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IOC by Mind Map: IOC

1. High level objectives :

1.1. I. Healthy ecosystems and sustained ecosystem services

1.2. II. Effective early warning systems and preparedness for tsunamis and other ocean-related hazards

1.3. III. Development of scientifically-founded strategies of adaptation and mitigation for increased resiliency to climate change and enhanced safety, effectiveness and efficiency of ocean-based activities

1.4. IV. Enhanced knowledge of emerging ocean issues

1.5. Keywords :

1.5.1. Ecosystem health and services

1.5.2. Ocean hazards resilience

1.5.3. Climate change resilience

1.5.4. Knowledge on emerging issues

2. Vision :

2.1. Through international cooperation and the coordination of research efforts in ocean sciences, develop strong scientific understanding as well as systematic observations of the ocean system to develop sustainable development and global governance approaches to ocean management

2.1.1. Keywords : International cooperation Coordination of research programmes Strong scientific understanding of ocean issues Systematic approach to data collection and ocean observation Bridge science and policy Enable policies based on ecosystem-approaches for sustainability

3. Structure :

3.1. General Conference

3.1.1. 150 Member States

3.1.2. Meeting every two years Reviews the work of the Commission and Member States Defines orientations for the upcoming two years Elects the Executive Council Elects the Chairperson and the 5 vice-chairpersons Elect the Executive Secretary when necessary

3.2. Executive Council

3.2.1. 40 members from 5 geographic groups

3.2.2. Meeting every year Reviews the work done by the secretariat over the year and according to the 2 years plan Prepares the General Assembly Operationalizes the decisions taken in General Assembly to set a plan of actions for the secretariat

3.3. Office

3.3.1. 1 Chairperson and 5 Vice-Chairpersons With the Executive Secretary, coordinate the activities of the IOC Elected every two years. Each VP must represent a different voting group Terms are for 2 years, can be renewed once

3.3.2. Daily work Manage the IOC activities for a duration of 2 years

4. Office Organization :

4.1. Executive Secretary : Mr. Vladimir Ryabinin (Russia)

4.2. 4 sections

4.2.1. Capacity Building

4.2.2. Tsunamis

4.2.3. Ocean Observation and Information

4.2.4. Ocean Sciences Many types of ocean sciences Blue growth Human Health and Wellbeing Marine ecosystems functions and processes Ocean crust and marine hazards Ocean and climate Ocean heallth Ocean observation and marine data Ocean technology Head of section : M. Salvatore Arico (Italy) Missions : Fostering knowledge generation in IOC Member States through the design and pursuit of common research agendas Identify protocols to support systematic observation of ocean's features Elucidate ocean questions related to ocean hazards other than tsunamis (e.g. HABs) Keywords : Actions : Build capacities in ocean science in terms of scientific, legal and institutional structure. Keywords : Main topics : Blue Carbon Climate Change and the Ocean Ocean Acidification Ocean Deoxygenation and Eutrophication Ocean Science Capacity Harmful Algal Blooms and Health Marine Plastics

4.3. 4 High Level Objectives

4.3.1. Ecosystem health Healthy ecosystems and sustained services

4.3.2. Ocean Hazards Enhanced early warning and preparedness

4.3.3. Climate Change Increased resilience of ocean-based activities to climate change

4.3.4. Enhanced Scientific Knowledge Better understanding of emerging issues

4.3.5. Keywords : Just look above, it's quite pragmatic already. I just wanted to greenlight it and show you you need to come back to this in final revision

4.4. IOC Regional Sub-Commissions

4.4.1. Adapts IOC's agenda to specific geopolitical considerations Africa and Adjacent Island States Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Western Pacific Central Indian Ocean Keyword : 4 regional sub-commissions

4.5. Project Offices

4.5.1. Offices spread out across the world focusing on precise IOC projects Bridgetown, Barbados Brest, France Copenhagen, Denmark Ostend, Belgium Jakarta, Indonesia Nairobi, Kenya Muscat, Oman Port-au-Prince, Haïti Keywords : 8 project offices around the world

5. Ocean Decade 2021-2030

5.1. Main focus : Cooperation

5.1.1. Co-design of ocean science

5.1.2. Co-production of knowledge

5.1.3. Co-delivery of solutions

5.2. Ocean Objectives

5.2.1. I. Identify required knowledge for sustainable development Provide the scientific basis necessary to regularly assess the state of the ocean and identify gaps in knowledge Promote technology development and enhance access to technology necessary to create data, information and knowledge Enhance GOOS to deliver standardized information on ocean variables (socioeconomic, geological, physical, chemical, biological, ecological, etc.) Develop mechanisms that support community-led science initiatives and promote local and indigenous knowledge Regularly assess the ocean science capacity to identify and overcome barriers (geographic, generational, economic, gender, diversity, etc.)

5.2.2. II. Generate comprehensive knowledge and understanding of the ocean Map and understand roles and functions of ocean components, including nexus between the ocean and : humans, the atmosphere, the cryosphere, land Understand thresholds and tipping points Expand the use of historical ocean knowledge to support sustainable development Improve and develop new ocean models to better understand the ocean's past, present and future states Improve prediction services regarding ocean hazards and extreme weather and climate related events Expand cooperation in ocean-related education, training and capacity development as well as in technology transfer Build the knowledge base of ocean stressors to implement ecosystem-based management

5.2.3. III. Increase the use of ocean knowledge Communicate about ocean science and promote its role for diverse stakeholder groups Enhance ocean literacy both formally and informally for diverse stakeholders across societies Involve stakeholders in the co-design of ocean science and the co-delivery of ocean solutions including policy, decision-making, ocean management frameworks, etc. Expand and enhance spatial planning processes to contribute to sustainable development across regions and scales Expand inclusive and integrated management frameworks to promote nature-based solutions Expand and enhance tools to mobilize the ocean data, information and knowledge

5.2.4. Keywords : Develop a good basis (inclusivity, knowledge, infrastructure, capacities, tech, skills) for the enhanced development of ocean science Use this good basis to generate pragmatic science that touches urging issues and is relevant to the most stakeholders Put this knowledge to use in society by enhancing stakeholder involvement and capitalizing on education and communication

5.3. Ocean Challenges

5.3.1. Knowledge and Solutions I. Understand and beat marine pollution Understand and map land and sea based sources of pollutants and contaminent Understand pollutants' impacts on human health and ocean ecosystems Develop solutions to mitigate them II. Protect and restore marine ecosystems and biodiversity Understand the effects of stressors on ocean ecosystems Develop solutions to monitor, protect, manage and restore ecosystems and biodiversity III. Sustainably feed the global population Generate knowledge and support innovations Optimize the role of the ocean in sustainably feeding the global population IV. Develop a sustainable and equitable blue economy Generate knowledge and support innovations V. Unlock ocean-based climate solutions Enhance understanding of the ocean-climate nexus Generate knowledge and solutions to mitigate, adapt and build resilience to the effects of climate change across geographies Improve services regarding ocean, climate and weather prediction

5.3.2. Essential Infrastructure VI. Increase community resilience to ocean hazards Enhance multi-hazard warning systems Mainstream community preparedness and resilience to ocean hazards VII. Expand the GOOS to all ocean basins Cover all geographical zones Deliver accessible, timely and actionable data for all users VIII. Create a digital representation of the ocean Foster multi-stakeholder cooperation to develop a digital representation of the ocean Include a dynamic ocean map and provide free and open access Enable it to display past, present and future ocean conditions in a way that is relevant for diverse stakeholders

5.3.3. Foundational IX. Skills, knowledge and technology for all Ensure capacity development and equitable access to data, information, knowledge and technology across all aspects of ocean science and for all stakeholder X. Change humanity's relationship with the ocean Promote the multiple values and services of the ocean for human well-being, culture and sustainable development Ensure benefits can be widely understood by diverse stakeholders Identify and overcome barriers to behaviour change

5.3.4. Keywords : The challenges act on three aspects of ocean science management : Setting the foundation : evolving the mentality, sharing the skills and capacities Build the infrastructure to support research and enhance monitoring Develop research on key issues to enable policy-making based on science

5.4. Decade Outcomes

5.4.1. I. A clean ocean

5.4.2. II. A healthy and resilient ocean

5.4.3. III. A productive ocean

5.4.4. IV. A predicted ocean

5.4.5. V. A safe ocean

5.4.6. VI. An accessible ocean

5.4.7. VII. An inspiring and engaging ocean

5.5. Types of actions

5.5.1. Programmes Contributes to the achievement of one or more ocean decade challenge Long term (multi-year) Regional or global Interdisciplinary

5.5.2. Projects Contributes to an identified programme Discrete and focused undertaking Regional, national or sub-national

5.5.3. Activities Can be part of a programme or a project Standalone initiative (event, workshop, training opportunity, etc.)

5.5.4. Contributions Provision of resources (funding, in-kind contribution)

6. Part of the UNESCO

6.1. About

6.1.1. Created in 1946

6.1.2. 193 Member States

6.1.3. Mission : Build peace through international cooperation in the fields of education, science and culture

6.1.4. Devise : Since wars begin in the minds of men and women, it is in the minds of men and women that the defences of peace must be constructed

6.2. Structure

6.2.1. General Director : Mme Audrey Azoulay (France)

6.2.2. General Conference 193 Member States Meeting every two years Review the work of the UNESCO and Member States Define orientations for the upcoming two years Elect the Executive Council

6.2.3. Executive Board 58 Elected States from the 5 geographical groups 2 years terms Meeting twice a year Prepare the General Conference Review the work done by the secretariat according the the 2 years plan Operationalizes the decisions taken in General Conference to set a plan of actions for the secretariat

6.2.4. Secretariat More than 700 employees 53 offices around the wold Carry UNESCO's programmes 5 sections Education Culture Natural Sciences Human and Social Sciences Communication and Information

7. SDG 14 - Life below water

7.1. i. Reduce marine pollution

7.2. ii. Protect and restore marine ecosystems

7.3. iii. Reduce ocean acidification

7.4. iv. Build sustainable fisheries

7.5. v. Protect and restore coastal areas and ecosystems

7.6. vi. End subsidies contributing to overfishing

7.7. vii. Increase social and economic benefits linked to a sustainable use of marine resources

7.8. a. Enhance skills, knowledge, capacities and technologies for ocean health

7.9. b. Support small fishers and provide them access to the market

7.10. c. Strengthen ocean governance and enforce international law of the sea

8. Ocean Sciences Issues revision

8.1. Ocean Acidification

8.1.1. The ocean absorbs around 30% of all CO2 emissions

8.1.2. Observations of the last 20-30 years show a clear decrease in ocean pH caused by an increase in CO2 disolved in the water

8.1.3. Modifies the ecosystemic conditions and threatens many species that cannot thrive in these conditions

8.1.4. Competes with clams and other shell animals for carbonates

8.1.5. Bleach coral reefs which host 25% of all marine life

8.2. Ocean Deoxygenation

8.2.1. Eutrophication Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) run off from on-land activities and feed invasive species that proliferate in uncontrollable quantities Invasive species block sunlight and are often toxic for the ecosystem, hence causing the death of specimens that decompose By decomposing, algae and fish create CO2 and reduce the ecosystem's capacity to create O2. The concentrations decrease sharply and dead zones get created

8.2.2. Ocean warming By increasing temperature, the ocean can't contain nearly as much oxygen as it did before, worsening the impacts caused by eutrophication CO2 dissolves in the water and compete with oxygen too, which accentuates the phenomenon

8.3. Climate Change

8.4. Plastic Pollution

8.5. Harmful Algal Blooms

8.6. Blue Carbon

9. Bridge between scientific findings and policy-making by contributing to scientific assessments and policy-making processes

10. Ocean-Climate Platform

11. Ocean Statistics

11.1. 80% of marine pollution comes from land-based sources

11.2. 96% of global trade uses the sea

11.3. The yearly economic worth of the ocean is of 3T$

11.4. 40% of humankind lives at less than 100km from the coast

11.5. 13 out of 20 megacities are coastal

11.6. 500M people directly rely on ocean resources for their livelihood

11.7. The ocean directly feeds 50% of the world's population

11.8. 33% of all fish species are overexploited

11.9. 66% of all fish species are exploited at maximum threshold

11.10. Key species such as tuna and cod have seen their populations decrease by 90% in the last 30 years

11.11. 25% of all marine species live in coral reef ecosystems

11.12. 93% of global warming happens in the ocean

11.13. The ocean generates 50% of the air we breathe

11.14. The ocean acts as a carbon sink for 30% of our CO2 emissions

11.15. Blue carbon ecosystems such as mangroves and marine meadows lock 10 times more carbon than land forests

11.16. 37% only of ocean science researchers are women

11.17. 82% of all ocean sciences comes from only 45 contries

11.18. Only 57 countries have a national ocean science data institute

11.19. Less than 50% of Latin America has a national policy on data sharing

11.20. 69% of students in international cooperation programmes and event in ocean sciences come from Europe and North America

11.21. Ocean science represents an average of 1,7% of R&D expenses from States

11.22. The pH of the ocean is decreasing at a rate never seen in the last 300M years

11.23. By 2040, the ocean pH could be the lowest it's been in the last 20M years

11.24. 61% of ocean research is co-signed by an international committee

11.25. 23 countries own the entire research fleet for the world

11.26. 60% of countries still limit the access to certain types of data in ocean science

11.27. Collapsed reefs can't protect from storms

11.28. Estimated 1 to 8 million undiscovered species in reef ecosystems

12. Global Ocean Science Report

12.1. Findings

12.1.1. States tend to follow ocean science conclusions in their sustainable development policies Highlighted benefits to society contribute to this dynamic On the other hand, they remain underexploited

12.1.2. Financing to ocean sciences is way bellow the ambition it requires to properly scale up An average of 1,7% of R&D budgets are dedicated to ocean science When compared to the GDP, countries such as Guinea, Mauritania, Mozambique and Benin invest more than Canada, Australia and other developed countries

12.1.3. Women are underrepresented in ocean sciences 37% of researchers are women Some countries have as few as 7% women in the field

12.1.4. Young oceanographers are not well recognized and don't benefit from enough opportunities Developing countries tend to have younger researchers In developed countries such as Canada, more than 50% of researchers are older than 45

12.1.5. Huge inequalities in technical capacities remain across regions Short-term financing dynamics enhance this phenomenon

12.1.6. Publications on ocean research are on the rise, especially in East and South-East Asia 10% increase in Asia Internationally signed articles went from 52% (2000) to 61% (2020) Only 5% of research is carried at the international scale, 11% at global scale

12.1.7. Many countries don't have the means to properly manage ocean data Has a direct impact on data sharing Only 57 countries have national institutions for data management Less than 50% of Latin America and the Caribbean has a national data sharing policy 60% of countries continue to restrict the access to certain types of data Most of the infrastructure is in the hand of few States : the US owns 33% of the global fleet 23 countries own the entire fleet

12.1.8. The Ocean State Reports helps systematically monitor SDG 14.A. We need similar initiatives on all the SDG's subgoals.

12.2. How to foster international cooperation in ocean research?

12.2.1. Finance international research administration councils

12.2.2. Finance exchange programs

12.2.3. Finance advisory positions in national and regional institutions

12.2.4. Finance invited researcher positions in the academic world

12.3. Recommendations

12.3.1. I. Augment financing of ocean science Diversify sources of financing Invite financing mechanisms to make of ocean science a priority

12.3.2. II. Uniformly and continuously collect data at the global scale on investment being done in ocean science to underline positive benefits

12.3.3. III. Facilitate cooperation around ocean science by involving diverse stakeholders in co-designing research and co-developing solutions Operationalize research Encourage stakeholder appropriation of issues

12.3.4. IV. Develop multi-stakeholders partnerships in ocean solutions Knowledge, skills and tech transfers Capacity building Diverse partnerships : public-private, north-south, south-south

12.3.5. V. Foster equality of access to research Gender equality Generational equality Foster diversity Valuing indigenous and local knowledge

12.3.6. VI. Identify needs in order to tackle obstacles to equality in research

12.3.7. VII. Identify and assess obstacles in access to data and technology around the globe

12.3.8. VIII. Develop ocean-related education and communication both in the formal and informal sector to make ocean science more central for diverse stakeholders


13.1. Sylvia Earle

13.1.1. American marine biologist "The actions we take in the next 10 years will define the state of the ocean for the next 10 000 years."

13.2. Jacques-Yves Cousteau

13.2.1. French marine biologist "On aime ce qui nous émerveille, et l'on protège ce que l'on aime."

14. Blue Carbon Report 2021

15. ECO - Ocean Decade Edition

16. On the High Seas

16.1. BBNJ

16.1.1. Preparatory commission on implementing an agreement incorporated to UNCLOS 4th work session end of August 2021

16.1.2. 4 issues : Establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) Access to benefit sharing concerning genetic resources Environmental impact assessment Transfers of technology

16.1.3. There is no legal definition of MPA just yet

16.1.4. The UNESCO World Heritage convention does not assess BBNJ

16.2. Principles needed for management

16.2.1. Rules : Shared responsibility Conditional access Effective enforcement

16.3. On the Deep Sea

16.3.1. Creation of a regime based on assessment and prevention at the UN Instigated by the Deep Sea Conservation Coalition 2006-2009

16.4. Sylvia Earle's Hope Spots / Wish

16.4.1. Protect 20% of the High Sea

16.4.2. Get everyone involved in science and aim for appropriation of the issue by society

17. Intern Tasks and How I Fit

17.1. Compétences et expériences requises

17.1.1. Bonne connaissance des enjeux océanographiques Acidification de l'océan Désoxygénation de l'océan Eutrophisation de l'océan Pollution par le plastique Écosystèmes carbone bleu Éclosions d'algues toxiques Nexus Climat-Océan Protection de la biodiversité en zones internationales

17.1.2. Atout / Expérience SIG (ArcGIS/QGIS) et gestion de données de l'information STeDe 1 cours sur ArcGIS (Padova) 1 cours sur QGIS (Paris) 1 cours en analyse de données (Paris) Cégep de Sherbrooke 1 cours d'optimisation (Sherbrooke)

17.1.3. Capacité d'analyse, de synthèse et de rédaction Auxilia Réalisation de plusieurs communiqués, rendus et études à finalité d'acteurs diversifiés et sous formats diversifiés ACOGUATE Rédaction d'articles visant à vulgariser et à communiquer des enjeux complexes de droits humains au public général SONU-UNESCO Création de contenus vulgarisés sur la plateforme web Expérience soutenue dans le milieu universitaire, dans différentes cultures académiques Canada : Sherbrooke, Montréal Italie : Padova Belgique : Leuven France : Paris Mémoire de maîtrise

17.1.4. Maîtrise des langues parlées et écrites

17.1.5. Habiletés en communication web

17.1.6. Aptitudes de communication et grand sens des relations publiques

17.1.7. Autonomie et initiative

17.1.8. Bonne résistance à la pression

17.1.9. Atout / Expérience en organisation d'événements

17.1.10. Être capable de travailler dans un environnement multinational et multiculturel dans le respect des valeurs des Nations Unies


18.1. The IOC provides essential services to the negotiations to take place

18.1.1. The agreement will need to be built on the best available science and knowledge on the ocean. The IOC is coordinating its development : Capacity Building Research coordination Technology and skills transfers Area-based management

18.1.2. The IOC is developing a Clearing House Mechanism