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Cartilage and Joints by Mind Map: Cartilage and Joints
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Cartilage and Joints

Elastic Cartilage

-sec by chondrycytes -requires special elastic stain to visulize fibers (looks like hyaline cartilage in H&E stain) -random orientation of fibers


**whats the predominant fiber in elastic cartilage???**** -ground substance to fiber ratio

Ground substance

Cells (1 predom)

EC fibers (2), elastic fibers, Col II

Location (2)


Auricle (ear)

Function (2)

resilient force & lots of flexibility


LAB: Elastic Cartilage

dx char: presence of elastic fibers NOTE: in H&E stain it looks just like hyaline chartilage but look for the presenence of elastic fibers be able to identify: -perichondrium (see hyaline cartilage --> EC fibers ---> perichondrium) -chondrogenic layer -isogenic cells (see hyaline cartilage --> cells --> chondroblasts --> isogenic group)

H&E stain: how can you the difference bet elastic and hyaline cartilage???

Hyaline Cartilage

Hyaline Cartilage: -lrg, round, randomly scattered cells separated by lots of ECM (Dx of all cartilage) -avascular (Dx of hyaline cartilage) -surrounded by perichondrium (dense irreg CT), except at articular end of bone

Locations in body (5)

costal cartilage, costal cartilage

trachea, bronchi of lungs

larynx, nasal cartilage

articular cartilage in synovial joints, NO perichondrium surrounding it, articular cartilage in synovial joints

fetal skeleton

Functions of Hyaline Cartilage (4)

structural support

w/stand pressure


rapid growth

Composition (3)

-what is the ground substance to fiber ratio?

Cells (2), Chondrocytes, Chondrocytes pic, lacunae, Chondroblasts, Chondroblasts: isogenic/nest groups, interstitial growth

Ground Substance, Types of matrix (2), territorial/capsular matrix, territorial/capsular matrix pic, interterritorial matrix, Proteoglycans, proteoglycan subunit, aggrecan, proteoglycan aggregates, functions (3), Glycoproteins (2), Chondronectin, Chondronectin pic, Chondrocalcin, Chondrocalcin pic

EC Fibers, Col II, pericellular capsule

Development of Cartilage (3-4 steps)

1- mesenchymal cells condense to form pro cartilage2- chrondroblasts sec matrix3- cartilage formation (induced by low O2 levels when far from bv source)4-now is chondrocyte

Development of Cartilage

LAB: Hyaline Cartilage

what are the dx characteristic of cartilage?? what are the dx characteristic of hyaline cartilage?? be able to pick out : perichondrium (dense irregular CT that surrounds) *chondrogenic layer **** DOES CHONDROGENIC LAYER = PERICHONDRIUM???? *interterritoral and territorial layer *chondroblasts vs. chondrocytes

chondrocyte vs. chondroblasts & perichondrium

Dx characteristics


-lrg & round shape = dx characteristic -not much ground substance bc so much collagen fibers-always associated w/ dense CT ***make sure you can tell the difference bet fibrocartilage and dense reg CT like in tendons****

Lab: fibrocartilage

-lots of fibers running in diff directions how do you know this is not dense irreg CT??

fibrocartilage has lrg, round cells


*what is the predom fiber?*what is it sec by??*ground substance to fiber ratio

densely packed COL I


scant ground sub

Locations (3)

pubic symphysis

intervertebral discs (2), annulus fibrosis, nucleus pulposis, Herniated Disc

attachment bet tendon & bone, Fibrocartilage between tendon and bone

Functions (3)

cushion / abs impact

tough, resistant but not rigid

lots of 'give'



Functional (3), Synarthroses, Amphiarthroses, Diarthroses, pneomic, SAD Arthur giving roses

Structural (3), Fibrous (3), Sutures, midsaggital suture, Syndesmoses, interosseous ligament, Gomphoses, Periodontal ligament, Cartilagenous (2), Synchrondoses, Epiphyseal plates, Costal Cartilage, Symphyses, pubic symphysis, intervertebral disc, Synovial, Parts of Synovial Joint (5), synovial cavity, articular cartilage, function, Structure: Zones/Layers (3), Surface cartilage, calcified cartilage layer, subchondral bone, articular cartilage zones, articular capsule, synovial membrane, synovial fluid (3), Synovial Joint pic, Types of Synovial Joints (6), Gliding, interphangeal joints, Hinge, elbow joint, Pivot, proximal radial ulnar, atlantoaxial joints, Ellipsoid, radiocarpal joints, saddle, carpal-metacarpal joint of thumb, Ball&socket, shoulder & hip joints


-difficult bc limited nut support to joint-fractured joint does NOT undergo mitosis

chondroprogenitor cells, punch hold from subchondral bone

continuous movement, stimules cartilage formation

repair tissue = fibrocartilage

Diseases (2)

Osteoarthritis, noninflammatory progressive degeneration, affects synovial joints, fibrillation of articular cartilage, proliferation of cartilage at periphery, replacement of cartilage spur with bone tissue

Rheumatoid Arthritis, inflammatory autoimmune, thickened synovial membrane, pannus of tissue erodes away cartilage, bone fuses across joint

Joints LAB

any joints in lab???