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1.1. Infrastructure is the support system for the efficient working of a modern industrial economy Infrastructure provides supporting services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production, domestic and foreign trade and commerce.

1.1.1. Economic Infrastructure Infrastructure associated with energy, transportation and communication

1.1.2. Social Infrastructure Infrastructure associated with education, health and housing are included in


2.1. Infrastructure contributes to economic development of a country both by increasing the productivity of the factors of production and improving the quality of life of its people.

2.1.1. Eg - Improvements in water supply and sanitation have a large impact by reducing morbidity


3.1. For low-income countries, basic infrastructure services like irrigation, transport and power are more important.

3.2. As economies mature and most of their basic consumption demands are met, the share of agriculture in the economy shrinks and more service related infrastructure is required. .

3.2.1. This is why the share of power and telecommunication infrastructure is greater in high-income countries



4.1.1. CONVENTIONAL SOURCES NON-COMMERCIAL SOURCES firewood waste agricultural dried dung COMMERCIAL SOURCES ELECTRICITY coal petroleum

4.1.2. NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES solar wind tidal

4.2. Consumption Pattern of Commercial Energy

4.2.1. Commercial energy consumption makes up about 74 per cent of the total energy consumed in India.

4.2.2. coal - 54%

4.2.3. oil - 32%

4.2.4. natural gas - 10%

4.2.5. hydro electricity - 2%

4.2.6. Non-commercial energy sources consisting of firewood, cow dung and agricultural wastes account for over 26 per cent of the total energy consumption


5.1. Electricity is not consumed entirely by ultimate consumers; a part is consumed by power station auxiliaries. While transmitting power, a portion is lost in transmission

5.2. India’s installed capacity to generate electricity is not sufficient to feed an annual economic growth of 7-8 per cent.

5.3. State Electricity Boards (SEBs), incur losses which exceed Rs 500 billion.

5.4. private sector power and foreign investors generators are yet to play their role in a major way

5.5. there is general public unrest due to high power tariffs and prolonged power cuts and shortage of raw material and coal supplies.


6.1. The Union Government evolves broad policies and plans through the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare. It collects information and renders financial and technical assistance to state governments, union territories and other bodies for implementation of important health programmes in the country.

6.2. At the village level, a variety of hospitals technically known as Primary and community Health Centers (PHCs and CHCs). Auxiliary Nursing Midwife (ANM) is the first person who provides primary healthcare in rural areas

6.3. India also has a large number of hospitals run by voluntary agencies and the private sector

6.4. In recent times, private sector has been playing a dominant role in medical education and training, medical technology and diagnostics, manufacture and sale of pharmaceuticals, hospital construction and the provision of medical services.

6.5. The PHCs located in rural areas do not offer even X-ray or blood testing facilities which, for a city dweller, constitutes basic healthcare. States like Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh are relatively lagging behind in health care facilities

7. Indian Systems of Medicine (ISM)

7.1. Ayurveda,

7.2. Yoga,

7.3. Naturopathy

7.4. Unani

7.5. Siddha

7.6. Homeopathy (AYUSH)


8.1. Infrastructure, both economic and social, is essential for the development of a country.

8.2. In the last six decades of independence, India has made considerable progress in building infrastructure, nevertheless, its distribution is uneven

8.3. As India moves towards modernisation, the increase in demand for quality infrastrucutre, keeping in view their environmental impact, will have to be addressed. The reform policies by providing various concessions and incentives, aim at attracting the private sector in general and foreign investors in particular