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1.1. Crenaracheota

1.1.1. most are extremely thermophilic

1.1.2. strict anaerobs

1.1.3. some are acidophiles

1.1.4. sulfer-dependent organotrophs lithotrophs

1.2. Thaumarchaeota

1.2.1. membrane lipids crenarcheol crenarcheol

1.2.2. mesophilic archea nitrification

1.3. Euryachaeota

1.3.1. methogens and methanogenesis produce methane important in wastewater treatment oxidize iron from symbiotic relationships with certain bacteria

1.3.2. halobacteria extreme halophiles require at least 1.5 M NaCl aerobic possess some methanogen coenzymes chemoheterotrophs complex nutritional requirement

1.3.3. thermoplasms thermoacidophiles lack cell walls

1.3.4. extremely thermophilic S- metabolizers motile by flagella optimum growth temperature 88-100C strictly anaerobic reduce sulfur to sulfide

1.3.5. sulfate-reducers irregular coccoid cells glycoprotein subunits extremely themophilic metbolism lithotrophic or organotrophic use sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfite as electron acceptor


2.1. Aquificae

2.1.1. oldest branch

2.1.2. thermophiles

2.2. Thermotogae

2.2.1. second deepest branch

2.2.2. gram-negative rods

2.2.3. Thermophiles

2.2.4. chemoheterophs

2.3. Deinococcus-Thermus

2.3.1. spherical or rod-shaped

2.3.2. in pairs or tetrad

2.3.3. gram-positive (lack typical Gram-positive cell wall)

2.3.4. aerobic

2.3.5. extraordinarily resistant to desiccation and radiation

2.3.6. from ground meat, feces, air, fresh water

2.4. Photosynthesis bacteria

2.4.1. Chlorobi green-sulphur bacteria thrive sulfide rich areas chlorosomes ellipsoidal vesicles attached to plasma membrane efficient light harvesting complexes lnon motile have gas vesicles obligate anerobic photolithoautotrophs

2.4.2. Chloroflexi green non sulphur both photosynthetic and non photosynthetic filamentous thermophilic anoxygenic photosynthesis

2.4.3. Cyanobacteria largest group gram-negative obligate photolithoautotrophs storage structures carboxysomes cyanophycin unicellular, colonial, filament (trichomes) carbon fixation use phycobiliproteins as acessory pigments calvin cycle pigmentation blue green red or brown

2.4.4. Planctomycetes anammoxomes compartment lacks of peptidoglycans

2.4.5. Chlamydiae gram-negative obligate intracellular parasites

2.4.6. Spirochaetes gram-negative chemoheterotrophic bacteria oxygen requirement vary free living symbiotic hindguts of termites digestive tracts of mollusks and mammals oral cavities of animals

2.4.7. Bacteroidetes Bacteroids anerobic gram - various shape chemoheterophs - fermentive

2.4.8. proteobacterium single photosynthetic ancestor Alphaproteobacterium Betaproteobacterium Gammaproteobacterium largest bacterial clss diverse physiological type Deltaproteobacterium Epsilonproteobacterium smallest class slender gram negative rod ranges from pathogens to deep-sea bacteria

2.4.9. Firmicutes low G + C Gram positive bacteria 3 classes Clostridia Bacilli Negativicutes

2.4.10. Actinobacteria high G + C gram positive aerobic filamentous cell called hyphae adapt climate similar fungi source most currectly used antibiotics produce metabolites anticancer, antihelminthic, immunosuppressive


3.1. Ascomycota

3.1.1. found in freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitat

3.1.2. can cause food spoilage

3.1.3. some plant and human pathogens

3.1.4. genus : Aspergillus

3.2. Basidiomycota

3.2.1. club fungi

3.2.2. decomposer

3.3. Glomeromycota

3.3.1. aseptate flat hyphae (appressoria)

3.3.2. as mycorrhizal symbionts of vascular plants

3.4. Zygomycota

3.4.1. saprophytes

3.4.2. coenocytic hyphae

3.4.3. reproduce asexually by spores

3.4.4. sexual reproductio occure when environmental conditios are not favorable

3.4.5. Rhizopus rhizopus - burkholderia symbiosis used to produce tempeh used with soybean

3.5. Microsporidia

3.5.1. intracellular fungal parasite that infect insects, fish,human

3.5.2. spore structure capable of surviving outside host


4.1. Excavata

4.1.1. Fornicata Microaerophilic protist most are harmless symbiots Giardia - cause diarrhea

4.1.2. Parabasilia most flagellated endosymbionts lacks of distict cytostome, use phagocytosis to engulf food Trichonymphida obligate mutuals of wood-eating insects release cellulose for digesting ecdysone hormone - triggers sexual reproduction Trichomonadida not require oxygen posses hydrogenesosomes asexual reproduction only symbionts relatioships

4.1.3. Euglenozoa found in fresh water 1/3 photoautotrophic rest are chemoorganotrophs

4.2. Amoebozoa

4.2.1. amoeboid motility lobopodia - round filopodia - long and narrow reticulopodia - form a netlike mesh

4.2.2. naked amoeba - surround only plasma membrane

4.2.3. binary or multiple fission

4.3. Rhizaria

4.3.1. Stramenopila diatoms golden and brown algae oomycetes and labyrinthulids haptophytes brown seaweeds and kelp

4.3.2. Alveolata Apicomplexa unipolar apical complex complex life cycles Dinoflagellata large group in marine plankton nutrionally complex trichocyst - defensive proteins Ciliphora chemoorganotrophic found in bethic and planktonic communities in water and soil system many cilia as locomotory and feeding organelles

4.4. Archaeplastida

4.4.1. containing a photosynthetic plastid