Relevant issues and aspects dealt with the Translation studies.

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Relevant issues and aspects dealt with the Translation studies. by Mind Map: Relevant issues and aspects dealt with the Translation studies.

1. Translation Studies is a field of study that deals with the theory, description, and application of translation. Because it examines translation both as an interlingual transfer, and as an intercultural communication.

2. In the English-speaking world, this discipline is now known as 'translation studies', thanks to the efforts of James S. Holmes. Holmes describes the then nascent discipline as being concerned with 'the complex of problems clustered round the phenomenon of translating and translations'

3. Figure 1.1 Holmes’s ‘map’ of translation studies (from Toury 1995: 10) In Holmes’s explanations of this framework (Holmes 1988b/2004: 184–90),the objectives of the ‘pure’ areas of research are: (1) the description of the phenomena of translation; and (2) the establishment of general principles to explain and predict such phenomena (translation theory).

4. Translation Spreads Ideas and Information. It allows ideas and information to spread across cultures. In the process, translation changes history. Need some examples? Consider the following: 1-Arabic translators kept the ideas of ancient Greek philosophers alive throughout the Middle Ages. 2-The Bible has been translated into at least 531 languages. No matter what you believe, the impact on history is undeniable. 3-Translation is helping sports teams and organisations overcome language barriers and transcend international boundaries. 4-TEDTalks’ OpenTranslation project makes the talks understandable to people around the world.

5. The practice of translation was crucial for the early dissemination of key cultural and religious texts and concepts. In the west, the different ways of translating were discussed by, among others, Cicero and Horace (first century bce) and St Jerome (fourth century ce).In St Jerome’s case, his approach to translating the Gree Septuagint Bible into Latin would affect late translations of the Scriptures. Indeed, in western Europe the translation of th Bible was to be the battleground of conflictin ideologies for well over a thousand years and especially during the Reformation in the sixteenth century.

6. And brief history of the discipline

7. While the practice of translation is long established, the study of the field developed into an academic discipline only in the latter part o the twentieth century.from the late eighteenth century to the 1960s and beyond, language learning in secondary schools in many countries had come to be dominated by what was known as grammar-translation (Cook 2010: 9–15). Applied to Classical Latin and Greek and then to modern foreign languages, this centred on the rote study of the grammatical rules and structures of the foreign language.

8. Discipline, interdiscipline or multidiscipline?

9. By 2015, the global market for outsourced translation, interpreting and related technologies was estimated to exceed US$38 billion, while international organizations such as the European Union translate between 24 languages and spend some €456 million per year on translation an interpreting services.

10. For example, as of November 2015, 880,000 British small businesses were expected to expand overseas by 2025. It will be interesting to see how Brexit will affect those plans. But it’s unlikely that the need for translation services will suffer too much. As noted in the post on how Brexit might affect international packaging regulations, “International growth is still key to increased revenues and profitability and companies will always seek to trade with overseas markets. Products launched beyond home borders will still need to meet the relevant packaging and labelling standards …” And that means they’ll still need to be translated.

11. What is translation studies? Throughout history, written and spoken translations have played a crucial role in interhuman communication, not least in providing access t important texts for scholarship and religious purposes. As world trade has grown so has the importance of translation.

12. The discipline as we now know it owes much to the work of James S. Holmes, who proposed both a name and a structure for the field, but the context has now advanced. The interrelated branches of theoretical, descriptive and applied translation studies initially structured research. Over time the interdisciplinarity and specialization of the subject have become more evident and theories and models have continued to be imported from other disciplines but also forged from within translation studies itself.

13. A true interdiscipline is . . . not easily understood, funded or managed in a world already divided along disciplinary lines, despite the standard pieties . . . Rather it is an entity that exists in the interstices of the existing fields, dealing with some, many or all of them. It is the Phoenician trader among the settled nations. Its existence is enigmatic in such a world; the enigma challenges us to rethink how we organise and institutionalise knowledge. (McCarty 1999)

14. A notable characteristic of recent research has been its interdisciplinarity.we ended with a discussion of translation studies as a discipline, interdiscipline or sub-discipline, and saw the future in interdisciplinarity. We discussed the natur of interdisciplines, referring to Willard McCarty’s paper ‘Humanities computing as interdiscipline’ (1999),10 which gives the following description of the role of an interdiscipline in academic society:

15. The process of translation between two different written languages involves the changing of an original written text (the source text or ST) in the original verbal language (the source language or SL) into a written text (the target text or TT) in a different verbal language (the target language or TL): Source text (ST) ------------>Target text (TT) in source language (SL)-----------in target language (TL)

15.1. The traditional ST-TT configuration is the most prototypical of ‘interlingual translation’, one of the three categories of translation described by the Russo-American structuralist Roman Jakobson (1896–1982) Jakobson’s categories are as follows:

15.1.1. (1) intralingual translation, or ‘rewording’ – ‘an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language’ (2) interlingual translation, or ‘translation proper’ – ‘an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language’ (3) intersemiotic translation, or ‘transmutation’ – ‘an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems’. (Jakobson 1959/2012: 127)

16. There are four very visible ways in which translation studies has become more prominent. Unsurprisingly, these reflect a basic tension between the practical side of professional translating and the often more abstract research activity of the field.

17. Fourth, international organizations have also prospered. The Fédération Internationale des Traducteurs (International Federation of Translators, FIT) wa established in 1953 by the Société française des traducteurs and its president Pierre-Françoi Caillé (1907–79). It brought together national associations of translators.

18. Third, as the number of publications has increased so has the demand for general and analytical instruments such as anthologies, databases, encyclopedias, handbooks and introductory texts. Their number is ever-growing. Among these are Translation Studies (Bassnett 1980/1991/2002/2013), Contemporary Translation Theories (Gentzler 1993/2001), The Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies (Baker and Malmkjær 1998; Baker and Saldanha 2009).

19. First, just as the demand for translation has soared, so has there been a vast expansion in specialized translating and interpreting programmes at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. These programmes, which attract thousands of students, are mainly oriented towards training future professional commercial translators and interpreters and serve as highly valued entry-level qualifications for the professions.

20. Second, the past decades have also seen a proliferation of conferences, books and journals on translation in many languages. Longer-standing international translation studie journals such as Babel (the Netherlands) and Meta (Canada), first published in 1955, were joined by TTR (Traduction, terminologie, rédaction, Canada) in 1988, Target (the Netherlands) in 1989, Perspectives (Denmark) in 1993 and The Translator (UK) in 1995.

21. references: Why Translation is Important In A World Where English is Everywhere A great discussion about the relevance of translation when many around the world can speak English. Holmes, James S. (1988b/2004) ‘The name and nature of translation studies’, in Lawrence Venuti (ed.) (2004), The Translation Studies Reader, 2nd edition, London and New York: Routledge. Jakobson, Roman (1959/2012) ‘On linguistic aspects of translation’, in Lawrence Venuti (ed.) (2012), The Translation Studies Reader, 3rd edition, London and New York: Routledge.