Chp 3: Structure of Matter

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Chp 3: Structure of Matter by Mind Map: Chp 3: Structure of Matter

1. Ionization

1.1. Removal or addition of an e-

1.2. Ionization Potential

1.2.1. 34 eV to ionize tissue atoms

2. Periodic Table

2.1. Groups = column

2.1.1. each group has a similar chemical reaction

2.1.2. same # of electrons in outermost shell

2.1.2.1. ex: Al is in 3rd group = 3 electrons in outershell

2.2. Period = Rows

2.2.1. # of electron shell

2.2.1.1. ex: Al is in 3rd period = M shell

3. Bohr's Model

3.1. electrons orbit at energy levels

3.2. better model is quantum chromodynamics

3.3. dense nucleus, surrounded by electrons

4. Fundamental Particles

4.1. Nucleons

4.1.1. Protons (+)

4.1.1.1. Both have 2000x mass of e-

4.1.2. Neutrons (no charge)

4.1.2.1. Both have atomic mass # = 1

4.2. Electrons (-)

5. Neutrons

5.1. Typically, there are more N than P

6. Atomic Structure

6.1. Mostly empty space

6.2. Most of Mass contained in Nucleus

6.3. Electron orbit are grouped into shells

6.3.1. Determines atoms chemical reaction

6.3.1.1. represent different Electron Binding energies

6.3.1.1.1. 7 shells, K - Q

6.3.1.1.2. Max e- per shell = 2n(squared), n = shell #

6.3.2. No outer shell can contain more than 8 e-

6.3.2.1. 8 = very chemically stable

7. Units to Know

7.1. Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)

7.1.1. Exact Mass of neutral atom

7.2. Atomic Mass Number (A)

7.2.1. # of protons and neutrons

7.3. Atomic Mass

7.3.1. Relative mass of an atom

7.3.1.1. determined by measurement

7.4. Atomic Number (Z)

7.4.1. # of protons

8. Protons

8.1. Determines chemical element

8.2. equal to # of Electonrs

9. Electrons

9.1. equal to # of protons

9.2. Electron Binding Energy (Eb)

9.2.1. Strength of attachment of e- to nucleus

9.2.2. Closer to nucleus = higher Eb

9.2.2.1. so K shell has most Eb

9.2.3. Determined by atom, higher the mass, higher the Eb

9.3. Kept in orbit by centripetal force (center-seeking force)

9.3.1. Centrifugal force (fly from center) balances it

10. Types of Atoms

10.1. Atom

10.1.1. Typical number of neutrons and proton, same #of electrons and protons, so no charge

10.2. Isotope

10.2.1. Same # of protons, but different of Neutrons

10.2.1.1. aka ,same Z, but different A

10.2.1.1.1. Still have the same chemical reaction

10.3. Isotones

10.3.1. Same number of neutrons, dif # of protons

10.4. Isomers

10.4.1. Same # of nucleons, but different nuclear energy state

10.5. Isobars

10.5.1. Same # of nucleons, but dif number of protons & neutrons

10.5.1.1. When radioactive elements decay, the daughter atom is a different element than the parent atom

10.6. Ionized

10.6.1. Atom with +/- an e-

10.6.1.1. has a charge

11. Molecules

11.1. formed by atoms of various elements

11.2. chemical compound

11.2.1. any quantity of one type of molecule

11.3. Chemical Bonding

11.3.1. Covalent bonds

11.3.1.1. Atoms of the molecule share electrons Ex: water (H2O)

11.3.2. Ionic Bonds

11.3.2.1. One atom gives up an e- to another atom Both end up with a net charge: 1 is + , one is – Since opposites attract, these two ionized atoms have an ionic bond Ex: Salt (NaCl)

12. Radioactivity

12.1. atoms in an abnormally excited state from unstable nucleus

12.2. Radioactive Disintergration or Radioactive decay

12.2.1. when an atom emits particles and energy to turn itself into another atom so it can be stable

12.2.2. Ex: Uranium  radium  radon

12.2.3. particles emitted

12.2.3.1. Alpha Particles

12.2.3.1.1. 2 protons and 2 neutrons bound together (4 units of mass) atoms must be very unstable to emit alpha

12.2.3.2. Beta Particles

12.2.3.2.1. electron from nucleus escapes atom, while neutron turns into proton

12.2.3.2.2. so, Z is increased, while A stays the same, but atom changes to dif element

12.2.3.2.3. Much more common than alpha

12.2.3.3. Gamma Rays

12.2.3.3.1. Most beta and alpha emissions result in these as well

12.3. Radionuclides

12.3.1. nuclei that undergo radioactive decay

12.4. Radioisotopes

12.4.1. Radioactive atoms w/same #of protons, changed by radioactive decay resulting in emission of ionizing radiation

12.5. Half-Life

12.5.1. Time it takes for the quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to ½ its original value Can take many thousands of years 1 Ci/Bq = 3.7 x 1010 atoms disintegrating per second

12.5.1.1. never quite reaches zero

13. Ionizing Radiation

13.1. Particulate Radiation

13.1.1. Alpha

13.1.1.1. high velocity, transfers energy to e- easily, but loses energy quickly, so short range

13.1.1.2. Only from heavy elements

13.1.1.3. Helium nucleus (2P, 2N), 2 positive charge

13.1.1.4. Nearly Harmless, because only reaches superficial tissue, except when it is inside body (lung)

13.1.2. Beta

13.1.2.1. Light particles, with (A) of 0 and only one +/- charge

13.1.2.2. an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom

13.1.2.3. range is longer than alpha (1-2 cm in tissue)

13.2. Electromagnetic Radiation

13.2.1. X-rays

13.2.1.1. produced from e- shells

13.2.2. Gamma Rays

13.2.2.1. emitted from nucleus

13.2.3. Photons

13.2.3.1. have no mass, no charge, travel at speed of light, energy disturbances in space.

13.2.3.2. unlimited range of matter

14. New node