Indigenous Populations and Food Insecurity

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Indigenous Populations and Food Insecurity by Mind Map: Indigenous Populations and Food Insecurity

1. Social determinants of health¹

1.1. Unemployment

1.1.1. Food insecurity highest in those permanently unable to work¹

1.2. Low income

1.2.1. Lowest income quintile 30x more likely to experience food insecurity than highest income quintile¹

1.3. Low education

1.3.1. Greatest food insecurity in households with less than high school education¹

1.4. Geographical location

1.4.1. Proximity to grocery stores

1.5. Household composition

1.5.1. Families with children more likely to experience food insecurity³

1.5.2. Female lone parents more vulnerable to food insecurity¹

2. Causes

2.1. Barriers

2.1.1. Distance

2.1.1.1. Remote communities

2.1.2. Money

2.1.2.1. High cost of harvesting/shipping food to remote communities²

2.1.3. Time

2.1.3.1. Obtaining and preparing food¹

2.2. Erosion of Indigenous knowledge¹

2.2.1. Traditional foods replaced by market convenience foods¹

2.2.1.1. Convenience foods high in fats, sugar, sodium, low in micronutrients¹

2.2.1.2. Traditional foods tend to be healthier, more nutrient dense¹

2.3. Climate change³

2.4. Environmental disposession¹

2.4.1. Colonization

2.5. Reduced access to traditional land, waters, food resources¹

2.6. Environmental pollution³

2.6.1. Contaminants in meats, fish

3. Adverse health outcomes¹

3.1. Increased reliance on health care system

3.2. Heart disease

3.3. Depression

3.4. Obesity

3.5. Type 2 diabetes

4. Indigenous vulnerability

4.1. Indigenous food insecurity 5-6x higher than non-Indigenous populations⁴

4.2. Half of First Nations households struggled to put food on the table²

4.3. Inuit people have highest rate of food insecurity relative to non-Indigenous¹

5. Food insecurity: Physical and economic inability to access sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet diatary meeds and food preferences for an active and healthy life.⁴