History of Visual Communications

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History of Visual Communications by Mind Map: History of Visual Communications

1. Cuneiform and the Sumerians

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. settled in fertile region by many bodies of water

1.1.2. Akkadians invaded Sumer but kept Cuneiform

1.2. The world's first language

1.2.1. Created to keep track of business transactions

1.2.2. Cuneiform began as a series of pictographs

1.2.3. Cuneiform evolved into a wedge shape language

1.3. became more abstract and the number of characters grew over time

2. Hieroglyphics

2.1. A combination of logographic and alphabetic elements

2.2. Papyrus

2.2.1. Placed in a criss cross pattern, and flattened and dried until smooth

2.2.2. used to write on

2.3. Rosetta Stone

2.3.1. Deciphered by Jean Francois Champillion

2.3.2. Demotic, Greek, and Egyptian Heiroglyphics

2.3.3. now resides in the British Museum

2.3.4. Used to help decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics

2.4. Egyptians thought it was important to communicate information about religion and government

2.5. Books of the Dead were scrolls with written instructions made to help Pharaohs find their way to the afterlife

3. Phonetic Alphabet

3.1. origin

3.1.1. independent creation

3.1.2. ties with cuneiform

3.1.3. direct variation of hieroglyphics

3.2. one sign represents one spoken sound

3.3. alphabet success

3.3.1. It was very simple Many languages were able to use it Simplicity helped disintegrate class divisions

3.3.2. first widespread phonetic script

3.3.3. Merchants spread the use of the alphabet through trading

3.4. Serifs

3.4.1. were finishing off strokes

3.4.2. Stonesman added hooks to letter tips to keep the chisel from slipping, helping increase the legibility of letter form.

3.5. Baseline

3.5.1. line upon which all letters sat

3.5.2. descender area extending under the baseline

4. The Linotype Machine

4.1. Newspapers

4.1.1. Fits installed at New York Tribune

4.1.2. Had a keyboard Organized by letter frequency The left side had black, lowercase keys, the right side had white, uppercase keys, and the middle had blue punctuation and digits.

4.1.3. It was possible for a small number of operators to set type for more pages on a daily basis

4.2. Allowed text to be set mechanically

4.2.1. It produces an entire line of metal type at once

4.2.2. Matrices were used as molds for the letter forms

4.2.3. It was a slug because the assembled line of type was cast as a single piece

4.3. New node

4.4. James O. Clephane

4.4.1. He wanted and easier way to transcribe notes and make copies

4.4.2. Tested Christopher Sholes typewriter

4.4.3. Clephane and Sholes got help from Ottmar Mergenthaler, who suggested type from metal matrix versus paper-mache

5. Cave Paintings

5.1. Are detailed and colorful representations found on cave walls

5.1.1. usually of large animals, such as bison

5.2. Cave Sites

5.2.1. Lascaux Most famous cave painting site closed due to carbon dioxide emitted by tourists

5.2.2. Altamira Cave

5.2.3. Chauvet Pont d'Arc

5.3. Why were they created?

5.3.1. to tell stories or reaccount events

5.3.2. as a visual, instructional aid for hunting techniques

5.3.3. for religious or magical reasons

5.4. Paint

5.4.1. water

5.4.2. animal blood

5.4.3. soil and charcoal

5.5. Brushes

5.5.1. stones

5.5.2. leaves

5.5.3. animal hair

6. The Books

6.1. Illuminated Manuscript

6.1.1. A manuscript written by hand adorned with elaborate illustrations and ornamentations

6.1.2. They were reserved for religious texts because they're so laborous

6.1.3. natural quills made from geese or crow feathers

6.2. Codex

6.2.1. A covered and bound collection of handwritten pages

6.2.2. Advantages Compact, sturdy, and durable ease of reference was portable and had random access

6.3. Scrolls

6.3.1. constructed with a long piece of papyrus or many glued together

6.3.2. can be simply rolled or rolled with wooden rollers

6.3.3. sequential use

7. The Gutenberg Press

7.1. Johannes Gutenberg

7.1.1. Motivated by love for reading

7.1.2. Dad was a trader

7.1.3. developed oil-based ink

7.1.4. John Fust invested in him Sued Gutenberg and got credit for press

7.2. Was a hand press in which ink was rolled over the raised surface of movable handset letters held within a wooden frame

7.2.1. Developed from screw-type for pressing grapes and olive seeds

7.2.2. Metal type Created by an alloy of lead, tin, and atimony that was melted at low temperatures cast well in dyes More durable and quickly made than wooden movable print

7.2.3. Impacts on Communication Easier to read and books were produced faster Info could be shared around the world Population became more literate Books were written in your own language Books cost less and it improved economies Book tade flourished

7.3. first movable print

7.3.1. China also developed paper (Ts'ai Lun)

7.3.2. Wooden not durable

7.4. Modern Day Processes

7.4.1. Relief Printing

7.4.2. Intaglio

7.4.3. Porous

7.4.4. Lithography

8. Photography

8.1. Camera Obscura

8.1.1. used by philosophers and scholars to observe light

8.1.2. It was an optical device that project an image of its surroundings onto a screen

8.1.3. Started as a room with a convex lens as a wall

8.1.4. Shrunk to a portable box in 17th and 18th century

8.2. Photographic Processes

8.2.1. Daquerrotype Louis Daquerre Exposed a light-sensitive metal sheet to create a direct positive image First Practical photographic process

8.2.2. Calotype Process William Fox Talbot The subject was exposed onto a light-sensitive paper producing a paper negative unlimited number of duplicates

8.2.3. Collodion/ Wet Plate Process Glass plates used as negative couple seconds

8.2.4. Dry Plate Process Richard Maddox Glass Plates were coated with gelatin

8.3. Eastman

8.3.1. Invented roll film, which was flexible and sped up the process of recording multiple images

8.3.2. Started Kodak

8.3.3. Brownie in 1900 to introduce camera to the masses

8.4. Instant photography

8.4.1. Edwin land

8.4.2. One step process for developing and printing

8.5. Random

8.5.1. Color Photography invented by James Clerk Maxwell

8.5.2. Zoopraxiscope projected a series of images in successive phases of motion

9. Computers

9.1. Inventions

9.1.1. First freely programmable computer Konrad Zuse

9.1.2. Mark Series Howard Aiken and Grace Hopper Used by navy for gunnery and ballistic calculations

9.1.3. Univac First commercial computer John Preseper Echert and John Mauchly

9.1.4. Arpanet First internet developed to protect flow of info between military installations

9.1.5. Computer Mouse Douglas Englebart

9.1.6. Intel 4004 Single chip microprocessor produced by Intel

9.1.7. First video game Spacewar

9.2. IBM

9.2.1. Invented floppy disk, a memory disk

9.2.2. Personal Computers

9.3. Apple

9.3.1. Apple Lisa 1983 Had graphic user interface developed by Xerox

9.3.2. MacIntosh

9.4. Bill Gates

9.4.1. MS-DOS

9.4.2. A computer operating system which was packaged with the IBM PC

9.4.3. Windows