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6: Introduction to head and neck by Mind Map: 6: Introduction to head and neck
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6: Introduction to head and neck



lacrimal apparatus

The extraocular muscles

Innervation, oculomotor nerve, abducent nerve, trochlear nerve

two obliques, superior, origine: posterior wall of the orbital cavity, insertion: superior wall of the eyeball, inferior, origine: floor of the orbit, insertion: lateral wall of the eyeball

four recti, origine: tendinous ring on the posterior wall of the orbital cavity, rectus superior, rectus inferior, rectus medial, rectus lateral, insertion: superior, inferior, lateral, medial walls of the eyeball respectively

orbital facia


orbital fat



has opening of auditory tube and adenoid


has the palatine tonsils


has the piriform fossa


paired cartilages




unpaired cartilages




cavity of the larynx

from inlet to lower part of cricoid

3 parts, vestibule of the larynx, middle part of the larynx, from vestibular folds to the vocal folds, lower part of the larynx

Triangles of the neck

divided by sternocledomastoid

anterior triangle

posterior triangle

blood supply

common carotid artery

internal carotid

external carotid, superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal, maxillary


anterior jugular

external jugular, posterior auricular, superficial temporal, maxillary, retromendibular, posterior external jugular, transverse cervical

internal jugular, lingual, facial, superior thyroid, pharyngeal

New node


cranial nerves mainly

sympathetic trunk (vasomotor mainly)

cervical plexus (C1-C4)

The ear

external ear

auricle, helix, lobule, concha, tragus

external auditory meatus, outer third id cartilaginous, medial two thirds are boney, has hair, sebaceous, and ceruminous glands

innervated by auriculotemporal and vagus nerves

middle ear (tympanic cavity)

contains the ear ossicles. communicates in front with the nasopharynx and behind with the mastoid antrum

Roof, tegmen typnai (tegmental wall)

floor, jugular floor

lateral, membranous wall

medial, labyrinthine

anterior, carotid wall

auditory tube leads to nasopharynx

Auditory ossicles

muscles of the ear

inner ear

bony labyrinth, vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea

membranous labyrinth, utricle, saccule, semicircular ducts, ducts of cochlea

Head and neck skeleton

skull (28)

cranial (8), 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 1 occipital, 2 temporal, petrous portion, 6 bones form auditory ossicles, 2 malleus, 2 incus, 2 stapes, 1 sphenoid, 1 ethmoid

facial (14), 2 zygomatic, 2 maxillae, 2 nasal, 2 lacrimal, 1 vomer, 2 palatine, 2 inferior conchae, 1 mandible

cervical vertebrae (7)

transverse foramen

atypical c1 (atlas), c2 (axis), and c7, Atlas C1, ring of bone, lacking a spinous process or body, has superior facets for occipital condyles, atlanto-occipital joint (nodding yes), Axis C2, has "Dens" or "odontoid process", has bifid spinous process, pivotal movement at atlanto-axial joint (No, rotation), C7 (vertebra prominens), has long (not bifid) spinous process, small transverse foramen for vein only

typical c3,c4,c5,c6, small rectangular bodies, large and triangular vertebral foramen, short transverse processes with foramen, short and bifid spinous process, superior and inferior articular facet

Hyoid bone

slender, curved bone

located inferior to the skull (between mandible and larynx)

dose not articulate with any other bone

suspended by stylohyiod ligaments

consists of, body, greater horns, lesser horns

it's the base for attachment of muscles and ligaments of the tongue and larynx


hairy soft tissue covering the cranial vault

from supraorbital margin to external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal line posteriorly

on each side extends to superior temporal line

5 layers (SCALP


Connective tissue (superficial facia)

Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)

Loose areolar CT




superiorly: the hair line

inferiorly: chin and base of mandible

on each side: auricle


forehead is common to scalp & face

shape is determined by underlying bones

No deep facia in the face

Oral cavity

2 parts

oral cavity proper



alveolar processes and teeth

anterior 2/3 of the tongue

orifice of parotid gland in buccul mucosa (opposite to upper second molar)

orifice of submandibular dict

orifice of sublingual glands in anterior floor of the mouth

The nasal cavity

nasal septum divides it into right and left

floor, palatine process of maxilla, horizontal plate of palatine bone

roof, body of sphenoid, cribriform of ethmoid, nasal bone, nasal cartilages

medial wall = nasal septum, osteocartilaginous partition, covered by mucus membrane, formed by:, vertical plate of ethmoid bine, vomer, nasal crest of palatine bone, septal cartilage

lateral wall, superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae, area below each conchae is a meatus, openings, maxillary sinus (middle meatus), frontal sinus (middle meatus via infundibulum), sphenoid sinus, ethmoidal sinuses, anterior group, middle group, posterior group, nasolacrimal duct