History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cuneiform and the Sumerians

1.1. Sumer is where cuneiform was created

1.1.1. It was created to help keep track of business transactions

1.2. Cuneiform

1.2.1. Used wedge shaped stylus made from reeds to make impressions into the clay surface

2. Cave Paintings

2.1. Beautiful, detailed and colorful representations found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

2.1.1. Cave Paintings

2.1.1.1. Most famous cave painting site - Lascaux

2.2. First form of communications with images and symbols

3. Hieroglyphics and the Egyptians 6th century BC

3.1. Formal writing system that contained a combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

3.1.1. Rosetta Stone

3.1.1.1. Slab with three different languages written on it

3.1.1.2. Jean Francois Champoillion deciphered the hieroglyphics

4. Creation of Phonetic Alphabet

4.1. Origin- ties with cuneiform or an independent creation; direct variation of hieroglyphics

4.1.1. phonetic alphabet

4.1.1.1. Disintegrated class divisions between royalty and the common man

4.1.1.2. Serifs, baselines, and descenders

5. The Codex and Illuminated Manuscript

5.1. Codex-covered and bounded collection of handwritten pages

5.1.1. codex

5.1.1.1. compact, sturdy, and easy to use as a reference

5.2. Illuminated manuscript- each page of text had elaborate illustrations and ornamentation

5.2.1. manuscript

5.2.1.1. various armies invaded Europe and destroyed churches where the illuminated manuscripts were kept

5.3. Dark Ages decreased the number of books made

6. The Gutenberg Press

6.1. Printing Press

6.1.1. Made letters that stamped onto paper instead of writing it

6.1.1.1. Gutenberg created his moveable type out of lead, tin and antimony

6.1.2. Gutenberg Press impacts comminication

6.1.2.1. More than 9 million books were printed

6.1.2.2. Economy got better

6.1.2.3. The Boston Newsletter

6.1.3. Relief printing

6.1.4. Intaglio

6.1.5. Porous

6.1.6. Lithography

7. The Linotype Machine

7.1. Linotype Machine

7.1.1. First Linotype Machine was installed in the New York Tribute

7.1.2. Allowed type to be set mechanically rather than by hand

7.1.3. black keys-lowercase

7.1.4. white keys-uppercase

7.1.5. blue keys- punctuation, digits,small capital letters and fixed with spaces

7.2. Christopher Sholes invented the only typewriter that became commercially successful

8. Photography

8.1. camera obscura

8.1.1. optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.2. Joseph Niepce created the first successful photograph

8.3. Calotype Process

8.3.1. William Fox Talbot - the subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a paper negative

8.4. Dry Process - Richard Maddox

8.4.1. Dry plate process - used gelatin for the negatives

8.5. Instant Photography - Invented by Edwin Land; one step process for developing and printing photographs

9. History of Photography

9.1. UNIVAC

9.1.1. first commercial computer designed by John Preseper Eckert and John Mauchly

9.2. IBM

9.2.1. international business machines; developed the IBM 701 EOPM

9.2.2. developed the floppy disk

9.3. Douglas Engelbart created the computer mouse

9.4. Intel created the first single chip processor

9.5. Apple introduced the Apple Lisa in 1983 and the Apple Macintosh in 1984