Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchies

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Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchies by Mind Map: Absolutism vs Constitutional Monarchies

1. Poland

1.1. The two kingdoms that joined to form one country were Poland and Lithuania

1.2. Govt.

1.2.1. Assemblies of nobles elected the king and carefully limited royal power

1.2.2. When the Jagiello Dynasty came to an end, a practice of choosing outsiders as kings became practiced as it was believed to have brought in more alliances

1.2.3. Noble power enabled them to keep Polish peasantry in a state of serfdom

1.2.4. Noble power and the elective nature of the Polish monarchy made Poland a weak decentralized state by the seventeenth century.

1.3. Sejm and its relationship w. monarchy

1.3.1. sejm is the polish diet that was a two-chamber assembly landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who were also members

1.3.2. Potential Polish kings had to agree to share power with the Sejm (and nobles) in matters of taxation, foreign and military policies, as well as with the election of officials and judges

1.3.3. The sejm’s power was disastrous for Poland decisions were made with more weight on the good of the individuals in the sejm rather than for the good of the Polish people

1.4. Liberum Veto

1.4.1. the veto that stopped meetings of the Sejm by a single dissenting member reduced the government to virtual chaos

1.4.2. Poland was now basically a confederation of semi-independent states and was easy to invade but difficult to rule.

2. The Netherlands

2.1. There were two chief political powers in Dutch govt in United Provinces of the Netherlands

2.1.1. Each Province had a stadholder who was responsible for leading the army and maintaining order stadholdership was first held by Wiliam or Orange and the house of Orange in most of the seven provinces The house of Orange favored developing a centralized government with themselves as the hereditary monarchs

2.1.2. The second political power was the States General assembly of representatives from every province The states General opposed Orangist ambitions and called for a decentralized or republican form of government.

2.2. William of Orange was granted more power

2.2.1. because the Netherlands was burdened with war against France and England and the United Provinces wanted one ruler

2.3. causes of the Netherland’s declining power were

2.3.1. warfare causing heavy burdens to Dutch finances and manpower

2.3.2. English shipping beginning to challenge Dutch commercial dominance

2.3.3. These factors all led to the economic decline of the Netherlands. The Netherlands were known for being religiously tolerant.

2.4. Amsterdam economically strong

2.4.1. because of their shipping, fishing, and banking industries

2.4.2. Amsterdam merchants possessed vast fleets of ships used for the lucrative North Sea herring catch

2.4.3. Amsterdam was the chief port for the Dutch West Indian and East Indian trading companies traded important raw materials and finished goods, producing woolen cloth, refined sugar, and tobacco products, glass, beer, jewelry, and leather goods

2.4.4. economic growth also came from war profits as they were the principal supplier of military goods in Europe

2.4.5. Trading profits allowed for capital for investment.

2.5. infrastructure of Amsterdam

2.5.1. territorial expansion to 1800 acres from 500 acres

2.5.2. construction of three concentric canals, and building tall, narrow-fronted houses changes increased merchant activity as it allowed them to use the full capacity of storage in their top floor houses, utilizing the canals

2.6. social structure of Amsterdam

2.6.1. top of Amsterdam’s social structure prosperous manufacturers shipyard owners merchants w. lots of wealth and control over the city government of Amsterdam & the Dutch Republic’s States General

2.6.2. The Calvinist backgrounds of the Amsterdam burghurs led them to adopt a simple and humble lifestyle, wearing black clothes with substantial but simple houses later on they rejected this simple life to opt for a more exuberant lifestyle as shown in their colorful style

3. Policies of Louis XIV (France)

3.1. personality of Louis XIV

3.1.1. headstrong personality

3.1.2. aspired to become a real king and sole governor of France he had the balls to back it up

3.1.3. Determination = great ruler despite his past proclivity for fun and games and sex

3.1.4. reality of his reign had far more holes than his dreams had

3.1.5. Despite efforts to centralize power still remained in place a bewildering system of overlapping power Provinces had their own courts, local estates, and their own sets of laws Members of high nobility, lesser nobility, towns, and provinces still exercised many powers they would not let go of

3.2. Administration of govt

3.2.1. the purposes of Versailles personal household of the king Location of central governmental machinery Place weather powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves and their clientele the main arena where rival aristocratic factions jostled for power.

3.2.2. dealing with high nobility removed high nobility from the royal council eliminating the high nobles as a danger high nobles believed that it was their duty to assert the policy-making role of royal ministers replaced them with loyal ministers who would not challenge his authority Louis tempted the high nobility into his court where he could keep them preoccupied with court life

3.2.3. Policy-making Louis had central control over all policy-making and shared authority with no one included traditional areas of monarchical power Formulation of foreign policy Making of war and peace Assertion of the secular power of the crown against any religious authority Ability to levy taxes to fulfill these functions did not have much control with the internal admin of the kingdom traditional groups and institutions of French society had too much power for the king to have direct control over

3.3. Parlements

3.3.1. Control of provinces and people were achieved by bribing executors of the king’s policy

3.3.2. Local officials could obstruct execution of policies they disliked

3.3.3. Louis had domination over parlements he was able to exercise both political and economic control over these provincial law courts which were responsible for registering new laws sent to them by the king

3.4. Religious Policies

3.4.1. relationship with Huguenots Conflict arose as Louis XIV did not want Huguenots to be allowed to worship protestantism in France France was largely Catholic and Louis XIV was responsible for maintaining religious peace Belief that a nation should have only one king, only one law, and only one religion Louis XIV thought that having a minority would lay stress on his own political authority

3.4.2. The Edict of Fontainebleau Louis XIV killed the Edict of Nantes called for the destruction of Huguenot churches and closing of Protestant schools Forbid Huguenots form leaving France ~200,000 Huguenots defied this Weakened the French economy Support for protestant deportation came from Catholic laypeople

3.5. Financial Issues

3.5.1. Jean-Baptiste Colbert Sought to increase the wealth and power of France through: general adherence to mercantilism, which stressed government regulation of economic activities to benefit the state mercantile policies Managed to decrease the need for imports and increased exports by To improve communications and transportation of goods internally To decrease imports directly overall impact of raising revenue Brought forth foriegn retaliation French trading companies were too small and late to compete with English and Dutch Colbert’s economic policies geared to making the king more powerful

4. The Wars of Louis XIV (1667-1714

4.1. French Army

4.1.1. Led by François-Michel Le Tellier (Secretary of war)

4.1.2. Professional army of 100,000 men in peacetime 400,000 men in times of war

4.1.3. Four wars waged between 1667 and 1713

4.2. War 1: War of Devolution with Spain

4.2.1. 1667-68

4.2.2. Reasons Louis married Maria Theresa from Spain, and she was promised some land in the Netherlands Louis believed that the land should go to him due to marriage

4.2.3. Enemies- Dutch, English, Swedes (Triple Alliance)

4.2.4. Outcome- France gets a few towns in Spanish Netherlands; never forgave Dutch for forming the triple alliance

4.3. War 2: The Franco-Dutch War

4.3.1. 1672-78

4.3.2. Reasons establish french possession of Spanish Netherlands get back at the Dutch

4.3.3. Enemies Brandenburg, Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire

4.3.4. Outcome forced Louis to end by the signing the Treaty of Nijmegen Dutch territory remained intact France received Franche-Comté from Spain → Louis appetite increase for land French triumph at Spain’s expense–Louis acquired Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Freiburg and Brisach, as well as more of Flanders France then occupied Strasbourg

4.4. War 3: War of the League of Augsburg

4.4.1. 1689-97 (8 bitter years)

4.4.2. Reasons: Louis' gradual annexation of Alsace and Lorraine + his occupation of the city of Strasbourg = widespread protest + —> formation of new coalition: Spain, Holy Roman Empire, United Provinces, Sweden, and England = League of Augsburg

4.4.3. Enemies League of Augsburg

4.4.4. Outcome: France in economic depression + famine Treaty of Ryswick ended war forced Louis to give up his conquests in the empire Louis got to keep Strasbourg and part of Alsace

4.5. War 4: War of spanish succession

4.5.1. 1702-13 (11 long yrs)

4.5.2. Reasons over succession to the Spanish throne Charles II, sickly and childless Habsburg ruler, left the throne of Spain in his will to a grandson of Louis XIV Louis XIV's grandson: Philip V os Spain suspicion arose that France and Spain would unite after Charles II died --> new coalition to prevent a Bourbon hegemony that would mean the destruction of the European balance of power new coalition opposed France and Spain

4.5.3. Enemies coalition: England, United Provinces, Habsburg Austria, German states

4.5.4. Outcome the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 and the Peace of Rastatt in 1714 confirmed Philip V as Spanish leader (affirming the Spanish Bourbon Dynasty's rule long The Spanish Netherlands, Milan, and Naples were given to Austria, and the emerging state of Brandenburg-Prussia gained additional territories England - real winner 2 years latr, Louis XIV (Sun King) dead France left in debt and surrounded by enemies his successor was only 5 y/o

5. English Civil War and the Puritan Republic and the Aftermath

5.1. New Model Army

5.1.1. New Model Army was a force of extreme puritans known as the Independents

5.1.2. successful because they believed in what they were doing as crusaders for the Lord

5.1.3. trained in the latest military tactics well disciplined under the command of one of their leaders, Oliver Cromwell

5.2. Second Civil War

5.2.1. cause a split between the parliamentary forces: the Presbytarian majority the army

5.2.2. outcome the Presbytarian members of Parliament were purged leaving a Rump Parliament of 53 members of the House of Commons Rump Parliament then tried and condemned Charles I of treason and beheaded him in 1649 This act was not common in the 17th century.

5.3. Oliver Crowell’s challenges instituting the Puritan Republic government

5.3.1. Catholic uprising in Ireland followed his crushing brutality which earned him the enmity of the Irish people

5.3.2. another uprising, this time in Scotland, led on the behalf of Charles I’s son crushing brutality

5.3.3. opposition grew from radical groups who took advantage of the upheaval in England to push their own agendas especially the Levelers advocates of freedom of speech, religious toleration, and a democratic republic, women's rights, right to vote for all male house-holders over the age of twenty one, and other radical ideas (for the time being). levelers' opposition was met again with Oliver Cromwell’s iron fist. He broke them so that their ideas would not be fashionable for at least another century

5.3.4. Rump Parliament’s difficult behavior Oliver Cromwell forcefully getting rid of it in its entirety

5.4. Cromwell deal with Parliament

5.4.1. He got rid of the Rump Parliament for their difficult behavior

5.4.2. tried a new parliamentary system where Cromwell held executive power and the parliament held legislative power didn’t work and they were disbanded once more

5.5. England under the Instrument of Government constitution

5.5.1. The Lord Protector held the executive power

5.5.2. reformed parliament held the legislative power.

5.5.3. system failed to work when the new parliament attempted to gain power by debating the Lord Protector’s power

5.5.4. Oliver Cromwell, as Lord Protector, decided to abolish the parliament again and split the country into 11 regions each ruled by a military general each had to pay a 10% land tax for their former Royalists

5.5.5. Oliver Cromwell’s failure to establish a constitutional basis for which the government was founded resulted in him making even more arbitrary policies than Charles I, ironically.

5.6. Restoration of the Monarchy

5.6.1. Cromwell died English were happy to allow Charles I’s son, Charles II to return from France to be king

5.6.2. Popular support and allies in Parliament encouraged Charles II to seek more absolute power and return to Anglican Church

5.6.3. Issued the Declaration of Indulgence to suspend all laws regarding religion that had been passed by Parliament

5.6.4. Parliament responded with Test Act, which made it impossible for Catholics to serve in the military or government Charles II dismissed Parliament in 1681

5.7. James II and the Glorious Revolution

5.7.1. Charles II’s brother James II was professed Catholic and inherited throne after Charles’ death James II put Catholics in many government positions Issued another Declaration of Indulgence

5.7.2. Once he and his second wife had a son, the probability of another Catholic king caused Parliament to act English nobles invited the William of Orange, who was married to James’ daughter Mary, to invade England and take over as monarch the Glorious Revolution ensued (bloodless) Parliament made the couple the monarchs of England in 1689 The two then became somewhat figure-head leaders

5.8. Terms

5.8.1. Independents - extreme radical puritans

5.8.2. Presbyterians - laypeople of Presbyterianism, a protestant religion

5.8.3. Rump Parliament - the English parliament after many presbyterians were purged, leaving a rump parliament instead of a long parliament

5.8.4. Levellers - Radical advocates for open-minded ideas that were ahead of their time

5.8.5. Lord Protector - the leader in Oliver Cromwell’s new governmental system who held the executive power. The leader in this case was none other than Oliver Cromwell

6. English Bill of Rights (interpretation)

6.1. 1) Using the power of suspending laws and executing laws when this power has not been granted to you by parliament is illegal

6.2. 2) Using power of creating laws or executing laws

6.3. 3) The late Court of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical causes are illegal

6.4. 4) The Crown is not able to levy taxes without the Parliament’s consent

6.5. 5) England’s citizens are allowed to petition the king and disagree with him and any action to bar this petition is illegal

6.6. 6) Without the consent of parliament, raising/keeping an army is illegal in times of peace

6.7. 7) Subjects of England -protestants included- have the right to bear arms and own a weapon

6.8. 8) Free election of the members of Parliament

6.9. 9) Freedom of speech in parliament cannot be questioned in any court or place that is not parliament

6.10. 10) Excessive bail, fines or punishment is not allowed and is illegal.

6.11. 11) There is a jury for every act of high treason and the members of this jury must be freeholders

6.12. 12) Punishment is only enacted once the suspect is convicted; any prior fines/forfeitures are void and null.

6.13. 13) Parliament must be held frequently as to assure the strength and preservation of the laws that are acted out.

7. France after Louis XIV

7.1. France in 1715

7.1.1. largest population

7.1.2. troubled economy (caused by Louis’ wars)

7.1.3. govt. left in the hands of incapable, indifferent leaders

7.1.4. govt. filled with moral and financial scandals

7.2. Financial Troubles

7.2.1. finance minister was John Law (Scottish gambler) Issued paper money set up a monopoly, the Mississippi Company

7.2.2. Mississippi Company set up to profit from the colony in Louisiana managed national debt issued stocks in exchange for govt. bonds

7.2.3. Mississippi Bubble stock in company went up as value went up, people sold them for paper money bank didn’t have gold to back up money devaluation of money = “burst” bubble

7.3. Renewed Authority of Parlaments

7.3.1. Attempted to draw nobility back into govt. service

7.3.2. Nobles had little interest in service, but wanted traditional privileges

7.3.3. Gave authority back to parlements (councils that validated royal laws)

7.4. Leaders (describe efforts of each)

7.4.1. The Duke of Orleans Was left with a France of enlarged territories, enormous debt, an unhappy populace, and a 5yo successor from Louis XIV Good intentions but was often drunk and had immoral behaviour

7.4.2. Cardinal Fleury The King’s minister Pulled France back from foreign adventure and expanded commerce and trade. Government promoted growth of industry -coal and textile industries especially For awhile, budget was balanced

7.4.3. Louis XV Lazy and weak Ministers and mistresses began to rule the state despite Louis XV decision to rule alone Madame de pompadour charmed Louis XV and gained both wealth and power, giving advice to the king on various matters of importance. Louis failed to recognize the growing disgust the people had with his monarchy as the people’s livelihoods were at all time lows while life at Versailles remained stable and frivolous. FORESHADOWING to the FRENCH REVOLUTION

8. Great Britain: The Age of Walpole

8.1. power division

8.1.1. King had the powers of choosing ministers responsible to himself who set policy and guided Parliament

8.1.2. Parliament had the powers to make laws, levy taxes, pass the budget, and indirectly influence the king’s ministers.

8.1.3. Over time, this sharing of power grew unbalanced as Parliament’s influence grew. Parliament had more power

8.2. Parliament structured

8.2.1. consisted of landed aristocracy divided into the peers, who sat for life in the House of Lords the landed Gentry, who sat in the House of Commons served as justices of the peace in the counties.

8.2.2. represented the people on paper, but unofficially, they got their positions through bribery and patronage

8.3. problems with the borough system of electing representatives

8.3.1. bribery and trickery of the potential deputies bribery allowed people to gain control of entire boroughs deeming themselves as owners of “pocket-boroughs.

8.3.2. These people who had all the votes of a borough could influence the election massively lot of corruption in this system

8.4. King George I became king in 1714

8.4.1. led to more power to parliament as King George spoke little english

8.4.2. neither he nor George II had familiarity with the British system

8.4.3. these kings played a minor role, while parliament held more power

8.5. Robert Walpole became prime minister in 1721

8.5.1. and his policies were peaceful concerning foreign matters to avoid new land taxes, and expansive concerning economics.

9. 16-17th Century Art and Culture

9.1. Art Movements

9.1.1. Mannerism Revival of religious values led to political turmoil Expressed anxiety, uncertainty, suffering, and yearning for spiritual experience to break down high renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation El Greco - or Doménikos Theotocópoulos, was a greek painter who moved to venice and rome in the 1570s Painted elongated figures portrayed in unusual shades of yellow and green against an eerie background of turbulent grays. Reflected his desire to create intense emotion.

9.1.2. Baroque Embraced by catholic reform movement Sought to bring together the Classical ideals of renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the sixteenth-century religious revival Dramatic effects to heighten emotional intensity Peter Paul Rubens was a prolific artist and important figure in the spread of Baroque Bodies in violent motion Heavily fleshed nudes Dramatic use of light and shadow Rich sensuous pigments converge to express intense emotions

9.1.3. French Classicism Emphasis on clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony were knockoffs of high renaissance style. Nicolas Poussin exemplified conception of grandeur in his paintings Painted scenes from classical mythology Orderliness of his landscapes Postures of his figures copied down from the sculptures of antiquity and use of brown tones

9.1.4. Dutch Realism Portraits of themselves, group portraits of military companies and guilds, landscapes, seascapes, genre scenes, still lifes, and interiors of their residences Not interested in realistic portrayal of daily life Judith Leyster who established her own independent painting career in 17th century Europe Painted everyday dutch life Took on 3 male pupils

9.2. The Theater

9.2.1. William Shakespeare (England) Had technical proficiency and insight into human psychology Exhibited an astonishing understanding of the human condition Played an important role in the development of the English language

9.2.2. Lope de Vega (Spain) Plays were witty, charming, action packed, and realistic. Plays were written not for the audience’s appraise He made plays that lasted long enough to remember

9.2.3. Jean-Baptiste Racine (France) Derived work from Classical culture Hippolytus by Greek tragedian Euripides Perfected French neoclassical style that characterized the tragic dimensions of life: love and honor or inclination and duty

9.2.4. Jean-Baptiste Moliere (France) Made satirical works that caricatured the religious and social world of his time. Ridiculed religious hypocrisy His works got him into a lot of trouble with clergies in France and Paris, if not for the king’s protection, Moliere would have faced lots more trouble

10. The Smaller Absolute states

10.1. Spain

10.1.1. Philip II went bankrupt in 1596 under Philip II for excessive war costs

10.1.2. Philip III bankrupt again under Philip III for spending a fortune on his court Philip III made Spain’s weaknesses apparent as he was a terrible king made terrible choices such as allowing a greedy duke of Lerma run the country in his stead he was too lazy to rule himself

10.1.3. Philip IV capable 1st minister: Gaspar de Guzman, the count of Olivares attempted to revive the interests of the monarchy + consolidate power to the government His efforts had little success though as the aristocratic power grew too powerful Olivares + Philip's efforts undermined by their desire for imperial glory a series of internal revolts. involvement in 30 years war Involvement in 30 yrs war + internal revolts = end of illusions ab Spain's greatness especially after their armies were annihilated in the battle of Rocroi

10.2. Italy

10.2.1. Emperor Charles V defeated French armies in italy in 1530 and became arbiter of Italy

10.2.2. Gave all imperial rights over italy to Spanish monarchy and transferred duchy of Milan to his son Philip II

10.2.3. Philip II's reign Spanish influence to be all over italy allowed the papacy to become oppressive in Italy as the Catholic Counter-Reformation oppressed resistance to Catholic orthodox catholic counter reform : Spanish Inquisition, the Index, and the Jesuits

10.2.4. Italy struggled between France and Spain, but it was all arbitrary as Austria replaced Spain as Italy’s dominant power

10.3. Denmark

10.3.1. Christian VI’s plans for expanding Denmark failed

10.3.2. System for electing monarchs forced monarchy to share power with the nobility and aristocrats, who controlled peasants working their lands.

10.3.3. Danish ambitions low bcus of loss in the Thirty years’ war and loss in the Northern War with Sweden.

10.3.4. Revolution in 1660 --> the power of nobility diminished power returned to a hereditary monarchy new absolutist constitution was established in 1665 centralized administration with nobility as chief officeholders was created under Christian V

10.4. Sweden

10.4.1. Poor compared to Denmark with a weak economy and a monarchy locked in disputes with nobility

10.4.2. Gustavus Adolphus and Axel Oxenstierna Sweden adopted a new policy where nobility formed a “First Estate” and the government expanded centralized Gustavus’ daughter, Christina, played favorites with the people, causing them to protest She wholeheartedly did not want to rule and so she abdicated the throne to King Charles X.

10.4.3. King Charles X the solution to peasant revolts established domestic order his successor, Charles XI, built the monarchy with the intention of making it absolutist weakened the power of the novels and built up a bureaucracy subdued the Riksdag and the church improved the army and navy

10.4.4. Charlem XII most interested in military affairs and was a brilliant general grandiose plans were the downfall of Sweden locking them in conflict with Poland, Denmark, and Russia lost most of the power of Sweden and forsook it to not be a first-class northern power by his death

11. Peter the Great and the Rise of Russia

11.1. Peter's response to rebellion

11.1.1. He went to Moscow to deal with the Streltsy, an elite military nit stationed in Moscow that had revolted against his authority, traveling over 300 miles within 4 weeks.

11.1.2. He began to have suspicions of everybody’s loyalties being questions about what the rebellions were about and what instigated them

11.1.3. the whole month of October, Moscow was filled with torture, scourges, and beheadings of the people involved in this act of betrayal

11.1.4. Beams were run out of the walls near the gates of the city they were stationed at They were then promptly hung, 256 of them died that day all to prove the inviolable the walls were and to make a statement to any other traitors

11.2. Russia's army and Navy

11.2.1. Peter the Great’s #1 priority was the reorganization of the army and creation of navy Conscripted peasants for 25 years stints of service, building an outstanding army of 210,000 men This was Russia’s first navy Absorbed as much as four-fifths of state revenue

11.3. Government Administration (Senate, colleges)

11.3.1. Reorganized by Peter the Great

11.3.2. Senate was created in 1711 to supervise the administrative machinery of the state while Peter the Great was away on military campaigns something of a ruling council mainly ineffective peter borrowed the idea of colleges, or boards of administrators entrusted with specific functions including Foreign affairs War Justice

11.3.3. Peter divided Russia into 8 provinces to better impose rule of central government Later in 1718 russia was divided into 50 provinces Hoped to create a police state : well ordered community governed in accordance with law idea garnered little acceptance from nobles

11.3.4. Peter hoped for a sense of civic duty to the state his forceful personality denied him any chance of this happening he often threatened death with anyone who did not follow orders or interpreted them incorrectly with what Peter imagined

11.3.5. All landholders must serve in either military or civil offices.

11.4. Table of Ranks

11.4.1. Purpose : to create opportunities for non-nobility to serve state and join nobility

11.4.2. 14 levels with a parallel list of grades for all military offices Non-nobles reaching the 8th rank were promoted to noble status. an attempt for making a new nobility based on merit and not succession

11.5. Economic policies

11.5.1. a mercantilist policy was adopted to stimulate economic growth Tried to increase exports and decrease imports

11.5.2. Exploited domestic resources like iron mine sin Urals

11.5.3. Military needs were endless and the economy could not hold up Peter fell on the simplistic solution of raising taxes Peasant discontent grew because they were being more and more oppressed with growing taxes and no way around it.

11.6. Treatment of the Orthodox Church (Holy Synod, procurator)

11.6.1. Sought to gain control of russian orthodox church

11.6.2. Abolished position of patriarch and created a body called the Holy Synod to make church decisions Led by a procurator, a layman who represented interests of tsar and was a figurehead for peter

11.7. Altering Russian customs and etiquette

11.7.1. Preparation of first russian book of etiquette to teach western manners

11.7.2. No spitting on floor

11.7.3. No scratching oneself at dinner

11.7.4. No russian beards or long russian coats This was highly enforced Barbers were everywhere shaving the beards of everyone who left and came into russia and its towns

11.8. Condition of Russian women

11.8.1. Peter shattered seclusion of of upper-class russian women demanded that they remove the traditional veils that covered their faces

11.8.2. Social gatherings will be held three times a week in the large houses of Saint Petersburg men and women could converse, play card games, and dance

11.8.3. Women had right of marriage by free will

11.9. Military power (Great Northern War, Battle of Poltava, Peace of Nystad)

11.9.1. Peter + Poland + Denmark VS. Sweden + its leader Charles XII

11.9.2. n the Battle of Narva: Charles XII (briliant general) + well-disciplined force of 8000 men = crushing of danes and poles + russian (40000 man army)

11.9.3. Great northern war soon ensued Peter fought back, reorganizing his army at the western lines and at the battle of Poltava Peter WINS decisively Peace of Nystadt in 1721 gave formal recognition to what peter had already achieved RUSSIA + SPOILS OF WAR(estonia, livonia, and karelia) Sweden is now a second rate power russia is great european state peter a wanted

11.10. St. Petersburg

11.10.1. Westernization was kinda a sham since this only reached the nobility

11.10.2. Peter’s window to the west and a symbol russia was looking westward to europe Costed lives of thousands of peasants

12. Prussia, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire

12.1. Prussia

12.1.1. The Hohenzollern family ruled Brandenburg

12.1.2. Frederick William the Great Elector strengthened his government built a competent and efficient standing army of 40000 men established the General War Commissariat to levy taxes for his army governed the state using the General War Commissariat called the Junkers aristocrats

12.1.3. agreements Frederick William made with the Prussian nobility Inreturn for a free hand in running the government nobles gained near-unlimited power over their peasants were exempted from taxation awarded the highest ranks in the army and the Commissariat

12.1.4. Frederick William followed fashionable mercantilist policies constructing roads and canals and using high tariffs subsidies monopolies for manufacturers to simulate domestic industry

12.1.5. Frederick III earned the title of King Frederick I for aiding the Holy Roman Emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession was now an important new player of the European stage.

12.2. Austria

12.2.1. The Habsburgs focused their attention on eastern and southeastern Europe after hopes ended fir a German Empire. Leopold I encouraged this eastward movement of the Austrian Empire

12.2.2. The Ottoman Empire threatened Austrias ambitions conflicts occured at Transylvania Austrian Habsburgs took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia.

12.2.3. Treaty of Karlowitz Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing an Austrian Empire in southeastern Europe

12.2.4. weakness of the Austrian monarchy they never became a highly centralized, absolutist state because they harbored so many national groups.

12.3. Ottoman Empire

12.3.1. successes and failures of the Turks as they sought European territory Success succeeded in taking the Romanian territory of Wallachia in 1476 The Hungarians kept them from advancing up the Danube valley Sultan Suleimon Failure failed to stifle internal problems need to consolidate their eastern frontiers kept the Turks from any further attacks on Europe

12.3.2. Ottoman government during the 17th century Highly effective governmental system when led by strong sultans and powerful grand viziers Constantinople was far larger than any European city Ottoman politics periodically degenerated into bloody intrigues factions gruesomely fought for influence and the throne Sultans would murder brothers to avoid challenges to his rule

12.3.3. Ottoman military in the 17 th century well-organized military system Janissaries Christian boys taken from their mothers converted to be Muslim subjected to rigid military discipline form a core of 8000 troops personally loyal to the sultan later went on to retry their offensive on Europe but were again repulsed never again to be a threat to Europe.