Religious Studies GCSE Revision: RELIGION AND MEDICINE

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Religious Studies GCSE Revision: RELIGION AND MEDICINE by Mind Map: Religious Studies GCSE Revision: RELIGION AND MEDICINE

1. God is interested and involved in each human's life

2. advance in medicine have led to people being kept alive who would have previously died but their quality of life is appalling

3. for many modern medical issues there are no clear religious teachings

3.1. ISLAM

3.1.1. organ donation

3.1.1.1. all the organs and parts of a human body whether Muslim or a non-Muslim are sacred and must not be tampered with.

3.1.1.1.1. to benefit from any part of a human without a need is unlawful (haram)

3.1.2. blood transfusions

3.1.2.1. to benefit from any part of a human without a need is unlawful (haram)

3.1.2.1.1. blood is sacred like all other parts of a human

3.1.2.1.2. blood (when taken out) is impure and to benefit from something that is impure is unlawful.

3.1.3. plastic surgery

3.1.3.1. to remove a defect which disfigures the original physical structure

3.1.3.1.1. is allowed in Islam because it is a form of treatment

3.1.3.2. cosmetic surgery to attain beauty

3.1.3.2.1. it is considered as changing the creation of Allah so not allowed

3.1.4. testing drugs

3.1.4.1. Islamic scholars are divided on whether drugs testing is acceptable

3.1.4.1.1. The Qur'an tells Muslims to treat animals with compassion and not to abuse them so drug testing on animals which cause harm is not allowed

4. ABORTION

4.1. ISLAM

4.1.1. 'ensoulment' (receiving a soul) takes place at 120 days after conception (some say 40 days) so abortion is not allowed after this time

4.1.2. only Allah can take away life

4.1.2.1. "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

4.1.3. abortion for econonmic reasons is forbidden in the Qur'an

4.1.4. abortion to save the life of the mother is seen by some to be acceptable

4.1.5. Allah takes a person's intention (niyyah) into account at judgement

4.1.5.1. niyyah

4.1.5.1.1. a legally required statement of intent, made prior to all acts of devotion

4.2. Under UK Legislation abortion is legal up to 24 weeks (168 days) The Abortion Act 1967

4.3. CHRISTIANITY

4.3.1. Roman Catholic and Orthodox denominations are against abortion in any circumstance

4.3.1.1. the official positon is that a human person begins at conception so the human embyos has the same moral status as human persons

4.3.1.1.1. abortion is murder

4.3.2. generally Christians have concerns about abortion because of beliefs

4.3.2.1. sanctity of life

4.3.2.1.1. life in all forms is precious and sacred

4.3.2.2. references to the Ten Commandments

4.3.2.2.1. thou shalt not kill

4.3.2.3. people being in the image of God

4.3.3. other denominations are against abortion for social reasons, but will accept it in certain situations

4.3.3.1. the mother's life being at risk

4.3.4. many Christian denominations leave the decision to individuals

4.3.4.1. 'free will'

4.3.4.1.1. the belief that humans have free choices in life

5. MEDICAL ETHICS

5.1. but there are key principles or values from religious traditions that guide believers in making decisions on these issues

5.1.1. SEARCH SCARED TEXTS

5.1.1.1. for references or beliefs that may relate to the issue

5.1.2. ANALYSE INTENTIONS

5.1.2.1. and measure them against other relevant teachings

5.1.3. DISCUSS

5.1.3.1. the matter with other believers and with 'experts' in the religion and the issue

5.1.4. THINK

5.1.4.1. about the ultimate principles in the religion that will have an impact on the issue

5.1.5. CONSIDER

5.1.5.1. the effects on themselves and others and society, weigh up whether these are compatible with basic beliefs

5.1.6. PRAY

5.1.6.1. about the issues involved and seek guidance directly from God

5.2. issues to evaluate

5.2.1. how do doctors make ethical decisions?

5.2.1.1. Hippocratic Oath

5.2.1.1.1. most important factor, it affects every decision a doctor makes

5.2.1.2. doctors are expected to take account of someone's faith and beliefs

5.2.1.3. long term have to be considered not just the short term effects on patient

5.2.1.4. what you think

5.2.2. what are the dilemmas faced by scientific advancements?

5.2.2.1. some surgery and medical treatments are just cosmetic and not life saving

5.2.2.1.1. so are they really necessary?

5.2.2.2. new drugs need to be tested before they can be used safely

5.2.2.2.1. how is it best to do this?

5.2.2.3. donating organs raises lots of issues

5.2.2.4. using life support machine is necessary unless the person is totally dependent on it

5.2.2.5. is it always right to preserve life?

5.2.2.5.1. sometimes we have to accept our time is up

5.2.3. how does religion help or hinder people making decisions?

5.2.3.1. having clear beliefs and principles can make it easier to make a decision

5.2.3.2. Religious teaching and guidance can also help people facing difficult decisions

5.2.3.3. for some modern medical issues there are no clear specific teachings in religions or their scriptures

5.2.3.4. difficult to get agreement between all people in the same religion

5.2.3.4.1. makes decisions difficult

5.2.3.5. answers through prayer

5.2.4. does the decision depend on the situation?

5.2.4.1. every situation is different

5.2.4.2. the role of conscience

5.2.4.2.1. a person's moral sense of right and wrong, viewed as acting as a guide to one's behaviour

5.2.4.3. the role of utilitarianism

5.2.4.3.1. means maximizing happiness and reducing suffering.. for greater good?

5.2.4.4. it can never depend on the situation

5.2.4.4.1. there are some ultimate principles too

5.2.4.5. balance between the situation and the teachings that matter to you

6. IVF / FERTILITY TREATMENT

6.1. ISLAM

6.1.1. IVF is acceptable if the sperm and the egg are from the husband and wife

6.1.1.1. sex is an act of worship

6.1.1.2. sex should only happen in marriage

6.1.2. IVF is allowed if the male has a disease

6.1.3. The Qur'an states that sperm or semen should not be destroyed or wasted

6.1.3.1. 'ensoulment' (receiving a soul) takes place at 120 days after conception (some say 40 days) so throwing away some fertilised eggs is accepted

6.1.3.1.1. "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

6.1.4. It is also important for children to know who their parents are

6.2. in-vitro fertilisation

6.2.1. where the egg of a woman is fertilised outside the womb

6.2.1.1. either using the husband's sperm or a donor's sperm, the fertilised egg is then placed in the womb

6.3. CHRISTIANITY

6.3.1. Roman Catholic Church

6.3.1.1. all embryo technology is banned because it involves throwing away some fertilised eggs

6.3.1.1.1. the official positon is that a human person begins at conception so the human embyos has the same moral status as human persons

6.3.1.2. fertilisation takes place outside of the sex act

6.3.1.2.1. sex is a gift from God

6.3.1.3. Life is given by God, and no one has the right to children

6.3.1.3.1. Only God should take life away

6.3.1.4. children have a right to know who their parents are

6.3.2. Other denominations

6.3.2.1. accept that embryo technology involves disposing of some fertilised eggs

6.3.2.2. accept children have a right to know who their parents are

6.3.2.3. accept fertilisation is outside of the sex act

6.3.3. but might also say

6.3.3.1. it provides happiness to the couple

6.3.3.2. technology is also a God's gift

6.3.3.3. the cost isn't always justifiable when so many children are starving

6.3.3.3.1. costs in Wales can be between £3000 - £6000

7. EUTHANASIA

7.1. ISLAM

7.1.1. taking any life is wrong

7.1.2. only Allah can take away life

7.1.3. suffering has a purpose

7.1.3.1. suffering is part of Allah's great plan

7.1.3.1.1. is a kind of test

7.1.3.1.2. can lead to good

7.1.4. compassion should be shown to those in pain or suffering

7.1.4.1. supporting those suffering and in need is one of the five pillars of faith

7.2. literally means 'gentle or easy death'

7.2.1. different types

7.2.1.1. Voluntary euthanasia

7.2.1.1.1. the person is mentally stable and has made the decision for themselves to die

7.2.1.2. Involuntary euthanasia

7.2.1.2.1. the patient is unconscious and the decision is made for them

7.2.1.3. Passive euthanasia

7.2.1.3.1. refusing to take treatment that could prevent you from dying resulting in a sooner death

7.2.1.4. Assisted suicide

7.2.1.4.1. providing a seriously ill person with the means to die

7.2.2. all types are crimes under British Law and persons involved can go to prison

7.2.3. social reasons against euthanasia

7.2.3.1. Hippocratic Oath

7.2.3.1.1. a promise that doctors take to preserve life at all costs

7.2.3.2. a cure may be found

7.2.3.3. unscrupulous relatives might abuse euthanasia to gain money from wills

7.2.3.4. people may not be mentally stable and it may not be an informed decision

7.2.4. argument for change in legislation

7.2.4.1. doctors and relatives should be allowed to provide a painless death

7.2.4.2. people on life support can be taken off, if this type of euthanasia is permitted so should other forms of euthanasia

7.3. CHRISTIANITY

7.3.1. Roman Catholic and Orthodox denominations are against euthanasia in any circumstance

7.3.1.1. taking a life is wrong, because of the belief in the sanctity of life

7.3.1.1.1. Roman Catholics want it kept illegal

7.3.2. taking a life is wrong, because of the belief in the sanctity of life

7.3.2.1. life in all forms is precious and sacred

7.3.3. life is a gift from God, and only he can take it away

7.3.3.1. 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10

7.3.4. death is not the final end, but is a 'doorway' to life after death

7.3.5. suffering can have a purpose

7.3.5.1. suffering can lead to good things, help develop inner strength, lead to inner strength and ability to overcome suffering

7.3.5.1.1. Job

7.3.6. hospices offer an alternative, where patient and family are supported

7.3.6.1. those suffering should be helped and supported, this is in keeping with the Gospel tradition

7.3.7. some Christian believe 'You don't have to strive to keep yourself allive' means you don't have to battle endlessly to live

7.3.7.1. they believe if people were in so much pain that God will not regard suicide as sin

7.3.7.1.1. 'If we live, we live for the Lord, and if we die, we die for the Lord, so that alive or dead we belong to the Lord' Romans 14.8

7.3.7.2. switching off life support machines and removal of artificial feeding would be acceptable

8. SANCTITY OF LIFE

8.1. ISLAM

8.1.1. every soul has been created by Allah

8.1.2. Allah has a plan for each life

8.1.3. only Allah can take away life

8.1.3.1. "And no soul can die but with Allah's permission — the term is fixed" Qur'an (3:145).

8.1.4. No one has the right to take their own life or anyone else's life

8.2. life in all forms is precious and sacred

8.2.1. most religions have teachings about avoiding taking a life

8.3. CHRISTIANITY

8.3.1. Life is sacred and a gift from God

8.3.2. Only God should take life away

8.3.2.1. 'In his hands is the life and every living thing and the breath of every human being' Job 12.10

8.3.3. Jesus showed in his teachings that all life should be valued