History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cuneiform

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. Where Cuneiform was created

1.1.2. Theocratic culture ruled by priest king

1.1.3. Skilled artisans

1.1.4. Music was important

1.2. Created to keep track of business transactions

1.3. Written on clay tablets

1.3.1. Used a wedge shaped stylus

1.3.2. Series of pictographs

2. Printing Press

2.1. Johannes Gutenberg

2.1.1. Introduced modern book printing

2.1.2. Father was a merchant and goldsmith

2.1.3. Created oil based ink

2.2. Developed from technology of the screw type for pressing wine grapes and olive seeds

2.2.1. Movable type System of printing that uses movable components of a document

2.3. China

2.3.1. First movable type system devolved here

2.3.2. Paper created here Ts'ai Lun

2.4. 4 Major Printing Processes Used Today

2.4.1. Relief Printing

2.4.2. Intaglio

2.4.3. Porous

2.4.4. Lithography

2.5. Impacts on Communication

2.5.1. Perfected script and made it easier to read

2.5.2. Books were made faster

2.5.3. Current information could be shared locally and around the world

2.5.4. Cost of books decreased allowing more people to buy them

2.5.5. Demand grew; population became more literate

2.5.6. Readers wanted books written in their own language and a greater variety

2.5.7. Book trade began to flourish as well as industries such as paper making

2.5.8. Economies became stronger with more art and science which lead to the Renaissance

2.6. Caxton

2.6.1. First book in English

2.7. The Boston Newsletter

2.7.1. First American news weekly

2.7.2. John Campbell

2.8. John Fust invested in inventions

2.8.1. If Gutenberg didn't repay Fust with interest in 5 years Fust got the press tools and materials

2.8.2. Took credit for first book to be printed along with Schoeffer Bible was first book to be printed Schoeffer was Gutenberg's assistant Schoeffer admitted it was Gutenberg later

3. Photography

3.1. Camera obscura

3.1.1. 4th century- A way to observe light

3.1.2. An optical device that projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen

3.1.3. 1500s- A darkened room with a convex lens inserted into one wall

3.2. Photographic Processes

3.2.1. Dagurreotype Louis Daguerre Exposed a light sensitive metal sheet which created a direct positive image

3.2.2. Calotype William Fox Talbot The subject was exposed onto a light sensitive paper producing a negative image Basis of modern photography because from the negative unlimited duplicates could be made

3.2.3. Wet Collodion Process (Wet Plate Process) Archer Glass plates were used for the negative. Plates were coated with collodion. Dark rooms had to be portable

3.2.4. Dry Plate Process Richard Maddox Dry plates were coated with gelatin, a colorless water soluble glutinous protein from animal tissue

3.3. Eastman

3.3.1. Roll Film

3.3.2. "You press the button we do the rest"

3.3.3. Eastman Kodak Company

3.3.4. The Brownie

3.4. James Clerk Maxwell

3.4.1. First color photograph

3.5. Edwin Land

3.5.1. Instant photogrpahy

3.6. Muybridge

3.6.1. Paved the way for motion picture photogrpahy

3.6.2. Zoopraxiscope Device used to project a series of images in successive phases of motion

4. Computers

4.1. Mark Series

4.1.1. Howard Alken

4.1.2. Grace Hooper

4.1.3. Created for navy gunnery and bullistic calculations

4.2. Univac

4.2.1. John Preseper

4.2.2. John Maucly

4.2.3. Universal Automatic Computer

4.3. IBM

4.3.1. International Business Machines

4.3.2. IBM 701 EOPM Computer

4.3.3. Fortan IBM mathematical formula translating sysem

4.3.4. Floppy disk First memory disk

4.4. Mouse

4.4.1. Douglas Engelbart

4.4.2. Named because it had a tail

4.4.3. Interactive pointer on screen

4.5. Arpanet

4.5.1. First internet

4.5.2. Developed to protect the flow of information between military installations by creating a network of geographically separated computers

4.6. Intel 4004

4.6.1. First single microchip processor

4.7. Ethernet

4.7.1. Robert Metcalfe

4.7.2. Xerox

4.8. MS-DOS

4.8.1. Bill Gates

4.8.2. Computer operating system

4.9. PC

4.9.1. Personal Computer

4.10. Apple

4.10.1. Apple Macintosh Computer Windows operating system was Bill Gates' response

4.10.2. Apple Lisa First computer with a GUI GUI developed by Xerox

5. Cave Paintings

5.1. A beautiful detailed and colorful representation found on the inside of cave walls and ceilings

5.1.1. Lascaux France Closed because carbon dioxide from tourists was damaging paintings

5.1.2. Altamira Spain Discovered by Marcelino Sanz de Sautuola and his daughter Maria

5.1.3. Chauvet Pont d'arc Oldest known cave painting site Discovered by Eliette Brunell, Christian Hillarie, and Jean Marie Chauvet

5.2. Common themes

5.2.1. Large animals

5.2.2. Human hand tracings

5.2.3. Abstract patterns

6. Hieroglyphics

6.1. Created in Egypt

6.2. Combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

6.2.1. Logograms are visual symbols representing objects or elements

6.3. Information about religion and government

6.4. Scribes

6.4.1. Military leaders Communicate in battles

6.4.2. Priests Walls of temples decorated Read and write instructions on the walls and papyrus for rituals Papyrus

6.5. Rosetta Stone

6.5.1. A slab with inscriptions on it Deciphered by Jean Francois Champollion

6.5.2. 3 Lannguages Egyptian Hieroglyphics Demotic Greek

7. Phonetic Alphabet

7.1. 3 theories of origin

7.1.1. Direct variation of heiroglyphics

7.1.2. Ties with cuneiform

7.1.3. Independent creation

7.2. One sign represents one spoken sound

7.2.1. Letters start with constants

7.3. Long term effects

7.3.1. First widespread script

7.3.2. Used in multiple languages

8. The Books

8.1. Scrolls

8.1.1. Constructed Separate sheets glued together at edges Long continuous pieces of papyrus

8.1.2. Rolled Simply rolled up Wooden rollers at each end

8.1.3. Only allowed sequential use

8.2. Codex

8.2.1. Cover and bound collection of handwritten pages

8.2.2. Advantages Compact Sturdy Ease of reference

8.2.3. Adopted by Christianity Used for bibles and scriptures Monastic monks became scribes of church

8.3. Parchment

8.3.1. Substrate made form animal skins

8.3.2. Made from animal skin, hair, and fat removed and skin smoothed out. The hide was soaked in water. Calcium flour and salt were added.

8.3.3. Vellum is finer quality parchment

8.3.4. Replaced papyrus

8.4. Illuminated manuscript

8.4.1. Borders illustrations and ornamentation added to each page of text

8.4.2. Reserved for religious texts

8.4.3. Declined after printing press

9. Linotype Machine

9.1. Clephane

9.1.1. An easier way to transcribe and copy his notes

9.1.2. Christopher Scholes Only commercially successful typewriter

9.1.3. Ottmar Mergenthaler Casting the type from a metal matrix

9.2. Set mechanically rather than by hand

9.3. Name from fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once

9.4. New York Tribune had first one

9.5. Linotype Keyboard

9.5.1. 90 Characters

9.5.2. No Shift Key

9.5.3. Arrangement corresponded to letter frequency with more used letters on the left

9.5.4. Black keys were lowercase

9.5.5. White keys were uppercase

9.5.6. Blue keys were punctuation, digits, and small capital letters with fixed width spaces