6: Introduction to head and neck

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6: Introduction to head and neck by Mind Map: 6: Introduction to head and neck

1. Orbits

1.1. Eyelids

1.2. lacrimal apparatus

1.3. The extraocular muscles

1.3.1. Innervation oculomotor nerve abducent nerve trochlear nerve

1.3.2. two obliques superior origine: posterior wall of the orbital cavity insertion: superior wall of the eyeball inferior origine: floor of the orbit insertion: lateral wall of the eyeball

1.3.3. four recti origine: tendinous ring on the posterior wall of the orbital cavity rectus superior rectus inferior rectus medial rectus lateral insertion: superior, inferior, lateral, medial walls of the eyeball respectively

1.4. orbital facia

1.5. conjunctiva

1.6. orbital fat

2. Pharynx

2.1. nasopharyx

2.1.1. has opening of auditory tube and adenoid

2.2. oropharynx

2.2.1. has the palatine tonsils

2.3. laryngopharynx

2.3.1. has the piriform fossa

3. Larynx

3.1. paired cartilages

3.1.1. arytenoid

3.1.2. corniculate

3.1.3. cuneiform

3.2. unpaired cartilages

3.2.1. thyroid

3.2.2. cridoid

3.2.3. epiglottis

3.3. cavity of the larynx

3.3.1. from inlet to lower part of cricoid

3.3.2. 3 parts vestibule of the larynx middle part of the larynx from vestibular folds to the vocal folds lower part of the larynx

4. Triangles of the neck

4.1. divided by sternocledomastoid

4.2. anterior triangle

4.3. posterior triangle

5. blood supply

5.1. common carotid artery

5.1.1. internal carotid

5.1.2. external carotid superior thyroid ascending pharyngeal lingual facial occipital posterior auricular superficial temporal maxillary

5.2. veins

5.2.1. anterior jugular

5.2.2. external jugular posterior auricular superficial temporal maxillary retromendibular posterior external jugular transverse cervical

5.2.3. internal jugular lingual facial superior thyroid pharyngeal

5.2.4. New node

6. Innervation

6.1. cranial nerves mainly

6.2. sympathetic trunk (vasomotor mainly)

6.3. cervical plexus (C1-C4)

7. The ear

7.1. external ear

7.1.1. auricle helix lobule concha tragus

7.1.2. external auditory meatus outer third id cartilaginous medial two thirds are boney has hair, sebaceous, and ceruminous glands

7.1.3. innervated by auriculotemporal and vagus nerves

7.2. middle ear (tympanic cavity)

7.2.1. Roof tegmen typnai (tegmental wall)

7.2.2. floor jugular floor

7.2.3. lateral membranous wall

7.2.4. medial labyrinthine

7.2.5. anterior carotid wall

7.2.6. auditory tube leads to nasopharynx

7.2.7. Auditory ossicles

7.2.8. muscles of the ear

7.3. inner ear

7.3.1. bony labyrinth vestibule semicircular canals cochlea

7.3.2. membranous labyrinth utricle saccule semicircular ducts ducts of cochlea

8. Head and neck skeleton

8.1. skull (28)

8.1.1. cranial (8) 1 frontal 2 parietal 1 occipital 2 temporal petrous portion 1 sphenoid 1 ethmoid

8.1.2. facial (14) 2 zygomatic 2 maxillae 2 nasal 2 lacrimal 1 vomer 2 palatine 2 inferior conchae 1 mandible

8.2. cervical vertebrae (7)

8.2.1. transverse foramen

8.2.2. atypical c1 (atlas), c2 (axis), and c7 Atlas C1 ring of bone lacking a spinous process or body has superior facets for occipital condyles Axis C2 has "Dens" or "odontoid process" has bifid spinous process pivotal movement at atlanto-axial joint (No, rotation) C7 (vertebra prominens) has long (not bifid) spinous process small transverse foramen for vein only

8.2.3. typical c3,c4,c5,c6 small rectangular bodies large and triangular vertebral foramen short transverse processes with foramen short and bifid spinous process superior and inferior articular facet

8.3. Hyoid bone

8.3.1. slender, curved bone

8.3.2. located inferior to the skull (between mandible and larynx)

8.3.3. dose not articulate with any other bone

8.3.4. suspended by stylohyiod ligaments

8.3.5. consists of body greater horns lesser horns

8.3.6. it's the base for attachment of muscles and ligaments of the tongue and larynx

9. scalp

9.1. hairy soft tissue covering the cranial vault

9.2. from supraorbital margin to external occipital protuberance & superior nuchal line posteriorly

9.3. on each side extends to superior temporal line

9.4. 5 layers (SCALP

9.4.1. Skin

9.4.2. Connective tissue (superficial facia)

9.4.3. Aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)

9.4.4. Loose areolar CT

9.4.5. Pericranium

10. Face

10.1. boundaries

10.1.1. superiorly: the hair line

10.1.2. inferiorly: chin and base of mandible

10.1.3. on each side: auricle

10.2. remember

10.2.1. forehead is common to scalp & face

10.2.2. shape is determined by underlying bones

10.2.3. No deep facia in the face

11. Oral cavity

11.1. 2 parts

11.1.1. oral cavity proper

11.1.2. vestibule

11.2. contents

11.2.1. alveolar processes and teeth

11.2.2. anterior 2/3 of the tongue

11.2.3. orifice of parotid gland in buccul mucosa (opposite to upper second molar)

11.2.4. orifice of submandibular dict

11.2.5. orifice of sublingual glands in anterior floor of the mouth

12. The nasal cavity

12.1. nasal septum divides it into right and left

12.1.1. floor palatine process of maxilla horizontal plate of palatine bone

12.1.2. roof body of sphenoid cribriform of ethmoid nasal bone nasal cartilages

12.1.3. medial wall = nasal septum osteocartilaginous partition covered by mucus membrane formed by: vertical plate of ethmoid bine vomer nasal crest of palatine bone septal cartilage

12.1.4. lateral wall superior, middle, inferior nasal conchae area below each conchae is a meatus openings maxillary sinus (middle meatus) frontal sinus (middle meatus via infundibulum) sphenoid sinus ethmoidal sinuses nasolacrimal duct