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Nervous system by Mind Map: Nervous system

1. Central NS

1.1. Composed of:

1.1.1. Spinal cord

1.1.1.1. outside: white matter; inside: gray matter

1.1.2. Brain

1.1.2.1. cerebrum

1.1.2.2. cerebellum

1.1.2.3. meninges

1.1.2.4. outside: gray matter; inside: white matter

1.1.2.5. cerebral cortex

1.1.2.5.1. 6 poorly defined layers

1.1.2.5.2. pyramidal neurons (most abundant)

1.2. organization of the CNS

1.2.1. organs

1.2.1.1. cerebrum

1.2.1.2. Cerebellum

1.2.1.2.1. 3 layers of gray matter

1.2.1.2.2. note: white matter is in the inside

1.2.1.3. brainstem

1.2.1.4. spinal cord

1.2.2. regions within organs

1.2.2.1. gray matter

1.2.2.1.1. contains

1.2.2.2. white matter

1.2.2.2.1. contains

1.2.3. meninges

1.2.3.1. connective tissue covering

1.2.3.1.1. brain and spinal cord

1.2.3.2. 3 layers

1.2.3.2.1. dura mater

1.2.3.2.2. arachnoid

1.2.3.2.3. Pia mater

1.3. other information

1.3.1. blood brain barrier

1.3.1.1. prevents passage of drugs and toxins (from blood to tissues)

1.3.1.2. capillaries in the brain are less permeable than the rest of the capillaries

1.3.1.2.1. brain capillaries have tight junctions between endothelial cells

1.3.1.2.2. astrocyte foot processes surround capillaries and form part of the barrier

2. Peripheral NS

2.1. note: Has motor and sensory components

2.2. includes:

2.2.1. Peripheral nerves

2.2.2. Nerve ganglia

2.2.2.1. groups of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS

2.3. components

2.3.1. nerves

2.3.1.1. axons + glial cells (Schwann cells) + connective tissue

2.3.1.1.1. nerve fibers groups:

2.3.2. ganglia

2.3.2.1. collection of neuron cell bodies

2.3.3. specialized nerve endings

2.3.3.1. with special tasks

3. two main cells (Nerve tissue)

3.1. Neurons (nerve cells)

3.1.1. Neuron cell body: large pale nucleus, nucleolus and nissl substance

3.1.1.1. cell membrane

3.1.1.2. 1 axon per neuron

3.1.1.2.1. characteristics:

3.1.1.2.2. arise from the Axon hillock (pyramid shape)

3.1.1.2.3. cytoplasmic content of Axon

3.1.1.3. neurofilaments (intermediate filaments)

3.1.1.3.1. support structure of the neuron

3.1.1.4. Dendrites

3.1.1.4.1. for signal reception

3.1.1.4.2. Processing sites of neurons

3.1.1.4.3. with dendritic spines

3.1.1.5. Other information: Neuron synapses

3.1.1.5.1. Presynaptic axon terminal (terminal bouton)

3.1.1.5.2. Synaptic cleft

3.1.1.5.3. Postsynaptic structure

3.1.1.6. Add on informaiton

3.1.1.6.1. Neuropil

3.1.1.6.2. nodes of ranvier

3.2. Glial cells

3.2.1. types

3.2.1.1. Schwann cells

3.2.1.1.1. location

3.2.1.1.2. function

3.2.1.1.3. descriptions

3.2.1.2. Oligodendrocytes

3.2.1.2.1. location

3.2.1.2.2. function

3.2.1.3. Ependymal cells

3.2.1.3.1. location

3.2.1.3.2. function

3.2.1.3.3. descriptions

3.2.1.4. Microglia

3.2.1.4.1. location

3.2.1.4.2. function

3.2.1.4.3. descriptions

3.2.1.5. Astrocytes

3.2.1.5.1. location

3.2.1.5.2. functions

3.2.1.5.3. descriptions

3.2.2. characteristics

3.2.2.1. 10x more abundant than neurons in the brain

3.2.3. function: support and protect the neuron