Research Methodology: An Introduction


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Research Methodology: An Introduction by Mind Map: Research Methodology:  An Introduction


1.1. All progress is born of inquiry. And the doubt is who leads us to the world of research.

1.1.1. Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking and promotes the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. Research is the source of knowledge for many fields. RESEARCH METHODS VS METHODOLOGY


2.1. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps.

2.1.1. 1. Formulation of the research problem: the researcher must indicate the problem he wishes to study, it can be stated in a broad and general way

2.1.2. 2. Extensive literature review: once the problem is formulated, a brief summary of it should be written.

2.1.3. 3. Development of working hypothesis: The researcher must present the working hypothesis in clear terms. The working hypothesis plays an important role.

2.1.4. 4. Preparation of the research design: The researcher must prepare a research design, that is, he must state the conceptual structure within which the research would be carried out.

2.1.5. 5. Determination of sample design: It is a defined plan that is determined before data is collected to obtain a sample from a given population.

2.1.6. 6. Collecting the data: Can be collected either through experiment or through survey.

2.1.7. 7. Execution of the project: This means that steps should be taken to guarantee that the survey is under statistical control.

2.1.8. 8. Analysis of data: The researcher should classify data into some useful categories: Coding operation, editing, tabulation.

2.1.9. 9. Hypothesis-testing: After analyzing the data as the researcher is in a position to test the hypotheses that he had formulated. Do the facts support the hypotheses or they happen to be contrary?

2.1.10. 10. Generalisations and interpretation: If a hypothesis is tested and supported several times, it may be possible for the researcher to arrive at a generalization to build a theory.

2.1.11. 11. Preparation of the report or the thesis: Finally, the researcher has to prepare a report of what has been done by him.


3.1. Meaning

3.1.1. An original contribution to the existing stock of knowledge

3.1.2. A scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic.

3.1.3. Objectives To discover answers to questions through the application of scientific procedures To find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered as yet Motivation Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential benefits Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work Desire to be of service to society Types Descriptive: Includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds Analytical: It is an analysis of available information to make a critical evaluation of the material. Applied: It tries to find a solution for an immediate problem facing a society Fundamental: It is mainly concerned with generalisations and with the formulation of a theory Quantitative: It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in terms of quantity. Qualitative: It is concerned with qualitative phenomenona iinvolving quality or kind Conceptual: Conceptual research is that related to some abstract idea(s) or theory. Empirycal: Empirical research relies on experience or observation alone, often without due regard for system and theory Aproaches


4.1. Wants to obtain a solution for the same.

4.2. A researcher experieces in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation.

4.3. Defining the research problem is necessary: - There must be an individual or a group. - There must be alternative means. - There must be some environments to which the difficulty pertains.


4.5. * Subject which is overdone should not be normally chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case. * Controversial subjects should not become the choice of an average researcher are few other criteria that must also be considered in selecting a problem.

4.5.1. NECESSITY OF DEFINING THE PROBLEM The problem to be investigated must be defined correctly for that will help to discriminate relevant data. TECHNIQUE INVOLVED IN DEFINING A PROBLEM

4.5.2. Steps to follow: 1. Statement of the problem in a general way: It is considered advisable to do some field observation. 2. Understanding the nature of the problem: Understand it is origin and nature clearly. 3. Surveying the available literature. AN ILLUSTRATION The researcher should sit down and reformulate the research. He poses the research problem in as specific terms as possible. To be able to know if the investigated data are really up to the current date IN CONCLUSION