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Statistics by Mind Map: Statistics
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Collection of procedures and principles for gathering data and analyzing information to help people make decisions.

A statistically significant finding does not always have practical importance. The implied direction of cause and effect may be wrong. Any study should be viewed in the context of society at the time it was done.

Simple Summaries are easier then long lists.


Five-Number Summary

Upper & Lower Quartiles


Always include the base rate or baseline risk when discussion a change in the rate or risk of something.

A Sample of a few hundred, or a few thousand can give reasonably accurate information about a population of many millions.


Random Sample

Sample Survey

Margin of Error

An unrepresentative sample, no matter how big, tells you almost nothing about the population.

Nonresponse bias

Self-Selected Sample

Volunteer Sample

Cause-and-Effect conlusions cannot generally be made on the basis of an observational study.

Observational Study


Confounding Variable

Unlike Observational studies, cause-and-effect conclusions can generally be made on the basis of randomized experiments.

Randomized Experiment


Random Assignment


Statistically Significant and Practical Importance