formal authorization of the project, selects project manager, documents the business needs a project is triggered by external stimuli (business needs, customer requests, technological advance, legal requirements,
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Culture and Structure, Standards, Infrastructure, risk tolerance, PMIS, existing human resources, DB for cost estimating, DB for risk study information, Contract, Statement of Work, Organizational Process Assets, policies, templates, guidelines, change control procedures, risk control procedures, processes, procedures
Output, Project Charter, project justification, trigger, business needs, legal requirements, technological advance, customer requests, market demand, social need, business case, current understanding of requirements, description of the new product or service, assigned PM and his authority, milestone schedule, assumptions and constraints, participation of functional orgs
Tools, Project Selection Methods, benefit measurement methods, mathematical models, Project Management Methodology, Collection of templates and procedures that the organization uses, PM Information System, change control / versioning, project planning, Expert Judgement
Objectives, Are we working on the right problem?, Do we want to work on this problem?
Develop the preliminary scope statement that provides a high level scope narrative
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Project Charter, Organizational Process Assets, Statement of Work
Output, Preliminary Project Scope Statement, objectives, requirements and characteristics, project boundaries, assumptions/constraints, initial WBS, order of magnitude cost estimate
Tools, Project Management Methodology, Project Management Information System, Expert Judgement
Objectives, What are the high-level requirements to successfully deal with the customer's need?, How realistic are the customer's expectations with regard to time and cost?
Process for defining, preparing, integrating and coordinating all subsidiary plans into the project management plan. The PMP defines how the project is executed, monitored/controlled and closed Collection of outputs of the planning processes
Input, Preliminary Project Scope Statement, Project Management Processes, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets
Output, Project Management Plan, definition, collection of outputs of the planning processes, defines how the project is executed, monitored/controlled and closed, contains 9 plans, Project Scope Management Plan, Schedule Management Plan, select, scheduling methodology, examples, critical path method, critical chain method, scheduling tool, sets the formats, establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule, Cost Management Plan, sets the format, establishes criteria for planning, structuring, estimating, budgeting and controlling costs, documents, cost management processes, cost management tools and techniques, example, level of accuracy, unit of measure, organizational procedure links, control thresholds, rules of performance measurement, reporting formats, process descriptions, estimate costs, determine budget, control costs, Quality Management Plan, Process Improving Plan, Staffing Management Plan, Risk Management Plan, Procurement Management Plan, Communication Management Plan, further 6 components (may have more than 6), milestone list, resource calendar, schedule baseline, cost baseline, quality baseline, risk register
Tools, Project Management Methods, Project Management Information System, Expert Judgement
Objectives, How can we best and most effectively achieve project objectives?, Are all aspects of the plan consistent and comprehensive?
Process necessary for creating a project scope management plan that documents how the project scope will be defined, verified and controlled and how the WBS will be created.
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, Preliminary Scope Statement, Project Management Plan, Project Charter
Output, Project Scope Management Plan, describing how the team will prepare the detailed scope statement, describe how the WBS will be created, describe how the final deliverables will be verified and accepted, describe how change requests to the scope statement will be processed
Tools, Expert Judgement, Templates, Forms and Standards
Objectives, How can I best determine the requirements and specifications necessary to satisfy the objectives of this project?, How do I best use the available resources to accomplish this?
Developing a detailled project scope statement as the basis for future project decisions
Input, Organizational Process Assets, Project Charter, Preliminary Scope Statement, Scope Management Plan, Approved Change Requests
Output, Project Scope Statement, Requested Changes, Scope Management Plan (Updates)
Tools, Product Analysis, Alternatives Identification, Stakeholder Analysis
Objectives, What exactly will the customer get?, What characteristics must the product have if the customer is to be satisfied?
Process necessary for subdividing the project work and deliverables into more manageable components.
Input, Organizational Process Assets, Scope Management Plan, Approved Change Requests, Project Scope Management Plan
Output, Project Scope Statements (Updates), Work Breakdown Structure, caveat, Don't confuse with other breakdown structures! (Organizational Breakdown Structure, Risk Breakdown Structure, Bill of Materials, Resource Breakdown Structure), WBS Dictionary, detailed description of components in the WBS, Scope Baseline, Definition, detailed scope statement, WBS and WBS dictionary, Scope Management Plan (updates), Requested Changes
Tools, Work Breakdown Structure Template, Decomposition
Objectives, What project level deliverables will be required?, How exactly will the work be done?
Identify the specific schedule activites that need to be performed to produce the delivarables. Identify the deliverables at the lowest level of the WBS. These are called "work packages". Further decompose them into smaller components called "schedule activities". Schedule Activities provide a basis for planning, estimating, scheduling, monitoring and controlling the project work.
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, Project Scope Statement, Work Breakdown Structure, WBS Dictionary, Project Management Plan
Output, Activity List, Definition, all schedule activities that are planned to be performed, includes an activity identifier and a description in sufficient detail to ensure that team members understand what needs to be done., Caveat, The activity list is not part of the WBS, The Activity List is a component of the PMP, Activity Attributes, Milestone List, Definition, a milestone is a significant point or event in the project, a milestone may be mandatory (required by the contract) or optional (based upon project requirements), the milestone list is a component of the PMP, Requested Changes
Tools, Decomposition, Templates, Rolling Wave Planning, Definition, A form of progressive elaboration planning, work to be performed in the near future is planned at a low level of the WBS, work in the far future is planned at a higher level of the WBS, Planning Component, Definition, leaf in the WBS that is not detailed enough for further planning, Type 1: "Control Account". WBS node is detailed enough to associate with a control account, Type 2: "Planning Package". WBS node that is more detailed that a Control Account, but not detailed enough to derive schedule activities.
Objectives, What work needs to be done to produce the specified deliverables?
Identifying and documenting dependencies between schedule activities
Input, Project Scope Statement, Activity List, Milestone List, Activity Attributes, Approved Change Requests
Output, Project Schedule Network Diagram, Definition, displays schedule activities and their dependencies, Activity List (updates), Activity Attributes (updates), Approved Change Requests
Tools, Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM), Definition, Rectangles represent activities, arrows represent dependencies, aka, "activity on nodes" (AON), types of dependencies, finish-to-start, initiation of successor depends on completion of predecessor, most commonly used, finish-to-finish, completion of successor depends on completion or predecessor, start-to-start, initiation of successor depends on initiation of predecessor, start-to-finish, completion of successor depends on initiation of predecessor, rarely used, Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM), Definition, arrows represent activities, nodes represent dependencies, uses only finish-to-start dependencies, may require the use of dummy activities, aka, "activity on arrows" (AOA), Schedule Network Templates, Dependency Determination, mandatory dependencies, inherent in the nature of the work being done, discretionary dependencies, based on logic of best practices, discretionary = frei verfügbar, nach ermessen, other acceptable sequences may be available, external dependencies, depending on non-project activity, Applying leads and lags, lead, lead of 15 days: successor starts 15 days before completion of predecessor, allows acceleration of the successor activity, lag, lag of 10 days: successor starts 10 days after completion of predecessor, lag of 10 days: successor starts 10 days after completion of predecessor, example: allow for concrete to cure befor next step is started
Objectives, In what sequence must the activities be conducted?
Estimating the type and quantity of resources required to perform each schedule activity
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, Activity List, Activity Attributes, Resource Availability, info on which resources are available, Project Management Plan
Output, Activity Resource Requirements, description of types and quantities of resources for each activity in a work package, contains, basis of estimate, assumptions, basis of estimates, availability, quantities required, Activity Attributes (Updates), added, types, types, quantities, quantities, Resource Breakdown Structure, Resource Calendar (Updates), documents, working days, non-working days, resource availability period, Requested Changes
Tools, Expert Judgement, Alternatives Analysis, Published Estimating Data, e.g. production rates and unit costs, Project Management Software, Bottom-up Estimating, decompose activity into more detail, decompose activity into more detail, aggregate estimates into a total
Objectives, what resources (people, material, equipment) are needed and in what quantity?
process necessary for estimating the number of work periods that will be needed to complete individual schedule activities
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, duration estimating database available?, Organizational Process Assets, historical information on durations avalaible?, Activity List, Activity Attributes, Project Scope Statement, constraints and assumptions are considered, Activity Resource Requirements, resources assigned and availability of those resources will affect the duration, Resource Calendar, availability of resources could influence the duration, Project Management Plan, contains, risk register: adjust duration for risks, cost estimates: if available can provide resource quantity, activity cost estimates:
Output, Activity Duration Estimates, Activity Duration Estimates, assessment of the likely number of work periods required to complete an activity, include some indication of the range, e.g. 2 weeks +/- 2 days, Activity Attributes (Updates), now include, durations, assumptions made when estimating, contingency reserves
Tools, Expert Judgement, can be used whenever possible, Analogous Estimating, using the duration of a previous similar activity as a basis for estimating, Parametric Estimating, mathematical model based on the quantity of work, Three-Point-Estimates, three estimates, most likely, optimistic, pessimistic, estimate = (opt + 4*lik + pes) / 6, Reserve Analysis, aka, contingency reserves, time reserves, buffers, calculated as, percentage of estimated duration, fixed number of work periods, developed by quantitative risk analysis, contingency reserve must be documented
Objectives, how long will the individual activities take?
process necessary for analyzing sequence, durations, resource requirements and scheduling constraints to create the project schedule.
Input, Organizational Process Assets, e.g. project calendar, Project Scope Statement, Imposed dates on activity starts or finishes, Key events or major milestones, Activity List, Activity Attributes, Project Schedule Network Diagram, Activity Resource Requirements, Resource Calendars, Activity Duration Estimates, Project Management Plan
Output, Project Schedule, includes at least a planned start and finish date for each activity, created not later than completion of the PMP, presented in one of these formats, network diagram, possible forms, time scaled schedule network diagram, activity-on-node diagram, bar chart, like network diagram, but without dependencies, milestone chart, similar to network diagram, but only showing major events, Schedule Model Data, schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, documentation of assumptions and constraints, supporting detail, resource requirements by time period, alternative schedules (best case/worst case), documentation of contingency reserves, Schedule Baseline, project baseline start and finish dates, Resource Requirements (Updates), Activity Attributes (Updates), Project Calendar (Updates), Requested Changes, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Tools, Schedule Network Analysis, technique that generates the project schedule, employs, Schedule Model, various analytical techniques, critical path method, critical chain method, What-If scenario analysis, resource leveling, early and late start and finish dates are calculated for each activity, Critical Path Method, calculate "float" for tasks, forward and backward pass to calculate early finish and late finish, float=late finish - early finish, tasks with zero float are critical activities, definition, sequence of critical activities is called critical path, Schedule Compression, shorten the schedule without changing scope, techniques, crashing, cost and schedule tradeoff, e.g. assigning more resources, increases cost, fast tracking, parallel execution of activities that normally would be done sequentially, increases risk, What-If Scenario Analysis, used to assess feasability of project schedule under adverse conditions, objective: prepare contingency and response plans, most common technique is Monte Carlo Analysis, Resource Leveling, objectives, adapt schedule to the resource constraints, add resources to meet delivery dates, techniques, reallocate resources from critical to non-critical activities, utilize extended hours, improve productivity, result is aka, "resource limited schedule", "resource constrained schedule", Critical Chain Method, adds duration buffers, utilizes non-conservative estimates, manages the buffer durations, not float, Project Management Software, Applying Calendars, Adjusting Leads and Lags, Schedule Model
Objectives, How long will it take to complete the project?, which are my critical activities?
Process for developing an approximation of the costs for the resources needed to complete the project.
Input, Enterprise Environmental Factors, considers, marketplace conditions, whar products are available and under what conditions?, commercial DB, contain resource cost information, Organizational Process Assets, cost estimating policies, cost estimating templates, historical information, info about the product can influence the cost estimation, project files, info about previous projects can influence the cost estimation, project team knowledge, lessons learned, Project Scope Statement, WBS, WBS Dictionary, PMP, Schedule Management Plan, Schedule Management Plan, Staffing Management Plan, project staffing attributes, personnel rates, Risk Register, risk responses influence costs, risk responses influence costs
Output, Activity Cost Estimates, Activity Cost Estimate Supporting Detail, documentation of the basis of estimate, documentation of assumptions/constraints, documentation of the range, Requested Changes, Cost Management Plan (Updates)
Tools, Analogous Estimating, estimates based on previous, similar projects, Determine Resource Cost Rates, Bottom Up Estimating, Parametric Estimating, Project Management Software, examples, spreadsheet, simulations, statistical tools, Vendor Bid Analysis, derive cost from vendor bids, Reserve Analysis, as more info becomes available, use, reduce or eliminate reserves, Cost Of Quality
Objectives, How much will the resources cost that are needed to complete each specified activity?, How much will it cost to maintain and use the project's product?
This is the process necessary for aggregating the estimated costs of individual activities to establish a cost baseline.
Inputs, Project Scope Statement, WBS, WBS, WBS Dictionary, Activity Cost Estimates, cost estimates for each activity are aggregated, Activity Cost Estimate Supporting Detail, basis for estimation, constraints/assumptions, Project Schedule, Resource Calendars, Contract, cost information for purchased products, Cost Management Plan
Outputs, Cost Baseline, authorized time-phased budget at completion, typically displayed in the form of an S-curve, a component of the PMP, used to measure, monitor and control overall cost performance, Project Funding Requirements, derived from the cost baseline, cost baseline + margin, Cost Management Plan (Updates), Requested Changes
Tools, Cost Aggregation, cost estimates are aggregated by work packages according to the WBS, Reserve Analysis, create reserves, contingency reserves: known unknowns, management reserves: unknown unknowns, Parametric Estimating, Funding Limit Reconciliation, reconcile expenditure with funding limits
Objectives, what will be the total cost of resources required to complete the project?, what will be the project funding requirements?
Process necessary for determining which quality standards are relevant and determining how to satisfy them.
Inputs, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, quality policy of the performing organization may be adopted, if an organizational quality policy does not exists, the project needs to create its own policy, Project Scope Statement, Project Management Plan
Outputs, Quality Management Plan, definition, describes how to implement the organization's quality policy, must address, quality control, quality assurance, continuous process improvement, Quality Metrics, describes what something is and how the quality control process measures it, Quality Checklist, Process Improvement Plan, Subsidiary of the PMP, steps for identifying activities that do not add any value, areas to consider, process boundaries, purpose, start/end, inputs/outputs, owner, stakeholder, process configuration, a graphic depiction of processes with interfaces identified, process metrics, along with control limits, allows analysis of process efficiency, targets for improved performance, Quality Baseline, records the quality objectives, basis for measuring and reporting quality performance, Project Management Plan (Updates), additions, Quality Management Plan, Process Improvement Plan, requested changes
Tools, Cost Benefit Analysis, Consider Cost-Benefits Tradeoffs, benefits of meeting quality standards, less rework, higher productivity, New node, lower costs, increased stakeholder satisfaction, costs of meeting quality standards, expense associated with quality management activities, Benchmarking, comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects, generate ideas for improvement, find basis for measuring performance, Design of Experiments, Determine the type and number of tests, Detemine the impact of tests on cost of quality, definition, method for identifying which factors influence certain product variables, various factors are changed simultaneously, not one at a time, Cost of Quality, two types of costs, cost incurred by preventing the nonconformance of requirements, costs by failure to meet requirements, aka "cost of poor quality", Additional Quality Tools, purpose, better define the situation, plan effective quality management activities, examples, brain storming, affinity diagrams, force field analysis, nominal group techniques, matrix diagrams, flow charts, prioritization matrices
Objectives, How will we deliver a product that will delight our customers?
Process necessary for identifying project roles, responsibilities and reporting relationships, as well as creating the staffing management plan.
Inputs, enterprise environmental factors, organizational culture and structure, existing human resources, personnel administration policies, marketplace conditions, organizational assets, standard processes, policies and role descriptions, standard policies, processes and role descriptions, templates for org charts and position descriptions, historical information on organizational structures that have worked in previous projects, project management plan, Activity Resource Requirements
Tools, organizational charts and position descriptions, document team member roles and responsibilities, objectives, each work package has an unambiguous owner, all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, three types, hierarchichal type charts, example: organizational breakdown structure (OBS), example: organizational breakdown structure (OBS), matrix based charts, example: RACI matrix, text oriented formats, responsibilities that require detailed descriptions, networking, definition, formal an informal interaction with others, constructive way to understand human factors that influence the effectiveness of staffing management options, organizational theory, Organizational theory provides information regarding the ways that people, teams, and organizational units behave
Outputs, roles and responsibilities, role, responsibility, authority, the right to apply project resources, make decisions or sign approvals, competency, skill and capacity required, project organizational charts, A project organization chart is a graphic display of project team members and their reporting relationships, staffing management plan, describes when and how human resource requirements will be met, items to consider, staff aquisition, external or internal resources?, work at central location or remote location?, what are the costs associated with each level or expertise?, timetable, resource histogram, when should recruiting start?, release criteria, when should team members be released ?, training needs, recognition and rewards, compliance, safety
Objectives, how will we aquire and manage the people required to complete this project
This is the process necessary for determining the information and communication needs of the project stakeholders.
Inputs, enterprise environmental factors, organizational process assets, especially historical information and lessons learned, project scope statement, stakeholder analysis is part of the project scope, project management plan, constraints, factors that can limit available options, examples, team members in different locations, incompatible communication software, limited communications capabilities, assumptions
Tools, communications requirements analysis, results in the sum of the information needs of the project stakeholders, communicate only when necessary to avoid overwhelming stakeholders with minutiae, who will communicate with whom, communications technology
Outputs, communications management plan, stakeholder communication requirements, information to be communicated, including, format, content, level of detail, person sending the info, person receiving the info, method of sending the info, frequency of communication, escalation process, time frame and persons for escalating those issues that cannot be resolved on the working level, methods of updating and refining the communications management plan, glossary of common technology
Objectives, how can we ensure that all information of interest to each stakeholder is provided in a timely manner and in a meaningful form?
This is the process necessary to define how to approach, plan and execute the risk management activities.
Inputs, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Risk attitudes and risk tolerance, Organizational Process Assets, risk categories, concepts and terms, standard templates, roles and responsibilities, authority levels, Project Scope Statement, Project Management Plan
Tools, Planning Meetings and Analysis, basic plans for conducting the risk management activities are defined, risk cost elements and schedule activities will be developed, risk responsibilities will be assigned, general organizational templates will be tailored
Outputs, Risk Management Plan, describes how risk management will be structured and performed, includes, methodology, roles and responsibility, budgeting, timing, risk categories, definitions of risk probability and impact, probability and impact matrix, revised stakeholders' risk tolerance, reporting formats, tracking
Objectives, What is needed to manage risk on this project?
This is the process necessary for determining which risk might affect the project and determining their characteristics.
Inputs, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, information on prior projects, Project Scope Statement, project assumptions are found in the scope statement, project assumptions are found in the scope statement, uncertainty in assumptions should be evaluated as potential cause for risks, Risk Management Plan, Project Management Plan, understanding of schedule, cost and quality
Tools, Documentation Review, a structured review of project documentation, include plans and assumptions, Information Gathering Techniques, brainstorming, goal: obtain comprehensive list of project risks, delphi, goal: reach consensus of experts, experts participate anonymously, facilitator uses questionnaire, responses are summarized and then recirculated to the experts, responses are summarized and then recirculated to the experts, technique helps to reduce bias in the data and keeps one person from having undue influence, interviewing, interviewing exprienced project participants, stakeholders or subject matter experts, interviewing is one of the main risk identifying techniques, root cause identification, inquiry into the essential causes of the project's risks, SWOT analysis, strength, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, define an objective, analyze attributes of the org that may be helpful ("strength") or harmful ("weakness") to achieving the objective, analyze external conditions that may be helpful ("opportunity") or harmful ("threat") in achieving the objective, Checklist Analysis, based on historical info and knowledge, the lowest level of the RBS can be used as a checklist, Assumptions Analysis, Diagramming Techniques, cause-and-effect diagrams, aka, Ishikawa or fishbone diagrams, usefule for identifying causes of risks, system or process flowcharts, show how various elements of the system interrelate, influence diagrams, graphical representation of situations show causal influence and time ordering of events
Outputs, risk register, list of identified risks, list of potential responses, root causes of risk, updated risk categories
Objectives, what risks might affect my project?
This is the process necessary for prioritizing risks for further analysis or action by combining their propability of occurence and their impact.
Inputs, Organizational Process Assets, Data about risks on past projects and lessons learned, Project Scope Statement, projects of a recurrent type tend to have more well-understood risks, Risk Management Plan, Risk Register
Tools, Risk Propability and Impact Assessment, investigate the likelihood that each specific risk will occur, investigate the effect on a project objective such as time, cost, scope, quality, Propability and Impact Matrix, Risk Data Quality Assessment, The use of low quality risk data may lead to a qualitative risk analysis of little use, Risk Categorization, Risk Urgency Assessment
Outputs, Risk Register (Updates)
Objectives, Which risks are so severe that I must deal with them proactively?
Process necessary for numerically analyzing the effect of identified risks on the overall project objectives
Inputs, Organizational Process Assets, Information on prior, similar projects, studies of similar projects by risk specialists, risk databases that may be available from industry or proprietary sources, Project Scope Statement, Risk Management Plan, roles and responsibilities for conducting risk management, budgets, activities for risk management, risk categories, RBS, risk tolerances of stakeholders, Risk Register, list of identified risks, ranking or priority list of risks, risks grouped by category, Project Management Plan, Project Schedule Management Plan, Project Cost Management Plan
Tools, Data Gathering and Representation Techniques, Interviewing, quantify the probability and impact of risks, Probability Distributions, Expert Judgement, Quantitative Risk Analysis and Modeling Techniques, Sensitivity Analysis, Used with simulations, vary the element of interest over it's probability range, determine consequences for the project objectives, Used to identify the risks which have the largest potential impact on the project, Expected Monetary Value Analysis, calculated by multiplying the value of each possible outcome by its probability of occurence and adding them all together, modeling and simulation are recommended for use in scheduling and cost risk analysis because they are more powerful than EMV, Decision Tree Analysis, Decision points represented as squares, propabilistic outcomes represented as circles with a single line connected to the decision square and lines corresponding to each possible outcome, Ensure that the sum of propabilities for each single circle always adds to one, Modeling and Simulation, typically performed using the Monte Carlo technique in order to, assess contingency budgets, assess schedule contingency
Outputs, Risk Register (Updates)
Objectives, How do we deal with risks whose impacts are to complicated to assess using qualitative tools?
Process necessary for developing options and actions to enhance opportunities and enhance threats
Inputs, Risk Management Plan, Risk Register
Tools, Strategies for negative risks or threats, avoid, change the PMP to eliminate the threat, transfer, shift the negative impact to a third party, insurance, mitigate, reduce the probability and/or impact of a threat, Strategies for positive risks or opportunities, exploit, assign more talented resources, provide better quality, share, form risk sharing partnerships, enhance, increase probability and/or impact, Strategies for both threats and opportunities, acceptance, Contingent Response Strategy, make a response plan that will only be executed under certain conditions, trigger events must be defined and tracked
Outputs, Risk Register (Updates), adds agreed upon response strategies to each risk, budgets and schedule activities required to implement the chosen responses, Project Management Plan (Updates), Risk Related Contractual Agreements, specify each party's responsibility for specific risks, insurance, services
Objectives, What will we do proactively to minimize the impact of high severity risks on our projects?
Process necessary for determining what to purchase or aquire and determining how and when
Inputs, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Conditions of the Marketplace, What products, services and results are available in the marketplace, where and from whom are they available, What terms and conditions, Organizational Process Assets, Procurement related, Policies, Procedures, Guidelines, Management Systems, Organizational policies frequently constrain procurement decisions, Limiting the use of simple purchase orders, Requiring all purchases above a certain value to use a longer form a contract, Requiring specific forms of contract, Limiting the ability to make specific make-or-buy decisions, Project Scope Statement, Requirements withcontractual and legal implications, Work Breakdown Structure, WBS Dictionary, Project Management Plan, Risk Register, Risk Related Contractual Agreements, Resource Requirements, Project Schedule, Activity Cost Estimates, Cost Baseline
Tools, Make-or-Buy Analysis, used to determine whether a product or service should be produced or purchased, A buy decision may mean purchase or rent, The analysis includes direct and indirect costs, Decision also reflects the perspective of the organization, Ongoing need beyond the project, The long range strategy, Expert Judgement, Contract Types, Fixed Price Contracts, aka, Lump-Sum Contract, a fixed total price for a well-defined product, firm fixed price, fixed price with economic price adjustment, fixed price with incentive, Cost Reimbursable Contracts, Payment for a seller's actual cost, plus a fee typically representing seller profit, Cost Reimbursement, Buyer agrees to reimbruse contractually allowed costs with no allowance for profit, Buyer assumes a majority portion of the cost risk, Cost Sharing, Buyer agrees to provide only partial reimbursement of the seller's cost. The seller enjoys some benefit from the result of the project, Cost plus % of cost (CPPC), Buyer agrees to reimburse costs and to pay a percentage of the costs as a fee, No incentive for seller to control costs, Buyer assumes all of the cost risk, Cost plus fixed fee (CPFF), similar to CPPC, but fee is fixed, not a percentage, Cost plus incentive fee (CPIF), Costs may be figured according to any of the other methods., An incentive fee for specific performance is also paid, Cost plus Fee, Synonym for CPPC, Time And Material (T&M) Contracts, Unit rates are preset by the buyer and seller for a specific resource category, Number of units needed to complete the project is open
Outputs, Procurement Management Plan, describes how the procurement processes will be managed, can include guidance for, type of contract to be used, risk management issues, whether independent estimates will be used and whether they will be necessary as evaluation criteria, those actions the project management team can take unilaterally if the organization has a prescribed procurement, contract or purchasing department, standardized procurement documents, managing multiple suppliers, coordinating procurement with other project aspects such as scheduling and performance reporting, constraints and assumptions that could affect procurement, Contract Statement of Work, describes the procurement item in sufficient detail to allow the prospective sellers if they are capable of providing the service or product, Make-or-Buy Decisions, documents the decisions. This may also include insurance policies to address some of the identified risks., Requested Changes
Objectives, Should we use outside skills and resources?, How can we best manage relationship with our suppliers?
Documenting products, services and results requirements and identifying potential sellers.
Inputs, Procurement Management Plan, Contract Statement of Work, Make-or-Buy decisions, Project Management Plan, Risk Register, Risk Related Contractual Agreements, Activity Resource Requirements, Project Schedule, Activity Cost Estimates, Cost Baseline
Tools, Standard Forms, Standard Contracts, Standard Description of Procurement Items, Non-disclosure Agreements, Proposal Evaluation Criteria Checklists, Standardized Versions of Bid Documents, Expert Judgement, Types of Offers, Bid, Tender or Quotation, selection will be based primarily on price, Proposal, a proposal is solicited when the design is part of the services, technical competence and approach are more important than price
Outputs, Procurement Documents, they should be, rigorous enough to ensure consistent, comparable responses, Flexible enough to allow seller input and suggestions, they should include, a description of the desired form of the response, The relevant SOW, Examples of any required contractual provisions, terms and conditions, Non-disclosure provisions, Objectives, seek proposals from prospective sellers, facilitate an accurate and complete response from each prospective seller, facilitate easy evaluation of the bids, Minimal Content, description of the desired form of the response, the relevant contract statement of work, any required contractual provisions, model contract, Non-disclosure provisions, Published in, Newspapers, Magazines, Public Registries, Internet, Evaluation Criteria, Developed to rate or score proposals, Often included as part of the procurement documents, common selection criteria, Understanding of need, Overall or lifecycle cost, Technical capability, Management approach, Financial capacity, Production capacity and interest, Business size and type, References, Intellectual property rights, Proprietary rights
Objectives, How should we solicit offers?, How can we ensure that the offers will be useful?, How will we evaluate the offers?
Executing the work defined in the project management plan toachieve the project's requirements defined in the project scope statement
Inputs, Project Management Plan, Approved Corrective Actions, Documented, authorized directions to bring future performance into conformance with the project management plan, Plan to deal with a problem, Approved Preventive Actions, directions that reduce the probability of risks, Plan to mitigate a risk, Approved Change Requests, authorized changes to project scope, policies, procedures, PMP, schedule, cost or budget, Approved Defect Repair, request for a correction of a defect found during quality inspection, Validated Defect Repair, notification that reinspected repaired items have been accepted or rejected, Administrative Closure Procedure, documents activities, interactions, roles and responsibilities need in executing the administrative closure of the project
Tools, Project Management Methodology, defines a process that aids the project team in executing the project management plan, Defines project management groups, their processes and the related control functions, Project Management Information System
Outputs, Deliverables, Any unique and verifiable product, result or capability to perform a service that is identified in the PMP and must be produced and provided to complete the project, Requested Changes, Implemented Change Requests, Implemented Corrective Actions, Implemented Preventive Actions, Implemented Defect Repair, Work Performance Information
Objectives, How do I correctly and appropriately implement my project plan?
Applying the planned, systematic quality activities to ensure that the project employs all processes needed to meet requirements. This process is concerned with the high quality execution of the quality management plan.
Inputs, Quality Management Plan, Quality Metrics, Process Improvement Plan, Work Performance Information, Approved Change Requests, Quality Control Measurements, Implemented Change Requests, Implemented Corrective Actions, Implemented Defect Repair, Implemented Preventive Actions
Tools, Quality Planning Tools and Techniques, Quality Audits, Process Analysis, Quality Control Tools and Techniques
Outputs, Requested Changes, Recommented Corrective Actions, Organization Process Assets (Updates), Quality Standards, Project Management Plan (Updates), Quality Management Plan, Schedule Management Plan, Cost Management Plan
Objectives, How can we be sure that we are really executing our quality management plan?
Process of obtaining the human resources needed to complekte the project
Inputs, Enterprise Environmental Factors, Characteristics to consider, Availability, Ability, Experience, Interests, Are the people interested in working on this project?, Costs, Organizational Process Assets, Roles and Responsibilities, define the position, skills and competencies that the project requires, Project Organization Charts, provide an overview regarding the number of people required by the project, Staffing Management Plan, identifies the time period each team member will be needed
Tools, Pre-Assignment, Team members are known in advance, Specific people were promised as part of a competitive proposal, The project is dependant on the expertise of particular persons, Some staff assignments are defined within the project charter, Negotiation, functional managers, Goal is that competent people are assigned in the required time frame, Acquisition, required services can be aquired from outside sources, Virtual Teams, Group of people with a shared goal who spend little or no face-to-face time
Outputs, Project Staff Assignments, Documentation can include, a project team directory, Memos to team members, Names inserted into other parts of the PMP, Assignment often documented in the Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM), Asignment loading shown through a resource histogram, Resource Availability, documents the availability period of each team member, requires understanding of, schedule conflicts, vacation time, commitments to other projects, Staffing Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How can we get the right people working on the project?
Improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance
Inputs, Project Staff Assignments, identifies the specific people that will be involved, missing in PMBok according to Roger:, Personal and professional goals, Interests and abilitities, Personal strengths and weaknesses, Past experience with other team members, Degree of fit with the PM's management style, Staffing Management Plan, identifies training strategies, rewards and feedback, disciplinary action, Resource Availability, identifies times that project team members can participate in team development activities
Tools, General Management Skills, Version 4 calls this Tool "Interpersonal Skill", soft skill, understanding sentiemtns of team members, anticipate their actions, goal: Reduce problems and increase interaction, Training, all activities designed to enhance the competencies of the project team members, can be formal, Classroom, Online, CBT, Mentoring, transferring knowledge from one person to another, Coaching, helping individuals use skills they already have, etc., can be informal, Observation, Conversations, Team-Building Activities, Objectives, Help individual team members work together effectively, Improve skills, Improve feelings of trust and cohesiveness, Early involvement of team members desirable, Should take place throughout the project life cycle, One of the most important skills in developing a team environment involves handling team problems and discussing them in the team, Bruce Tuckman: Model of Team Development, Forming, Lead directs, The Team's objectives are unclear, Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear, Storming, Leader coaches, Clarity of purpose increases but uncertainties persist, Power struggles and emotional issues, Norming, Leader facilitates and enables, Big decisions are made by group agreement, Some fun and social activities, Discussion and development of processes and working style, Performing, Leader delegates and oversees, Teams makes most decisions using agreed criteria, High degree of autonomy, Disagreements generally resolved within the team positively, Efficient and productive, Adjourning, Break-up of the group, Members prepared to move on to new things with positive feelings, May be need for mourning and farewell, Ground Rules, establish clear expectations regarding expectable behaviour, Co-Location, Placing many or all of the most active team members in the same physical location, A meeting room, sometimes called a "war room", Inconsistent with virtual teams, Can be temporary, Recognition and Rewards, Award decisions are made through project performance appraisals, Cultural differences should be considered, team rewards vs. individual rewards, Only desirable behaviour should be rewarded, Needing to work overtime as the result of poor planning should not be rewarded, Win-Lose rewards that only a limited number of team members can achieve may hurt team cohesiveness, Rewarding behaviour that everyone can achieve tends to improve support among team members, Elton Mayo: The Hawthorne Effect, Conclusion of study was that attention to employees, not work conditions, has the dominant effect on productivity, Frederick Herzberg: Hygiene Factors, Hygiene Factors do not create satisfaction, but without them there is dissatisfaction, Policies, Supervision, Working conditions, Salary, status and security, Motivators generate motivations by satisfying esteem and growth needs, Achievement, Recognition for Achievement, Interest in the task, Responsibility for enlarged task, Growth and advancement to higher level tasks
Outputs, Team Performance Assessment, An informal or formal assessment of the teams effectiveness on the project, Can include indicators such as, Improvement in skills that allow a person to perform assigned skills more effectively, Improvement in competencies and sentiments that help the team perform better as a group, Reduced staff turnover rate
Objectives, How do we move from a group of people to a team?
Making information available to project stakeholders in a timely manner. Information distribution includes implementing the Communications Management Plan as well as in response to unexpected requests for information.
Inputs, Communications Management Plan
Tools, Communications Skills, Sender: Make the information clear and complete, Receiver: Confirm that it is properly understood by active feedback, Dimensions, Written and oral, sending and receiving, Internal (within the project) and external (customer, media, the public), Formal (reports, briefings) and informal (memos, ad hoc conversations), vertical (up and down the organization) and hizontal (with peers), Key skills for Project Managers, Effective writing style, Effective use of email, Use subject lines informatively, Send a separate email on each subject, Make the purpose of the email clear in the first paragraph, categories, call to action, for information only, clear an concise writing, Good presentation preparation and delivery techniques, Keep it simple, Give audience headlines and a roadmap, limit content of each slide to, a few bullet points, one statement, Understanding the role of body language, Effective meeting management, Dealing constructively with conflict, Information Gathering and Retrieval System, Electronic databases, Manual filing systems, Repository for technical documentation, Project management software, Information Distribution Methods, Lessons Learned Process, Update of the lessons learned database, Input to knowledge management system, Updated corporate policies, procedures and processes, Improved business skills, Overall product and service improvements, Updates to the risk management plan
Outputs, Organizational Process Assets (Updates), Lessons learned documentations, Project records, Project reports, Project presentations, Feedback from stakeholders, Stakeholder notifications, Requested Changes
Objectives, How should we gather and organize all the project information?
Obtain bids and proposals from qualified sellers
Inputs, Organizational Process Assets, list or files with info on qualified bidders, contain relevant past experience, Procurement Management Plan, Procurement Documents
Tools, Bidder Conference, meeting with prospective sellers prior to preparing bids or proposals, Ensure that all prospective sellers have a clear and common understanding of procurement, Responses to questions can be incorporated into procurement documents as amendment, Advertising, list of sellers can be expanded by placing advertisements into newspapers on professional journals, Most government jurisdictions require public advertising of procurements, Develop Qualified Seller List
Outputs, Qualified Sellers List, List of sellers asked to submit a proposal or quotation, Procurement Document Package, base upon which sellers prepare bid, Proposals, Constitutes a formal and legal offer, sometimes seller is requested to supplement proposal by oral presentation, describe the sellers ability and willingness to provide the requested products or services
Objectives, How do we support sellers in providing us with useful offers?
Reviewing offers, choosing among potential sellers, and negotiating a written contract with each seller.
Inputs, Organizational Process Assets, formal policies that affect the evaluation of proposals, Procurement Management Plan, Evaluation Criteria, Procurement Document Package, Proposals, Qualified Sellers List, Project Management Plan
Tools, Weighting System, a method of minimizing personal prejudice, a numerical weight is assigned to each criteria, proposals are weighted on each criterion, rating is multiplied by weight, results are summed up to compute a score, Independent Estimates, prepared as a check on proposed pricing, done by someone familiar with the needs of the project, but no interest in being the seller, sometimes referred to as a "should-cost" estimate, Deviations do not necessarily mean the prospective seller is incompetent, the contract SOW was not adequate, request may be misunderstood, he inadvertently did not respond fully to the SOW, the marketplace changed, Screening System, used to filter out inadequate proposals, establihing minimum requirements of performance for one or more criteria, May also use a weighting system or independent estimates, Generally used to eliminate clearly inadequate proposals without doing a complete evaluation, Contract Negotiation, Clarifies the structure and requirements of the contract, Come to a mutual agreement with regard to all contract items, May be an independent process with inputs and outputs, If the buyer is a large organization, the terms and conditions may be fixed and non-negotiable ("Boiler-Plate"), The project manager man not be the lead negotiator, but should be present, Seller Ratings System, Provides an assessment of overall reliability of the seller, Used together with the screening system for an initial evaluation of prospective sellers, Include seller's, past performance, Quality ratings, Delivery Performance, Past Contracual Compliance, If selected, performance info used to update the system, Expert Judgement, Proposal Evaluation Techniques, Price or cost as the primary determinant, appropriate for off-the-shelf items, Risk that the seller cannot provide the products, services or results in a timely manner may impact realized cost, Proposals, Often separated into technical ("approach") and commercial ("Price") sections, Each section evaluated separately, Multiple sources may be required
Outputs, Selected Sellers, offers judged to be acceptable, negotiated an acceptable draft contract, Contract, aka, Agreement, Subcontract, Purchase Order, Includes, Terms and conditions, Seller's proposal, any other documentation that the buyer is relying upon to establish what the seller is to perform or provide, is a mutually binding legal agreement, usually in writing, but does not have to be, Signing authority, Usually carefully defined in the policies and procedures of the org, Individuals having the authority to contractually bind the organization are said to have been "delegated procurement authority", Contract Management Plan, a plan to administer the contract, based upon specific buyer-specified items within the contract, Documentation, Delivery, Performance Requirements, Resource Availability, Procurement Management Plan (Updates), Requested Changes
Objectives, How do we select the best offer?
Process necessary for collecting and disseminating project performance information. This process includes risk monitoring to ensure that risks are identified early, their status reported and plans executed. Monitoring includes status reporting, progress measurement and forecasting. Monitoring: Collecting performance data reporting and disseminating performance data Control: Comparing actual with planned performance Assessing trends Evaluating possible alternatives Recommending appropriate corrective action
Inputs, Project Management Plan, Work Performance Information, Rejected Change Requests
Tools, Project Management Methodology, Project Management Information System, Used to monitor and control the execution of activities, Used to create new forecasts, Earned Value Technique, measures performance of the project, provides a means to forecast future performance, Expert Judgement
Outputs, Recommended Corrective Action, Recommended Preventive Actions, Forecasts, Recommended Defect Repairs, Recommended Changes
Objectives, How am I doing compared to my plan?, Where will I end up with regard to deliverables, time and cost?
Reviewing all change requests, approving changes, and controlling changes to the deliverables and organizational assets.
Inputs, Project Management Plan, Requested Changes, Work Performance Information, Recommended Corrective Actions, Recommended Preventive Actions, Recommended Defect Repair, Deliverables
Tools, Project Management Methodology, Project Management Information System, Expert Judgement
Outputs, Approved Change Requests, Rejected Change Requests, Project Management Plan (Updates), Project Scope Statement (Updates), Approved Corrective Actions, Approved Preventive Actions, Approved Defect Repair, Validated Defect Repair, Delivarables
Objectives, Do the benefits of the proposed change justify its cost?, Is the recommended action the best solution when every aspect of the project is considered?
Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables
Inputs, Project Scope Statement, WBS Dictionary, Project Scope Management Plan, Deliverables
Tools, Inspection, Includes, measuring, examining, verifying requirements and accemptance criteria are satisfied
Outputs, accepted deliverables, includes, Reviewing to ensure that each is completed, obtaining the stakeholders formal acceptance, doing documentation, deliverables that have been accepted, reasons for non-acceptance if relevant, Level and extent of completion if project is terminated early, requested changes, Recommended Corrective Actions
Objectives, How can we get the customer to accept (and pay for) the completed deliverables?, How will we deal with any non-acceptance issues?
Controlling changes to the scope
Inputs, Project Scope Statement, Work Breakdown Structure, WBS Dictionary, Project Scope Management Plan, Performance Reports, Approved Change Requests, Work Performance Information, Provide info on work performance such as completed interim deliverables
Tools, Change Control System, defines the procedure by which the scope can be changed, includes, documentation, tracking system, approval levels necessary for authorizing changes, Objectives, Influencing the factors that create project scope changes, controlling the impact of those changes, assuring that all changes and corrective actions are properly processed, Managing the actual changes when they occur, Elements, Procedures by which the scope can be changed, Request, evaluation and approval templates, Tracking system procedures, Approval levels necessary for authorizing changes, Integration with Integrated Change Control, Integration with PMIS, Variance Analysis, using performance measurement to assess the magnitude of variation, determining the cause of variance relative to the scope baseline, Deciding whether corrective action is required, Replanning, approved change requests may require modifications to, the WBS, the project scope statement, the project scope management plan, other components of the PMP, Configuration Management System, definition, submit changes, track changes, determine authorization levels, includes the change control system, collection of procedures, identify and document the characteristics of a product, control changes to such characteristics, record and report each change and its implementation status, support the audit of the products to verify conformance to requirements, Mein Verständnis, CMS enthält Regeln für den Zugang zu Dokumenten, wie mit Änderungen an Produkten umzugehen ist (z.B. Dokumentation, Freigabe), wie Versionsstände dokumentiert werden, CCS ist eine Teilmenge des CMS und enthält die Prozeduren zur Durchführung von Changes.
Outputs, Project Scope Statement (updates), Work Breakdown Structure (Updates), WBS Dictionary (Updates), Scope Baseline (Updates), Requested Changes (Updates), Recommended Corrective Actions (Updates), Organizational Process Assets (Updates), Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How can we determine if the costs of a proposed change can be justified by its benefits?, How can we ensure that our change control process is being followed?
Controlling changes to the project schedule
Inputs, Schedule Management Plan, Establish how the schedule will be controlled, Schedule Baseline, provides the as-planned information, Performance Reports, provides actual performance information, Approved Change Requests, change requests are used to update the schedule
Tools, Progress Reporting, Activities which have started, Activities in progress, percent-complete, Activities which have finished, Schedule Change Control System, defines the procedures by which the schedule can be changed, it includes the paperwork, tracking system and approval levels, Performance Measurement, magnitude of schedule variation measured by Schedule Performance Index or Schedule Variance, An important part is to decide if corrective actions are required, delay on critical path may require corrective action, delay of activity not on critical path may not require corrective action, Project Management Software, provides the ability to track planned dates vs. actual dates, helps in forecasting the effect of schedule changes, Variance Analysis, compare planned schedule dates with actual/forecast dates to detect deviations, Schedule Comparison Bar Charts
Outputs, Schedule Model Data (Updates), Schedule Baseline (Updates), Performance Measurements, calculate, schedule variance (SV), schedule performance index (SPI), document them, communicate them to stakeholders, Requested Changes, Recommended Corrective Actions, Organizational Process Assets (Updates), lessons learned to document the cause of variations, Activity List (Updates), Activity Attributes (Updates), Project Scope Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How can I detect changes from my schedule baseline?, If I have a choice on spending more time, how can I ensure that the benefits exceed the cost?
The proces of influencing the factors that create variances and controlling changes to the project budget
Inputs, Cost Baseline, Project Funding Requirements, Performance Reports, Work Performance Information, completed deliverables, activities in progress, percent complete, activities not started yet, costs incurred, Approved Change Requests, may affect costs, Project Management Plan
Tools, Costs Change Control System, defines the procedures by which the cost baseline may be changed, includes, forms, documentation, tracking system, approval levels necessary for authorizing changes, Performance Measurement Analysis, Earned Value Technique, compares, earned, value of work performed, planned, cost of work scheduled, actual, actual cost of work performed, Key Values, planned values (PV), earned value (EV), actual cost (AC), estimate to complete (ETC), estimate at completion (EAC), Measures, cost variance (CV), EV - AC, schedule variance (SV), EV - PV, Indicators, cost performance index CPI, less than 1: cost overrun, more than 1: cost underrun, CPI = EV / AC, schedule performance index SPI, less than 1: behind schedule, more than 1: ahead of schedule, SPI: EV / PV, used to predict completion date, Forecasting, make predictions based on info available at the time of the prediction, Budget at completion (BAC), BAC=total planned value at completion, Estimated to Complete (ETC), calculate ETC based on a new estimate, estimate the work remaining, done by performing organization, more accurate than calculation based on EVT, calculate ETC based on earned value data, atypical variance, ETC = (BAC - EV), typical variance, ETC = (BAC - EV)/CPI, Estimated at Completion (EAC), calculate EAC based on a new estimate, EAC = AC + ETC, calculate EAC based on earned value data, EAC using remaining budget, EAC = AC + (BAC - EV), EAC using CPI, EAC = AC + (BAC - EV) / CPI, Project Performance Reviews, Meetings held to assess cost status or progress, Performance Reporting Techniques, Variance Analysis, compare actual performance to planned performance, variances in cost and schedule are most frequently analyzed, but variances in scope, resource, quality and risk are of equal importance, Trend Analysis, examine project performance over time to determine if performance is improving or deteriorating, Earned Value Technique, compares planned performance to actual performance, Project Management Software, spreadsheet to monitor PV vs AC, Variance Management, Cost Management Plan describes how cost variances will be managed, For example, different responses to major or minor problems, Amount of variance tends to decrease as more work is accomplished
Outputs, Cost Estimates (Updates), Cost Baseline (Updates), Performance Measurements, Forecasted Completion, Requested Changes, Recommended Corrective Actions, Organizational Process Assets (Updates), Lessons Learned, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How do I Recognize and Manage Cost Variances in my Project?, How can I ensure that changes to my cost baseline are justified by the benefits?
Monitoring specific project results to determine whether they comply with quality standards Identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance ==> Hier wird der Qualitätsprozess überprüft, weniger die Deliverables. Die Frage ist, "funktionieren unsere Qualitätsprozess?"
Inputs, Quality Management Plan, Quality Metrics, Quality Checklists, Organizational Process Assets, Work Performance Information, technical performance measures, deliverables completion status, implementation of required corrective action, Approved Change Requests, may include, revised work methods, revised schedules, need to verify timely correct implementation of approved changes, Deliverables
Tools, Cause and Effect Diagram, aka, Ishikawa diagrams, fishbone diagrams, shows cause-effect chain, Control Charts, Used to determine whether or not a process is stable, Illustrates how a process behaves over time, Can be used to assess whether the application of process changes resulted in the desired improvements, The upper control limit and the lower control limit are usually set at +/- 3 sigma, Can be used for both project and product life cycle processes, Flowcharting, helps to analyze how problems occur, flowchart is a graphical representation of the process, Histogram, bar chart showing a distribution of variables, each column represents an attribute, the height of the column represents the relative frequency of the characteristic, Pareto Charts, histogram, ordered by frequency of occurence, used to guide corrective action: fix the problems that are causing the greatest number of defect first, Related to Pareto's Law (80/20 rule), Run Chart, a line graph showing data points plotted in the order in which they occur, shows trends in a process over time, used to perform trend analysis to forecast future outcome, Scatter Diagram, correlation of two values, shows the pattern of relationship between two variables, Statistical Sampling, choose a part of a population for inspection, Inspection, Examination of the work product to determine whether it conforms to standards, Generally includes measurements, also called, Reviews, Peer Reviews, Audits, Walkthroughs, Defect Repair Review, action taken to ensure that product defects are repaired and brought into compliance with requirements or specifications
Outputs, Quality Control Measurements, Results of the application of the various tools and techniques, Validated Defect Repair, Quality Baseline (Updates), Recommended Corrective Action, Recommended Preventive Actions, Requested Changes, Recommended Defect Repair, Organization Process Assets (Updates), completed checklists, lessons learned documentation, causes of variances, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, Validated Deliverables, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How will we ensure that we can deliver what we promised?
Tracking Team Member Performance Providing Feedback Resolving Issues Coordinating Changes to Enhance Project Performance
Input, Organizational Process Assets, Utilize Organization's System for Rewarding Employees, Recognition Dinners, Certificates of appreciation, Newsletters, Bulletin Boards, Web Sites, Bonus Structures, Corporate apparel, Project Staff Assignments, provide a list of project team members to be evaluated, Roles and Responsibilities, Project Organization Charts, provide a picture of the reporting relationships, Staffing Management Plan, lists the time periods that team members are expected to work on the project, Team Performance Assessment, Work Performance Information, provides key input with regard to project objectives, Observation and conversation provides really useful data, Performance Reports
Tools, Observation and Conversation, Tracking team member performance, Providing feedback, Resolving issues, Coordinating changes to enhance performance, Project Performance Appraisals, Objectives, Clarification of roles and responsibilities, Structured time to ensure positive feedback, Discovery of unknown or unresolved issues, Development of individual training plans, Establishment of specific future goals, Need depends on, length of the project, complexity of the project, organizational policies, labor contract requirements, amount and quality of regular communication, Provided by, people who supervise project work, people who interact with project team members, superiors, peers, subordinates, Conflict Management, most frequent sources of conflict, scarce resources, technical options, scheduling priorities, questions to think about, sources of conflict, benefits of successful conflict resolution, consequences of unsuccessful conflict resolution, reduce amount of conflict by, ground rules, group norms, communication planning, role definition, Thomas Killman Conflict Model, Not cooperative, not assertive, avoid, cooperative, not assertive, accomodate, not cooperative, assertive, compete, cooperative, assertive, collaborate, compromising, facilitation, a process to help a group manage the inevitable confusion and frustration associated with trying to integrate different views and approaches, guideline to succesfull conflict resolution, Listen with empathy, see the conflict from the other's person point of view, Don't be in a hurry to speak, Listen carefully, remain flexible, clarify feelings, use "I" statements, Issue Log, Documents who is responsible for a specific issue, Target Date, Track progress, Document completion and lessons learned
Outputs, Requested Changes, Recommended Corrective Actions, Staffing changes, Additional training, Disciplinary actions, Moving people to different assignments, Outsourcing some work, Replacing team members, Give out recognition and rewards, Recommended Preventive Actions, Providing cross-training (mitigate team member absences), Additional role clarification, added personal time, Organization Process Assets (Updates), input to organizational performance appraisals, lessons learned documentation, possible templates, ground rules, conflict management techniques, recognition events, procedures for virtual teams, co-location, negotiation, training, team building, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How do we deal with issues that interfere with team cohesiveness and productivity?
Collecting and distributing performance information, including status reporting, progress measurement, forecsating
Inputs, Work Performance Information, completion status of the deliverables, Performance Measurements, Forecasted Completion, Quality Control Measurements, Project Management Plan, Performance measurement baseline, against which execution is compared, an approved plan for the project work, integrates scope, schedule, cost parameters of a project, may also include technical and quality parameters, Approved Change Requests, Deliverables
Tools, Information Presentation Tools, Table Reporting Software (Excel), Mapping Software (MindManager), Presentation Software (PowerPoint), Graphics Software (Visio), Performance Information, Gathering and Compilation, manual filing systems, electronic databases, project management software, engineering drawings, design specifications, test plans, Status Review Meetings, regularly scheduled events to exchange information about the project, Held at various frequencies and on different levels, look back one cycle and forward three cycles, Time Reporting Systems, represents an overhead cost, make as simple as possible consistent with adequate project control, align reporting units with the way the work will actually be done, Time spent is just history and is a poor forecast tool, Cost Reporting Systems, often provided outside project team control, May not be timely enough or in a form that is useful for project control, may be unnecessary if most of the project cost is for human resources
Outputs, Performance Reports, Organize and summarize the performance data, the collection of all baseline data, the distribution of performance info to stakeholders, Present the results of any analysis relative to the baseline, variance analysis, cost and schedule, scope, resource utilization, quality, risk, procurement status, trend analysis, Should be tailored to the needs of the individual stakeholders to show the status of project activities being performed., schedule progress showing status information, deliverable completed and those not completed yet, Costs authorized and incurred, Extents to which quality standards are being met, Resource utilization detail, Common formats, Bar charts, S-curves, Histograms, Tables, Forecasts, Requested Changes, Recommended Corrective Actions, Organizational Process Assets (Updates)
Objectives, How are we doing on the project releative to our baseline plans?, What will our final project cost and timing be?
Managing communications to satisfy the requirements of and resolving issues with project stakeholders
Inputs, Communications Management Plan, needs and expectations of stakeholders are identified and analyzed and documented in the communications management plan, Organization Process Assets, templates, project org charts, position descriptions, project performance appraisals, standard conflict management approach, checklists, common project roles and responsibilities, typical competencies, training competencies, team ground rules, safety considerations, compliance issues, reward ideas
Tools, Communications Methods, successful communications is when sender and receiver reach a common understanding of both information and perspective, Sender, Message, Channel or Medium, Receiver, Feedback, Context, Issue Logs, used to document and monitor the resolution of issues, issues are any point or matter, which is unclear, that is under discussion, whose implications or conclusions are disputed, the resolution of which is material to the success of the project, an issue must be stated in a way that it is clear what is required for its resolution, an owner is assigned, a target date is established for closure, documents closure details
Outputs, Resolved Issues, Approved Change Requests, Approved Corrective Actions, Organizational Process Assets (Updates), Project Management Plan (Updates)
Tracking identified risks, monitoring residual risks, identifying new risks, executing risk response plans and evaluating their effectiveness throughout the project life cycle. Gibt es neue Risiken? Wie gehen wir damit um? Gibt es Anzeichen für das Eintreten bereits identifizierter Risiken? Sind unsere Risk Responses effektiv? Müssen die Kosten- oder Zeitreserven angepasst werden?
Inputs, Risk Management Plan, Risk Register, Approved Change Requests, Can generate risks, Changes exposure to identified risks, Work Performance Information, Performance Reports
Tools, Risk Reassessment, Identification of new risks, for example by checking if project assumptions are still valid, Reassessment of identified risks, Should be regularly scheduled as an agenda item at project team status meetings, Risk Audits, Examine and document the effectiveness of, Risk responses in dealing with identified risks and their root causes, The risk management process, Variance and Trend Analysis, Technical Performance Measurement, compares technical performance against performance baseline, Deviations can identify risks to achieving the project's scope, Reserve Analysis, Compares the amount of the contingency reserves remaining to the amount of risk remaining, Determine if the reserve is adequate, Status Meetings
Outputs, Risk Register (Updates), Outcomes of, Risk reassessments, Risk audits, Periodic Risk Reviews, Requested Changes, Imlementing contingency plans or workarounds may change risk exposure, May result in changes to risk response, Changes should be reviewd through Integrated Change Control, Recommended Corrective Actions, Recommended Preventive Actions, Organizational Process Assets, Templates for the risk management plan, Probability and impact matrix, Risk register, Lessons learned, Data on the actual costs and durations of project activities, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How can we ensure that our risk plan is being implemented?, What do we need to keep our risk plan current?
Managing the contract and relationship between the buyer and seller, reviewing and documenting how a seller is performing or has performed to - establish corrective actions - and provide a basis for future relationship Managing contract related changes and, when appropriate, managing the contractual relationship with the outside buyer of the project Ensure that each party meets their contractual obligations and that their legal rights are protected Many organizations treat contract administration as an administrative function separate from the project organization Reviews and documents seller performance Ensures that seller compensation is linked to seller progress The review documentation provides a basis for future relationships with the seller
Inputs, Contract, Contract Management Plan, Selected Sellers, Performance Reports, Seller-developed technical documentation, Other deliverables information, Seller performance reports, Approved Change Requests, Contract terms and conditions, Statement of work, Pricing, Description of the products, services or results to be provided, Work Performance Information, Extent to which quality standards are being met, What costs have been incurred or committed, Seller invoices, Which deliverables have been completed
Tools, Contract Change Control System, Defines the process by which the contract can be changed, Includes, Paperwork, Tracking system, Dispute resolution procedures, Approval levels necessary for authorizing changes, Integrated with the project Integrated Change Control System, Buyer-Conducted Performance Review, A structured review of the seller's progress to deliver project scope and quality, within cost and on schedule, as compared to the contract, May include, a review of seller-prepared documentation, a review of buyer inspections, Quality audits conducted during seller's execution of the work, Objective is to identify, Performance successes or failures, Progress with respect to the contract statement of work, Contract non-compliance, Inspections and Audits, Used to identify any weaknesses in the seller's work processes or deliverables, May include buyer procurement personnel, Performance Reporting, Payment System, Usually handled by the accounts payable system of the buyer, Large projects may have its own payment system, Includes appropriate reviews and approvals by the project management team, Payments are made in accordance with the terms of contract, Claims Administration, Types of claims, Contested Changes, Buyer and seller agree that there is some change but cannot aree on the compensation for the change, called, Claims, Disputes, Appeals, Constructive Changes, Buyer and seller cannot agree that a change has even occurred, Handled as specified in the contract, Mediation, Identify sources of miscommunication, Translate across style and preference differences, Provide safe sounding board for new ideas, Usually minimal involvement in actual substance of dispute, Arbitration, Parties agree on knowledgeable expert with no interest in outcome, Arbitrator listens to arguments of both sides, Decides fair and equitable resolution, May be either binding or non-binding, Litigation, Both parties retain lawyers, formal legal process with or without a jury, Judge renders decision, Decision may be appealed, Legal support in collecting judgement, Very slow and expensive, May be invoked prior to or after contract closure, Records Management System, a specific set of, Processes, Related control functions, Automation tools used to manage contract documentation and records, Maintains an index of contract documents and correspondence, Assists with retrieving and archiving documentation, Information Technology
Outputs, Contract Documentation, Contract, Supporting Schedules, Requested unapproved contract changes, Approved Change Requests, Any seller developed technical documentation, Deliverables, Seller Performance Reports, Warranties, Financial Documents, The result of contract related inspections, Any other work performance information, Requested Changes, Recommended Corrective Actions, Organization Process Assets, Correspondence with seller, Warnings of unsatisfactory performance, Requests for contract changes or clarifications, Results of buyer audits, Results of inspections, Actions taken, Decisions made, Payment schedule and requests, Seller performance evaluation documentation, Project Management Plan (Updates)
Objectives, How do we manage supplier performance?
Finalizing all activities across all of the Project Management Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.
Inputs, Project Management Plan, Contract Documentation, This is relevant only if suppliers are involved and is used to perform the contract closure process., Enterprise Environmental Factors, Organizational Process Assets, Work Performance Information, Deliverables
Tools, Project Management Methodology, Project Management Information System, Expert Judgement
Outputs, Administrative Closure Procedure, Actions and activities necessary to, define the stakeholder approval requirements, confirm that the project has met all requirements, verify that all deliverables have been provided and accepted, Validate that completion and exit criteria have been met, Contract Closure Procedure, Final Product, Service or Result, Organizational Process Assets (Updates)
Objectives, Are we ready to accept and pay for the deliverables from our suppliers?, Is our customer ready to accept and pay for the project's product?
Completing and settling each contract, including the resolution of any open items Closing each contract applicable to the project or a project phase
Inputs, Procurement Management Plan, Contract Management Plan, Contract Documentation, Contract Closure Procedure
Tools, Procurement Audits, A structured review of the procurement processes, Seeks to identify procurement successes and failures, Records Management System
Outputs, Closed Contracts, The Contract Closure Process, Verifies that all work and deliverables were acceptable, Updates records to reflect the final results, Archives such information for future use, In multi-phase contracts may close only a phase of the project, Unresolved claims may be subject to litigation after contract closure, Early termination, A special case of contract closure, Can result from, A mutual agreement of the parties, The default of one of the parties, The rights and responsibilities of the parties are contained in a terminations clause of the contract, The buyer provides the seller with a formal written notice that the contract has been completed, Organizational Process Assets (Updates), Contract File, Deliverable acceptance, Lessons learned documentation
Objectives, How should we manage the conclusion of the supplier's work?