France Women employment increased 47% in 1918 Russia Women = 45% of workforce Britain 24% in 1914 to 37% in 1918 Austria-Hungary 1 million+ women in war workforce

3.4.2. However, at the end of war, many left the workforce/quit working. Britain Dropped to 2/3 amount in 1920 France 1921 - Dropped back to 1911 amounts

3.4.3. Shift from domestic service work to white-collar, non-manual employment

3.5. Socialist & Labor Movements

3.5.1. Socialist groups protested against the decline in working conditions as a result of the war. Led to the 1917 Russian Revolution

3.5.2. Socialist and trade union movement grew stronger by 1918.