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2: Tissue Renewal and Repair by Mind Map: 2: Tissue Renewal and Repair
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2: Tissue Renewal and Repair

Repair

the restoration of tissue architecture and function after and injury. The inflammatory response serves to eliminate injurious agents and initiates the process of repair. So repair comes after intimation

Regeneration

damaged tissue are replaced by component cells and return to normal state (only labile and stable cells)

Labil cells, bone marrow hemopoietic cells, skin epidermis, Gi epithelial cells

Stable cells, hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, pancreatic acinar cells, adrenal cortical cells

Fibrosis (CT repair)

When?, Extensive structural damage (framework damaged), Permanent cells, myocardial muscle cells, skeletal muscle cells, ganglion cells (neurones)

Components, angiogenesis, migration and proliferation of fibroblasts (granulation tissue formation), endothelial cells are most common here, deposition of ECM, collagen synthesis (scar formation), connective tissue remodelling

Control of cell proliferation, balance between:, fibrogenic agent, transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, Metallopoteinases

functions of ECM, mechanical support of cells, control of cell growth, maintenance of cell differentiation, scaffolding for tissue renewal (basement membrane for liver cells)

cell proliferation, cell cycle and stem cells

cell cycle is regulated by cyclins

labile cells contain stem cells that differentiate to replace lost cells, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, adult stem cells are multi potent

Cutanious wound healing

phases

inflammation

granulation tissue

ECM deposition and remodelling

wound contraction (in large wounds)

Types

First intention (clean surgical wound), few epithelial cells and focal basement damage, epithelial regeneration predominates, small scar and minimal wound contraction

Second intention, extensive tissue loss, large scar and wound contraction by myofibroblasts, more intense inflammation and granulation tissue, examples, abscess, ulceration, infarction in parenchymal organs, large wounds

Wound strength

After surgery: 70% of strength of unwounded skin (because of sutures)

after removing sutures (by one week) only 10% strength

strength increases rapidly over 4 weeks with collagen synthesis

after 3 months 70-80%

Pathologic aspects of repair & factors reducing adequate healing

Infection

prolongs the inflammatory phase

increases local tissue injury

Nutrition

Vitamin C deficiency -> inhibits collagen synthesis

Glucocorticoids --> anti inflammatory effect

mechanical pressure causing the wound to pull apart

poor perfusion (blood supply)

diabetes

atherosclerosis

foreign bodies

glass

bone fragments

type of injured tissue, location, & extent of injury

abnormalities of cell growth and ECM production

excessive collagen accumulation

Keloids (raised scars)