Advanced Grammar 2

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Advanced Grammar 2 by Mind Map: Advanced Grammar 2

1. Used to show

1.1. time relationships

1.2. Cause and Effect

2. Noun Clauses

2.1. Beginning with IF/Whether

2.2. Beginning with a question word : How/Where/When/What/Who/Whom/Whose

2.3. Question word followed by infinitives

2.4. Beginnin with that

2.5. Quoted Speech ( ID)

2.6. Reported Speech (D)

2.7. -Ever words

3. Adjective Clauses

3.1. Used as the subject

3.2. Used as the object of a Verb

3.3. Used as the object of preposition

3.4. contain Whose/Where/When

3.5. To modify pronouns

3.6. Punctuating adjective clauses

3.7. Expression of quantity

3.8. Reducing adjective clause to adjective phrase

3.9. Use "Which" to modify a whole sentence

4. Coordinating Conjunctions

4.1. Parallel Structure with or without commas

4.2. Paired conjuctions : both...and; not only...but also; either...or; neither...nor.

4.3. Separating independent clauses with periods

4.4. connecting with "and" and "but"

5. Adverb Clauses

5.1. Expressing

5.1.1. Contrast ( unexpected result) "even though"

5.1.2. Conditions "If"-clause "whether or not" and "even if" "in case" "unless" "Only if"

5.2. Showing direct contrast "while"

5.3. Shortened "If"- clause

6. Reduction of adverb clauses to modifying adverbial phrases

6.1. Changing time clauses

6.2. Expressing

6.2.1. The idea of " during the same time"

6.2.2. Cause and effect

6.3. Using "upon + -ing"

7. Connectives that express cause and effect, contrast and condition

7.1. Using

7.1.1. "Because of" and "Due to"

7.1.2. "Therefore","Consequently","So"

7.2. Summary

7.2.1. of patterns and punctuation

7.2.2. of connectives : cause and effect, contrast, and condition

7.3. Expressing

7.3.1. Cause and effect with"such...that","so...that"

7.3.2. Purpose with "so that"

7.3.3. Conditions by using "otherwise" and "or (else)"

8. Noun Clauses

8.1. In "yes/no" question

8.1.1. Use If/Whether I do not care if/whether she attend with "or not" I keep questioning myself If/Whether I try hard enough or not. I wonder whether or not I try hard enough In subject position Whether she went to school yesterday seems mystery to me.

8.2. With question word

8.2.1. as an object I don't have any idea where she lives

8.2.2. as an subject Where she lives is not in my corcern

8.3. Followed by Infinitives

8.3.1. I do not know which place I should go--> I can not tell where to go

8.4. Beginning with that

8.4.1. Verb + That -Clause I noticed (that) you had gone into my bedroom last night

8.4.2. Person+be+Adj+That-Clause We're honored that you pay a visit to our country

8.4.3. It + be +Adj + That - Clause It is very obvious that Lina has a crush on David

8.4.4. That-Clause used as a subject It's a fact/The fact ( That ) Your skin turns darker than last met. That your skin turns darker after last mest is absolutely seenfully

8.5. Quoted Speech : "She have been watching a horror movie for 2 hours"

8.5.1. Reported Speech : She said she had been watching a horror movie for 2 hours

8.6. Using "-ever"

8.6.1. Whatever/Whenever/However/Wherever Whoever takes this land from us is going to pay for their sins