6: Introduction to head and neck

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6: Introduction to head and neck by Mind Map: 6: Introduction to head and neck

1. Orbits

1.1. Eyelids

1.2. lacrimal apparatus

1.3. The extraocular muscles

1.3.1. Innervation

1.3.1.1. oculomotor nerve

1.3.1.2. abducent nerve

1.3.1.3. trochlear nerve

1.3.2. two obliques

1.3.2.1. superior

1.3.2.1.1. origine: posterior wall of the orbital cavity

1.3.2.1.2. insertion: superior wall of the eyeball

1.3.2.2. inferior

1.3.2.2.1. origine: floor of the orbit

1.3.2.2.2. insertion: lateral wall of the eyeball

1.3.3. four recti

1.3.3.1. origine: tendinous ring on the posterior wall of the orbital cavity

1.3.3.2. rectus superior

1.3.3.3. rectus inferior

1.3.3.4. rectus medial

1.3.3.5. rectus lateral

1.3.3.6. insertion: superior, inferior, lateral, medial walls of the eyeball respectively

1.4. orbital facia

1.5. conjunctiva

1.6. orbital fat

2. Pharynx

2.1. nasopharyx

2.1.1. has opening of auditory tube and adenoid

2.2. oropharynx

2.2.1. has the palatine tonsils

2.3. laryngopharynx

2.3.1. has the piriform fossa

3. Larynx

3.1. paired cartilages

3.1.1. arytenoid

3.1.2. corniculate

3.1.3. cuneiform

3.2. unpaired cartilages

3.2.1. thyroid

3.2.2. cridoid

3.2.3. epiglottis

3.3. cavity of the larynx

3.3.1. from inlet to lower part of cricoid

3.3.2. 3 parts

3.3.2.1. vestibule of the larynx

3.3.2.2. middle part of the larynx

3.3.2.2.1. from vestibular folds to the vocal folds

3.3.2.3. lower part of the larynx

4. Triangles of the neck

4.1. divided by sternocledomastoid

4.2. anterior triangle

4.3. posterior triangle

5. blood supply

5.1. common carotid artery

5.1.1. internal carotid

5.1.2. external carotid

5.1.2.1. superior thyroid

5.1.2.2. ascending pharyngeal

5.1.2.3. lingual

5.1.2.4. facial

5.1.2.5. occipital

5.1.2.6. posterior auricular

5.1.2.7. superficial temporal

5.1.2.8. maxillary

5.2. veins

5.2.1. anterior jugular

5.2.2. external jugular

5.2.2.1. posterior auricular

5.2.2.2. superficial temporal

5.2.2.3. maxillary

5.2.2.4. retromendibular

5.2.2.5. posterior external jugular

5.2.2.6. transverse cervical

5.2.3. internal jugular

5.2.3.1. lingual

5.2.3.2. facial

5.2.3.3. superior thyroid

5.2.3.4. pharyngeal

5.2.4. New node

6. Innervation

6.1. cranial nerves mainly

6.2. sympathetic trunk (vasomotor mainly)

6.3. cervical plexus (C1-C4)

7. The ear

7.1. external ear

7.1.1. auricle

7.1.1.1. helix

7.1.1.2. lobule

7.1.1.3. concha

7.1.1.4. tragus

7.1.2. external auditory meatus

7.1.2.1. outer third id cartilaginous

7.1.2.2. medial two thirds are boney

7.1.2.3. has hair, sebaceous, and ceruminous glands

7.1.3. innervated by auriculotemporal and vagus nerves

7.2. middle ear (tympanic cavity)

7.2.1. Roof

7.2.1.1. tegmen typnai (tegmental wall)

7.2.2. floor

7.2.2.1. jugular floor

7.2.3. lateral

7.2.3.1. membranous wall

7.2.4. medial

7.2.4.1. labyrinthine

7.2.5. anterior

7.2.5.1. carotid wall

7.2.6. auditory tube leads to nasopharynx

7.2.7. Auditory ossicles

7.2.8. muscles of the ear

7.3. inner ear

7.3.1. bony labyrinth

7.3.1.1. vestibule

7.3.1.2. semicircular canals

7.3.1.3. cochlea

7.3.2. membranous labyrinth

7.3.2.1. utricle

7.3.2.2. saccule

7.3.2.3. semicircular ducts

7.3.2.4. ducts of cochlea

8. Head and neck skeleton

8.1. skull (28)

8.1.1. cranial (8)

8.1.1.1. 1 frontal

8.1.1.2. 2 parietal

8.1.1.3. 1 occipital

8.1.1.4. 2 temporal

8.1.1.4.1. petrous portion

8.1.1.5. 1 sphenoid

8.1.1.6. 1 ethmoid

8.1.2. facial (14)

8.1.2.1. 2 zygomatic

8.1.2.2. 2 maxillae

8.1.2.3. 2 nasal

8.1.2.4. 2 lacrimal

8.1.2.5. 1 vomer

8.1.2.6. 2 palatine

8.1.2.7. 2 inferior conchae

8.1.2.8. 1 mandible

8.2. cervical vertebrae (7)

8.2.1. transverse foramen

8.2.2. atypical c1 (atlas), c2 (axis), and c7

8.2.2.1. Atlas C1

8.2.2.1.1. ring of bone

8.2.2.1.2. lacking a spinous process or body

8.2.2.1.3. has superior facets for occipital condyles

8.2.2.2. Axis C2

8.2.2.2.1. has "Dens" or "odontoid process"

8.2.2.2.2. has bifid spinous process

8.2.2.2.3. pivotal movement at atlanto-axial joint (No, rotation)

8.2.2.3. C7 (vertebra prominens)

8.2.2.3.1. has long (not bifid) spinous process

8.2.2.3.2. small transverse foramen for vein only

8.2.3. typical c3,c4,c5,c6

8.2.3.1. small rectangular bodies

8.2.3.2. large and triangular vertebral foramen

8.2.3.3. short transverse processes with foramen

8.2.3.4. short and bifid spinous process

8.2.3.5. superior and inferior articular facet

8.3. Hyoid bone

8.3.1. slender, curved bone

8.3.2. located inferior to the skull (between mandible and larynx)

8.3.3. dose not articulate with any other bone

8.3.4. suspended by stylohyiod ligaments

8.3.5. consists of

8.3.5.1. body

8.3.5.2. greater horns

8.3.5.3. lesser horns

8.3.6. it's the base for attachment of muscles and ligaments of the tongue and larynx

9. scalp

9.1. hairy soft tissue covering the cranial vault

9.2. from supraorbital margin to external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal line posteriorly

9.3. on each side extends to superior temporal line

9.4. 5 layers (SCALP

9.4.1. Skin

9.4.2. Connective tissue (superficial facia)

9.4.3. Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)

9.4.4. Loose areolar CT

9.4.5. Pericranium

10. Face

10.1. boundaries

10.1.1. superiorly: the hair line

10.1.2. inferiorly: chin and base of mandible

10.1.3. on each side: auricle

10.2. remember

10.2.1. forehead is common to scalp & face

10.2.2. shape is determined by underlying bones

10.2.3. No deep facia in the face

11. Oral cavity

11.1. 2 parts

11.1.1. oral cavity proper

11.1.2. vestibule

11.2. contents

11.2.1. alveolar processes and teeth

11.2.2. anterior 2/3 of the tongue

11.2.3. orifice of parotid gland in buccul mucosa (opposite to upper second molar)

11.2.4. orifice of submandibular dict

11.2.5. orifice of sublingual glands in anterior floor of the mouth

12. The nasal cavity

12.1. nasal septum divides it into right and left

12.1.1. floor

12.1.1.1. palatine process of maxilla

12.1.1.2. horizontal plate of palatine bone

12.1.2. roof

12.1.2.1. body of sphenoid

12.1.2.2. cribriform of ethmoid

12.1.2.3. nasal bone

12.1.2.4. nasal cartilages

12.1.3. medial wall = nasal septum

12.1.3.1. osteocartilaginous partition

12.1.3.2. covered by mucus membrane

12.1.3.3. formed by:

12.1.3.3.1. vertical plate of ethmoid bine

12.1.3.3.2. vomer

12.1.3.3.3. nasal crest of palatine bone

12.1.3.3.4. septal cartilage

12.1.4. lateral wall

12.1.4.1. superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae

12.1.4.2. area below each conchae is a meatus

12.1.4.3. openings

12.1.4.3.1. maxillary sinus (middle meatus)

12.1.4.3.2. frontal sinus (middle meatus via infundibulum)

12.1.4.3.3. sphenoid sinus

12.1.4.3.4. ethmoidal sinuses

12.1.4.3.5. nasolacrimal duct